Gene Symbol: Fst
Description: follistatin
Alias: AL033346, follistatin, activin-binding protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Fst

Top Publications

  1. Seitanidou T, Schneider Maunoury S, Desmarquet C, Wilkinson D, Charnay P. Krox-20 is a key regulator of rhombomere-specific gene expression in the developing hindbrain. Mech Dev. 1997;65:31-42 pubmed
    ..involved in the activation of a receptor tyrosine kinase gene, Sek-1, in r3 and r5 and in the repression of the follistatin gene in r3 but not in r5...
  2. Lee S, McPherron A. Regulation of myostatin activity and muscle growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9306-11 pubmed
    ..Binding of myostatin to Act RIIB could be inhibited by the activin-binding protein follistatin and, at higher concentrations, by the myostatin propeptide...
  3. Nakamura T, Takio K, Eto Y, Shibai H, Titani K, Sugino H. Activin-binding protein from rat ovary is follistatin. Science. 1990;247:836-8 pubmed
    ..A binding protein for activin was purified from rat ovary and was identical to follistatin, a specific inhibitor of FSH release...
  4. Cui S, Ross A, Stallings N, Parker K, Capel B, Quaggin S. Disrupted gonadogenesis and male-to-female sex reversal in Pod1 knockout mice. Development. 2004;131:4095-105 pubmed
    ..Our results establish that Pod1 is essential for gonadal development, and place it in a transcriptional network that orchestrates cell fate decisions in gonadal progenitors. ..
  5. Schneyer A, Sidis Y, Gulati A, Sun J, Keutmann H, Krasney P. Differential antagonism of activin, myostatin and growth and differentiation factor 11 by wild-type and mutant follistatin. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4589-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin binds and neutralizes members of the TGFbeta superfamily including activin, myostatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11)...
  6. Klein O, Lyons D, Balooch G, Marshall G, Basson M, Peterka M, et al. An FGF signaling loop sustains the generation of differentiated progeny from stem cells in mouse incisors. Development. 2008;135:377-85 pubmed
    ..These data reveal that the generation of differentiated progeny from a particular stem cell population can be differently regulated in the embryo and adult. ..
  7. Wang X, Suomalainen M, Jorgez C, Matzuk M, Werner S, Thesleff I. Follistatin regulates enamel patterning in mouse incisors by asymmetrically inhibiting BMP signaling and ameloblast differentiation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:719-30 pubmed
    ..Enamel matrix is secreted by ameloblasts derived from dental epithelium. Here we show that overexpression of follistatin in the dental epithelium inhibits ameloblast differentiation in transgenic mouse incisors, whereas in ..
  8. Lee S, Lee Y, Zimmers T, Soleimani A, Matzuk M, Tsuchida K, et al. Regulation of muscle mass by follistatin and activins. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1998-2008 pubmed publisher
    Myostatin is a TGF-? family member that normally acts to limit skeletal muscle mass. Follistatin is a myostatin-binding protein that can inhibit myostatin activity in vitro and promote muscle growth in vivo...
  9. Matzuk M, Lu N, Vogel H, Sellheyer K, Roop D, Bradley A. Multiple defects and perinatal death in mice deficient in follistatin. Nature. 1995;374:360-3 pubmed
    b>Follistatin, an activin-binding protein and activin antagonist in vitro, can bind to heparan sulphate proteoglycans and may function in vivo to present activins to their receptors...

More Information


  1. Nakamura M, Matzuk M, Gerstmayer B, Bosio A, Lauster R, Miyachi Y, et al. Control of pelage hair follicle development and cycling by complex interactions between follistatin and activin. FASEB J. 2003;17:497-9 pubmed
    ..of several members of this family activins and BMP-2, -4, -7, and -11) are controlled by antagonists such as follistatin. Because follistatin-deficient mice show abnormalities in vibrissae development, we explored the role of ..
  2. Barsoum I, Bingham N, Parker K, Jorgensen J, Yao H. Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in the mouse fetal ovary leads to ectopic appearance of fetal Leydig cells and female pseudohermaphroditism. Dev Biol. 2009;329:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides not only insights into mechanisms of cell lineage specification in gonads, but also a model to understand defects in sexual differentiation. ..
