Fshb

Summary

Gene Symbol: Fshb
Description: follicle stimulating hormone beta
Alias: FSH, FSH-B, FSH-beta, Fshbeta, follitropin subunit beta, follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit, follitropin beta chain
Species: mouse
Products:     Fshb

Top Publications

  1. Japón M, Rubinstein M, Low M. In situ hybridization analysis of anterior pituitary hormone gene expression during fetal mouse development. J Histochem Cytochem. 1994;42:1117-25 pubmed
    ..In contrast, luteinizing hormone-beta (LH beta) subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone beta (FSH beta) subunit mRNAs were detected initially only in the ventromedial pars distalis on Days E16.5 and E17...
  2. Kumar T, Wang Y, Lu N, Matzuk M. Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility. Nat Genet. 1997;15:201-4 pubmed
    ..Minimal data has been accumulated so far involving human mutations in the FSH beta, LH beta, or the gonadotropin receptor genes...
  3. Skarra D, Arriola D, Benson C, Thackray V. Forkhead box O1 is a repressor of basal and GnRH-induced Fshb transcription in gonadotropes. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:1825-39 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we investigated whether FOXO1 modulates Fshb synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that FOXO1 represses basal and GnRH-induced Fshb transcription in L?T2 cells...
  4. Bernard D. Both SMAD2 and SMAD3 mediate activin-stimulated expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit in mouse gonadotrope cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:606-23 pubmed
    ..gland, activins stimulate FSH synthesis in an autocrine/paracrine fashion by stimulating transcription of the FSHbeta subunit gene...
  5. Corpuz P, Lindaman L, Mellon P, Coss D. FoxL2 Is required for activin induction of the mouse and human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit genes. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1037-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify FoxL2 as a critical component in activin induction of FSHbeta, both for the mouse gene, induction of which is Sma- and Mad-related protein (Smad) dependent, and for the human ..
  6. Thackray V, McGillivray S, Mellon P. Androgens, progestins, and glucocorticoids induce follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene expression at the level of the gonadotrope. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2062-79 pubmed
    ..including androgens, progestins, and glucocorticoids, have all been shown to stimulate expression of the FSHbeta subunit in primary pituitary cells and rodent models...
  7. Sun L, Peng Y, Sharrow A, Iqbal J, Zhang Z, Papachristou D, et al. FSH directly regulates bone mass. Cell. 2006;125:247-60 pubmed
    ..We show that FSH is required for hypogonadal bone loss. Neither FSHbeta nor FSH receptor (FSHR) null mice have bone loss despite severe hypogonadism...
  8. Coss D, Jacobs S, Bender C, Mellon P. A novel AP-1 site is critical for maximal induction of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta gene by gonadotropin-releasing hormone. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:152-62 pubmed
    ..The FSHbeta subunit is primarily regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadal steroids, and activin...
  9. McGillivray S, Thackray V, Coss D, Mellon P. Activin and glucocorticoids synergistically activate follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene expression in the immortalized LbetaT2 gonadotrope cell line. Endocrinology. 2007;148:762-73 pubmed
    ..of peptide and steroid hormones within the reproductive axis have been found to regulate transcription of the FSH beta-subunit gene...

More Information

Publications86

  1. Charles M, Suh H, Hjalt T, Drouin J, Camper S, Gage P. PITX genes are required for cell survival and Lhx3 activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1893-903 pubmed
    ..Thus, the combined dosage of these PITX family members is vital for pituitary development, and their persistent coexpression in the adult pituitary suggests a continued role in maintenance of pituitary function. ..
  2. Tran S, Lamba P, Wang Y, Bernard D. SMADs and FOXL2 synergistically regulate murine FSHbeta transcription via a conserved proximal promoter element. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1170-83 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary FSH regulates ovarian and testicular function. Activins stimulate FSH? subunit (Fshb) gene transcription in gonadotrope cells, the rate-limiting step in mature FSH synthesis...
  3. Justice N, Blount A, Pelosi E, Schlessinger D, Vale W, Bilezikjian L. Impaired FSHbeta expression in the pituitaries of Foxl2 mutant animals. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1404-15 pubmed publisher
    ..FSH? levels are severely impaired in both male and female animals, suggesting that FoxL2 is required for normal Fshb expression...
  4. Thach D, Kleeberger S, Tucker P, Griffin D. Genetic control of neuroadapted sindbis virus replication in female mice maps to chromosome 2 and associates with paralysis and mortality. J Virol. 2001;75:8674-80 pubmed
    ..8 to 0.9). These results indicate that mortality, paralysis, and viral RNA levels are related complex traits and that Nsv1 controls early viral load and determines the likelihood of paralysis and death. ..
  5. Wang Y, Bernard D. Activin A induction of murine and ovine follicle-stimulating hormone ? transcription is SMAD-dependent and TAK1 (MAP3K7)/p38 MAPK-independent in gonadotrope-like cells. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1632-40 pubmed publisher
    Activins stimulate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ? subunit (Fshb) gene transcription in pituitary gonadotrope cells...
  6. Ghochani Y, Saini J, Mellon P, Thackray V. FOXL2 is involved in the synergy between activin and progestins on the follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit promoter. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Activin and progesterone signaling in gonadotrope cells is important for Fshb gene expression...
  7. Lei L, Jin S, Mayo K, Woodruff T. The interactions between the stimulatory effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and the inhibitory effect of estrogen on mouse primordial folliculogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we measured an increase in neonatal serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which corresponded to falling estradiol (E(2)) levels during the critical window of primordial follicle formation ..
  8. Ding L, Yan G, Ge Q, Yu F, Zhao X, Diao Z, et al. FSH acts on the proliferation of type A spermatogonia via Nur77 that increases GDNF expression in the Sertoli cells. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:2437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, FSH induced the expression of Nur77 and GDNF in mouse testis tissue and human fetal Sertoli cells...
  9. Ingman W, Robertson S. Transforming growth factor-beta1 null mutation causes infertility in male mice associated with testosterone deficiency and sexual dysfunction. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4032-43 pubmed
    ..was secondary to disrupted pituitary gonadotropin secretion because serum LH and to a lesser extent serum FSH were reduced, and exogenous LH replacement with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induced serum testosterone to ..
  10. Moen C, Snoek M, Hart A, Demant P. Scc-1, a novel colon cancer susceptibility gene in the mouse: linkage to CD44 (Ly-24, Pgp-1) on chromosome 2. Oncogene. 1992;7:563-6 pubmed
    ..The mapping of the Scc-1 gene indicates that the RCS system can be used to map and study the presently unknown genes which control cancer development. ..
  11. Miyano Y, Tahara S, Sakata I, Sakai T, Abe H, Kimura S, et al. Regulation of LH/FSH expression by secretoglobin 3A2 in the mouse pituitary gland. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;356:253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..postnatal days 1 and 5, respectively and the areas where SCGB3A2 expression was found coincided with the area where FSH-secreting cells were found...
  12. Mortensen A, Schade V, Lamonerie T, Camper S. Deletion of OTX2 in neural ectoderm delays anterior