  3. Amthor H, Nicholas G, McKinnell I, Kemp C, Sharma M, Kambadur R, et al. Follistatin complexes Myostatin and antagonises Myostatin-mediated inhibition of myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;270:19-30 pubmed
    b>Follistatin is known to antagonise the function of several members of the TGF-beta family of secreted signalling factors, including Myostatin, the most powerful inhibitor of muscle growth characterised to date...
  4. Gilson H, Schakman O, Kalista S, Lause P, Tsuchida K, Thissen J. Follistatin induces muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell proliferation and inhibition of both myostatin and activin. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E157-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin (FS) inhibits several members of the TGF-beta superfamily, including myostatin (Mstn), a negative regulator of muscle growth. Mstn inhibition by FS represents a potential therapeutic approach of muscle atrophy...
  5. Yao H, Matzuk M, Jorgez C, Menke D, Page D, Swain A, et al. Follistatin operates downstream of Wnt4 in mammalian ovary organogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:210-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that follistatin (Fst), which encodes a TGFbeta superfamily binding protein, is a downstream component of Wnt4 signaling...
  6. Levi G, Mantero S, Barbieri O, Cantatore D, Paleari L, Beverdam A, et al. Msx1 and Dlx5 act independently in development of craniofacial skeleton, but converge on the regulation of Bmp signaling in palate formation. Mech Dev. 2006;123:3-16 pubmed
    ..At the basis of this effect, our data implicate the Bmp (Bmp7, Bmp4)/Bmp antagonist (Follistatin) signal: in the Dlx5(-/-) palate changes in the expression level of Bmp7 and Follistatin counteract the reduced ..
  7. Piprek R, Kolasa M, Podkowa D, Kloc M, Kubiak J. Cell adhesion molecules expression pattern indicates that somatic cells arbitrate gonadal sex of differentiating bipotential fetal mouse gonad. Mech Dev. 2017;147:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that differential CAMs expression pattern in the somatic cells but not in the germ line arbitrates structural organization of gonadal anlagen into testis or ovary. ..
  8. Pangas S. Regulation of the ovarian reserve by members of the transforming growth factor beta family. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:666-79 pubmed publisher
  9. Schmidt D, Ovitt C, Anlag K, Fehsenfeld S, Gredsted L, Treier A, et al. The murine winged-helix transcription factor Foxl2 is required for granulosa cell differentiation and ovary maintenance. Development. 2004;131:933-42 pubmed
    ..In addition to providing a molecular mechanism for premature ovarian failure in BPES, these results suggest that granulosa cell function is not only crucial for oocyte growth but also to maintain follicular quiescence in vivo. ..
  10. Cunningham T, Colas A, Duester G. Early molecular events during retinoic acid induced differentiation of neuromesodermal progenitors. Biol Open. 2016;5:1821-1833 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence for early instructive and permissive roles of RA in controlling differentiation of NMPs to neural and mesodermal lineages. ..
  11. Kashimada K, Pelosi E, Chen H, Schlessinger D, Wilhelm D, Koopman P. FOXL2 and BMP2 act cooperatively to regulate follistatin gene expression during ovarian development. Endocrinology. 2011;152:272-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin is a secreted glycoprotein required for female sex determination and early ovarian development, but the precise mechanisms regulating follistatin (Fst) gene expression are not known...
  12. Feijen A, Goumans M, van den Eijnden van Raaij A. Expression of activin subunits, activin receptors and follistatin in postimplantation mouse embryos suggests specific developmental functions for different activins. Development. 1994;120:3621-37 pubmed
    ..the messenger RNAs encoding the inhibin/activin subunits (alpha, beta A, beta B), the activin-binding protein follistatin and activin receptors (IIA, IIB) in mouse embryos during postimplantation development. From 6.5- to 9...
  13. Geske M, Zhang X, Patel K, Ornitz D, Stappenbeck T. Fgf9 signaling regulates small intestinal elongation and mesenchymal development. Development. 2008;135:2959-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, a small subset of mesenchymal cells expressed phospho-Erk and the secreted Tgfbeta inhibitors Fst and Fstl1 in an Fgf9-dependent fashion...
  14. Zuniga A, Haramis A, McMahon A, Zeller R. Signal relay by BMP antagonism controls the SHH/FGF4 feedback loop in vertebrate limb buds. Nature. 1999;401:598-602 pubmed
  15. Zhu J, Li Y, Shen W, Qiao C, Ambrosio F, Lavasani M, et al. Relationships between transforming growth factor-beta1, myostatin, and decorin: implications for skeletal muscle fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25852-63 pubmed
    ..Moreover, decorin up-regulated the expression of follistatin, an antagonist of myostatin...
  16. Kipp J, Golebiowski A, Rodriguez G, Demczuk M, Kilen S, Mayo K. Gene expression profiling reveals Cyp26b1 to be an activin regulated gene involved in ovarian granulosa cell proliferation. Endocrinology. 2011;152:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Cyp26b1 is expressed in the postnatal mouse ovary, regulated by activin, and involved in the control of granulosa cell proliferation. ..
  17. Whitney I, Raven M, Ciobanu D, Poche R, Ding Q, Elshatory Y, et al. Genetic modulation of horizontal cell number in the mouse retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9697-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' UTR of Isl1 that creates an E-box sequence as a candidate causal variant contributing to this variation in horizontal cell number. ..
  18. Arai K, Nishiyama T. Developmental changes in extracellular matrix messenger RNAs in the mouse placenta during the second half of pregnancy: possible factors involved in the regulation of placental extracellular matrix expression. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:923-33 pubmed
    ..Transforming growth factor-beta1-3 (Tgfb1-3), activin subunits (Inhba, Inhbb), follistatin (Fst), and follistatin-like 3 (Fstl3) were expressed in the placenta, whereas significant expression of ..
  19. Hansen J, Brandt C, Nielsen A, Hojman P, Whitham M, Febbraio M, et al. Exercise induces a marked increase in plasma follistatin: evidence that follistatin is a contraction-induced hepatokine. Endocrinology. 2011;152:164-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin is a member of the TGF-? super family and inhibits the action of myostatin to regulate skeletal muscle growth...
  20. Ikeda Y, Tanaka H, Esaki M. Effects of gestational diethylstilbestrol treatment on male and female gonads during early embryonic development. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3970-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5. The results suggest that exogenous estrogens can alter sex-specific genetic pathways governing early differentiation and cell proliferation of both male and female gonads. ..
  21. Elms P, Siggers P, Napper D, Greenfield A, Arkell R. Zic2 is required for neural crest formation and hindbrain patterning during mouse development. Dev Biol. 2003;264:391-406 pubmed
    ..This work provides the first genetic evidence that the Zic genes are involved in neural crest production and the first demonstration that Zic2 functions during hindbrain patterning. ..
  22. Guo Q, Kumar T, Woodruff T, Hadsell L, DeMayo F, Matzuk M. Overexpression of mouse follistatin causes reproductive defects in transgenic mice. Mol Endocrinol. 1998;12:96-106 pubmed
    b>Follistatin is an activin-binding protein that can act as an activin antagonist in vitro. Follistatin also binds heparin sulfate proteoglycans and may function as a reservoir for activins in vivo...
  23. Gierl M, Gruhn W, von Seggern A, Maltry N, Niehrs C. GADD45G functions in male sex determination by promoting p38 signaling and Sry expression. Dev Cell. 2012;23:1032-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that a signaling cascade, involving GADD45G ? p38 MAPK ? GATA4 ? SRY, regulates male sex determination...
  24. Yao H, Aardema J, Holthusen K. Sexually dimorphic regulation of inhibin beta B in establishing gonadal vasculature in mice. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:978-83 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, in the ovary, inhibin beta B is repressed by WNT4 and its downstream target follistatin, leading to the absence of the coelomic vessel...
  25. Shawlot W, Deng J, Behringer R. Expression of the mouse cerberus-related gene, Cerr1, suggests a role in anterior neural induction and somitogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6198-203 pubmed
    ..In most Lim1-/- headless embryos, Cerr1 expression in the anterior endoderm was weak or absent. These results suggest that Cerr1 may play a role in anterior neural induction and somite formation during mouse development. ..
  26. Bagheri Fam S, Sim H, Bernard P, Jayakody I, Taketo M, Scherer G, et al. Loss of Fgfr2 leads to partial XY sex reversal. Dev Biol. 2008;314:71-83 pubmed
    ..In summary, we provide evidence that FGFR2 is important for male sex determination in mice, thereby rendering human FGFR2 a candidate gene for unsolved DSD cases such as 10q26 deletions. ..
  27. Zhang Y, Cleary M, Si Y, Liu G, Eto Y, Kritzik M, et al. Inhibition of activin signaling induces pancreatic epithelial cell expansion and diminishes terminal differentiation of pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. 2004;53:2024-33 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the expression of endogenous cellular inhibitors of activin signaling, follistatin and Cripto, were also found to be augmented...
  28. Kawauchi S, Kim J, Santos R, Wu H, Lander A, Calof A. Foxg1 promotes olfactory neurogenesis by antagonizing Gdf11. Development. 2009;136:1453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we do observe both a failure of expression of follistatin (Fst), which encodes a secreted Gdf11 antagonist normally expressed in and around OE, and an increase in the ..
  29. Hedger M, de Kretser D. The activins and their binding protein, follistatin-Diagnostic and therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease and fibrosis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2013;24:285-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Activin antagonists such as follistatin, an endogenous activin-binding protein, offer considerable promise as therapies in conditions as diverse as ..
  30. Ahlfeld S, Wang J, Gao Y, Snider P, Conway S. Initial Suppression of Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling and Loss of TGFBI Causes Early Alveolar Structural Defects Resulting in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:777-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Tgfbi-deficient lungs misexpressed TGF-β-responsive follistatin and serpine 1, and transiently suppressed myofibroblast platelet-derived growth factor α differentiation ..
  31. Nomura T, Ueyama T, Ashihara E, Tateishi K, Asada S, Nakajima N, et al. Skeletal muscle-derived progenitors capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes proliferate through myostatin-independent TGF-beta family signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;365:863-9 pubmed
    ..We identified that follistatin, an antagonist of TGF-beta family members, was predominantly expressed in MDPCs, whereas myostatin was mainly ..
  32. Schneyer A, Sidis Y, Xia Y, Saito S, del Re E, Lin H, et al. Differential actions of follistatin and follistatin-like 3. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;225:25-8 pubmed
    b>Follistatin (FS) is an important physiological regulator of activin and other TGFbeta superfamily members. The recently discovered follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3; a.k.a...
  33. Rhinn M, Dierich A, Shawlot W, Behringer R, Le Meur M, Ang S. Sequential roles for Otx2 in visceral endoderm and neuroectoderm for forebrain and midbrain induction and specification. Development. 1998;125:845-56 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results demonstrate that Otx2 is first required in the visceral endoderm for the induction, and subsequently in the neuroectoderm for the specification of forebrain and midbrain territories. ..
  34. Albano R, Arkell R, Beddington R, Smith J. Expression of inhibin subunits and follistatin during postimplantation mouse development: decidual expression of activin and expression of follistatin in primitive streak, somites and hindbrain. Development. 1994;120:803-13 pubmed
    ..formation in the mammalian embryo, and as one approach to investigating this we have studied activin and follistatin expression during early mouse development...
  35. Wu H, Ivkovic S, Murray R, Jaramillo S, Lyons K, Johnson J, et al. Autoregulation of neurogenesis by GDF11. Neuron. 2003;37:197-207 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking functional GDF11 have more progenitors and neurons in the OE, whereas mice lacking follistatin, a GDF11 antagonist, show dramatically decreased neurogenesis...
  36. Kimura F, Bonomi L, Schneyer A. Follistatin regulates germ cell nest breakdown and primordial follicle formation. Endocrinology. 2011;152:697-706 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin (FST) is an antagonist of activin and related TGF? superfamily members that has important reproductive actions as well as critical regulatory functions in other tissues and systems...
  37. Roy A, Matzuk M. Deconstructing mammalian reproduction: using knockouts to define fertility pathways. Reproduction. 2006;131:207-19 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the merits, utility, and the variations of the knockout technology in studies of reproduction in mammals. ..
  38. Chen C, Murray P, Jiang T, Plikus M, Chang Y, Lee O, et al. Regenerative hair waves in aging mice and extra-follicular modulators follistatin, dkk1, and sfrp4. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2086-2096 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we identify follistatin as an extra-follicular modulator, which is highly expressed in late telogen and early anagen...
  39. Wankell M, Kaesler S, Zhang Y, Florence C, Werner S, Duan R. The activin binding proteins follistatin and follistatin-related protein are differentially regulated in vitro and during cutaneous wound repair. J Endocrinol. 2001;171:385-95 pubmed
    b>Follistatin is a secreted protein that binds activin in vitro and in vivo and thereby inhibits its biological functions...
  40. Abe S, Soejima M, Iwanuma O, Saka H, Matsunaga S, Sakiyama K, et al. Expression of myostatin and follistatin in Mdx mice, an animal model for muscular dystrophy. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:315-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin is a functional antagonist of several members of the TGF-beta family of secreted signaling factors, including myostatin, the most powerful inhibitor of muscle growth characterized to date...
  41. Jhaveri S, Erzurumlu R, Chiaia N, Kumar T, Matzuk M. Defective whisker follicles and altered brainstem patterns in activin and follistatin knockout mice. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1998;12:206-19 pubmed
    ..and whisker-specific pattern formation were examined in mice lacking the gene for activin betaA or for follistatin. Both strains of mice die within 24 h after birth...
  42. Antsiferova M, Klatte J, Bodo E, Paus R, Jorcano J, Matzuk M, et al. Keratinocyte-derived follistatin regulates epidermal homeostasis and wound repair. Lab Invest. 2009;89:131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of activin in the epidermis and hair follicles by generation of mice lacking the activin antagonist follistatin in keratinocytes. We observed enhanced keratinocyte proliferation in the tail epidermis of these animals...
  43. Beites C, Hollenbeck P, Kim J, Lovell Badge R, Lander A, Calof A. Follistatin modulates a BMP autoregulatory loop to control the size and patterning of sensory domains in the developing tongue. Development. 2009;136:2187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify follistatin (FST) as a mesenchymal factor that controls size, patterning and gustatory cell differentiation in developing ..
  44. Chassot A, Ranc F, Gregoire E, Roepers Gajadien H, Taketo M, Camerino G, et al. Activation of beta-catenin signaling by Rspo1 controls differentiation of the mammalian ovary. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1264-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a balance between Sox9 and beta-catenin activation determines the fate of the gonad, with Rspo1 acting as a crucial regulator of canonical beta-catenin signaling required for female development. ..
  45. Ritvos O, Tuuri T, Erämaa M, Sainio K, Hilden K, Saxen L, et al. Activin disrupts epithelial branching morphogenesis in developing glandular organs of the mouse. Mech Dev. 1995;50:229-45 pubmed
    ..gland rudiments, activin causes severe disruption of normal lobulation patterns of the epithelium whereas follistatin, an activin-binding protein, counteracts the effect of activin...
  46. Combes A, Bowles J, Feng C, Chiu H, Khoo P, Jackson A, et al. Expression and functional analysis of Dkk1 during early gonadal development. Sex Dev. 2011;5:124-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Nor did we find significant differences in expression of key markers of testis and ovarian development. We propose that DKK1 may play a protective role that is not unmasked by loss-of-function in the absence of other stressors. ..
  47. Holdsworth Carson S, Craythorn R, Winnall W, Dhaliwal K, Genovese R, Nowell C, et al. Follistatin is essential for normal postnatal development and function of mouse oviduct and uterus. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2015;27:985-99 pubmed publisher
    Female mice lacking the follistatin gene but expressing a human follistatin-315 transgene (tghFST315) have reproductive abnormalities (reduced follicles, no corpora lutea and ovarian-uterine inflammation)...
  48. McMahon J, Takada S, Zimmerman L, Fan C, Harland R, McMahon A. Noggin-mediated antagonism of BMP signaling is required for growth and patterning of the neural tube and somite. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1438-52 pubmed
    ..Together these data demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling by axially secreted Noggin is an important requirement for normal patterning of the vertebrate neural tube and somite. ..
  49. Li Z, Kollias H, Wagner K. Myostatin directly regulates skeletal muscle fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results expand our understanding of the function of myostatin in muscle tissue and provide a potential target for anti-fibrotic therapies. ..
  50. Tomizuka K, Horikoshi K, Kitada R, Sugawara Y, Iba Y, Kojima A, et al. R-spondin1 plays an essential role in ovarian development through positively regulating Wnt-4 signaling. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1278-91 pubmed publisher
  51. Fujimoto Y, Tanaka S, Yamaguchi Y, Kobayashi H, Kuroki S, Tachibana M, et al. Homeoproteins Six1 and Six4 regulate male sex determination and mouse gonadal development. Dev Cell. 2013;26:416-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of Fog2 induces Sry expression in male sex determination, and the regulation of Nr5a1 in gonadal precursor formation determines gonadal size. ..
  52. Juuri E, Saito K, Lefebvre S, Michon F. Establishment of crown-root domain borders in mouse incisor. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..distal border of the crown-root domain might be established by cells from a different origin and by an early Follistatin expression, factor known to be involved in the root domain formation...
  53. Padua M, Fox S, Jiang T, Morse D, Tevosian S. Simultaneous gene deletion of gata4 and gata6 leads to early disruption of follicular development and germ cell loss in the murine ovary. Biol Reprod. 2014;91:24 pubmed publisher
    ..within the ovary results in a strong down-regulation of genes involved in the ovarian developmental pathway (Fst and Irx3) as well as diminished expression of the pregranulosa and granulosa cell markers SPRR2 and FOXL2, ..
  54. Singh R, Bhasin S, Braga M, Artaza J, Pervin S, Taylor W, et al. Regulation of myogenic differentiation by androgens: cross talk between androgen receptor/ beta-catenin and follistatin/transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..in C3H 10T1/2 cells significantly up-regulated expression of myoD and myosin heavy chain II proteins and of follistatin (Fst), which binds and antagonizes native ligands of the TGF-beta/Smad pathway...
  55. Episkopou V, Arkell R, Timmons P, Walsh J, Andrew R, Swan D. Induction of the mammalian node requires Arkadia function in the extraembryonic lineages. Nature. 2001;410:825-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our experiments show that Arkadia interacts genetically with the transforming growth factor (TGF)beta-like factor Nodal, implying that Nodal mediates the function of Arkadia in node induction. ..
  56. Fullerton P, Monsivais D, Kommagani R, Matzuk M. Follistatin is critical for mouse uterine receptivity and decidualization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E4772-E4781 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF? family signaling in the uterus is critical for establishing and maintaining pregnancy. Follistatin (FST) regulates TGF? family signaling by selectively binding TGF? family ligands and sequestering them...
  57. Kang W, Saqui Salces M, Zavros Y, Merchant J. Induction of follistatin precedes gastric transformation in gastrin deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis of 12 month Gas(-/-) tumors revealed an increase in follistatin, an activin/BMP antagonist...
  58. Gokoffski K, Wu H, Beites C, Kim J, Kim E, Matzuk M, et al. Activin and GDF11 collaborate in feedback control of neuroepithelial stem cell proliferation and fate. Development. 2011;138:4131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..GDF11 is antagonized by follistatin (FST), which is also produced locally...
  59. Albano R, Smith J. Follistatin expression in ES and F9 cells and in preimplantation mouse embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 1994;38:543-7 pubmed
    ..The functions of activin can be modulated by follistatin. At postimplantation stages follistatin is expressed in the deciduum in a pattern reciprocal to that of activin...
  60. Bowser M, Herberg S, Arounleut P, Shi X, Fulzele S, Hill W, et al. Effects of the activin A-myostatin-follistatin system on aging bone and muscle progenitor cells. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48:290-7 pubmed publisher
    The activin A-myostatin-follistatin system is thought to play an important role in the regulation of muscle and bone mass throughout growth, development, and aging; however, the effects of these ligands on progenitor cell proliferation ..
  61. Li Y, Zhang L, Hu Y, Han F, Qin Y, Chen M, et al. β-Catenin directs the transformation of testis Sertoli cells to ovarian granulosa-like cells by inducing Foxl2 expression. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:17577-17586 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a new mechanism for Sertoli cell lineage maintenance during gonad development. ..
  62. Tsai C, Chou C, Yang C, Lai Y, Liang C, Chen C, et al. Hurp deficiency in mice leads to female infertility caused by an implantation defect. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26302-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate for the first time that HURP affects endometrial stromal proliferation during implantation but is dispensable during normal development in mice; specifically, HURP has an essential function in uterine biology. ..
  63. Miyabayashi K, Katoh Fukui Y, Ogawa H, Baba T, Shima Y, Sugiyama N, et al. Aristaless related homeobox gene, Arx, is implicated in mouse fetal Leydig cell differentiation possibly through expressing in the progenitor cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68050 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that ARX acts as a positive factor for differentiation of fetal Leydig cells through functioning at the progenitor stage. ..
  64. Blount A, Vaughan J, Vale W, Bilezikjian L. A Smad-binding element in intron 1 participates in activin-dependent regulation of the follistatin gene. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In the pituitary, activin acts locally to induce follistatin expression and thus modulate its own actions...
  65. Zhu J, Li Y, Lu A, Gharaibeh B, Ma J, Kobayashi T, et al. Follistatin improves skeletal muscle healing after injury and disease through an interaction with muscle regeneration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:915-30 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor-? superfamily and a negative regulator of muscle regeneration, with the myostatin antagonist follistatin. In vivo, follistatin-overexpressing transgenic mice underwent significantly greater myofiber regeneration and ..
  66. Ageta H, Ikegami S, Miura M, Masuda M, Migishima R, Hino T, et al. Activin plays a key role in the maintenance of long-term memory and late-LTP. Learn Mem. 2010;17:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that follistatin, a specific inhibitor of activin, blocked the maintenance of late LTP (L-LTP) in the hippocampus...
  67. Gajos Michniewicz A, Pawlowska E, Ochedalski T, Piastowska Ciesielska A. The influence of follistatin on mechanical properties of bone tissue in growing mice with overexpression of follistatin. J Bone Miner Metab. 2012;30:426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their function is regulated by a single-chain protein called follistatin (FS)...
  68. Inoue K, Hirose M, Inoue H, Hatanaka Y, Honda A, Hasegawa A, et al. The Rodent-Specific MicroRNA Cluster within the Sfmbt2 Gene Is Imprinted and Essential for Placental Development. Cell Rep. 2017;19:949-956 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has provided experimental evidence for the indispensable roles of placental miRNAs in trophoblast proliferation and thus fetal development. ..
  69. Barrow J, Stadler H, Capecchi M. Roles of Hoxa1 and Hoxa2 in patterning the early hindbrain of the mouse. Development. 2000;127:933-44 pubmed
    ..Subsequent to misspecification of the hindbrain compartments, ectopic induction of apoptosis appears to be used to regulate the aberrant size of the misspecified rhombomeres. ..
  70. Jones K, Mansell A, Patella S, Scott B, Hedger M, de Kretser D, et al. Activin A is a critical component of the inflammatory response, and its binding protein, follistatin, reduces mortality in endotoxemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16239-44 pubmed
    ..Treatment with the activin-binding protein, follistatin, alters the profiles of TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-6 after LPS stimulation, indicating that activin modulates the ..
  71. Ungerleider N, Bonomi L, Brown M, Schneyer A. Increased activin bioavailability enhances hepatic insulin sensitivity while inducing hepatic steatosis in male mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2025-33 pubmed publisher
    ..homeostasis by creating mice with inactivating mutations that deplete the circulating activin antagonists follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) or the follistatin 315 isoform (FST315; FST288-only mice)...
  72. Chen Y, Rothnie C, Spring D, Verrier E, Venardos K, Kaye D, et al. Regulation and actions of activin A and follistatin in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Cytokine. 2014;69:255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutralising activin A by treatment with the activin-binding protein, follistatin, reduces inflammation and mortality in several disease models...
  73. Sammeta N, Hardin D, McClintock T. Uncx regulates proliferation of neural progenitor cells and neuronal survival in the olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that UNCX acts downstream of neural determination factors to broadly control transcriptional mechanisms used by neural progenitor cells to specify neural phenotypes...
  74. de Groot E, Feijen A, Eib D, Zwijsen A, Sugino H, Martens G, et al. Expression patterns of follistatin and two follistatin-related proteins during mouse development. Int J Dev Biol. 2000;44:327-30 pubmed
    We compared the expression patterns of follistatin and two follistatin-related proteins (FRP and m7365) during early mouse development...
  75. Wang X, Suomalainen M, Jorgez C, Matzuk M, Wankell M, Werner S, et al. Modulation of activin/bone morphogenetic protein signaling by follistatin is required for the morphogenesis of mouse molar teeth. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:98-108 pubmed
    ..b>Follistatin is an extracellular inhibitor of TGF beta signaling...
  76. Winters S, Ghooray D, Fujii Y, Moore J, Nevitt J, Kakar S. Transcriptional regulation of follistatin expression by GnRH in mouse gonadotroph cell lines: evidence for a role for cAMP signaling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;271:45-54 pubmed
    GnRH applied continuously or in pulses of high frequency increases follistatin, and thereby differentially regulates FSH and LH...
  77. Wankell M, Munz B, Hübner G, Hans W, Wolf E, Goppelt A, et al. Impaired wound healing in transgenic mice overexpressing the activin antagonist follistatin in the epidermis. EMBO J. 2001;20:5361-72 pubmed
    ..To address this question we overexpressed the soluble activin antagonist follistatin in the epidermis of transgenic mice...
  78. Singh R, Braga M, Reddy S, Lee S, Parveen M, Grijalva V, et al. Follistatin Targets Distinct Pathways To Promote Brown Adipocyte Characteristics in Brown and White Adipose Tissues. Endocrinology. 2017;158:1217-1230 pubmed publisher
    We previously demonstrated that Fst expression is highest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle, but is also present at substantial levels in epididymal and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (WATs)...
  79. Bouma G, Washburn L, Albrecht K, Eicher E. Correct dosage of Fog2 and Gata4 transcription factors is critical for fetal testis development in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14994-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that in humans the FOG2 and/or GATA4 genes might be haploinsufficient for normal testis determination and thus could be the cause of some previously unassigned cases of XY gonadal sex reversal. ..
  80. Seachrist D, Johnson E, Magee C, Clay C, Graham J, Veeramachaneni D, et al. Overexpression of follistatin in the mouse epididymis disrupts fluid resorption and sperm transit in testicular excurrent ducts. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:41 pubmed publisher
    ..activin during mammary gland morphogenesis and tumor progression, we produced transgenic mice that overexpress follistatin (FST), an intrinsic inhibitor of activin, under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter...
  81. van den Eijnden van Raaij A, Feijen A, Lawson K, Mummery C. Differential expression of inhibin subunits and follistatin, but not of activin receptor type II, during early murine embryonic development. Dev Biol. 1992;154:356-65 pubmed
    ..the expression of the inhibin subunits, including those that make up activin, the activin-binding protein follistatin, and activin receptor type II in several in vitro systems that model early murine embryonic development, namely ..
  82. Rodriguez P, da Silva S, Oxburgh L, Wang F, Hogan B, Que J. BMP signaling in the development of the mouse esophagus and forestomach. Development. 2010;137:4171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest multiple roles for BMP signaling in the developing esophagus and forestomach. ..
  83. DiNapoli L, Batchvarov J, Capel B. FGF9 promotes survival of germ cells in the fetal testis. Development. 2006;133:1519-27 pubmed
    ..as they initiate but fail to maintain the male pathway and subsequently express markers of ovarian differentiation (Fst and Bmp2). By 14.5 dpc, these gonads contain germ cells that enter meiosis synchronously with ovarian gonocytes...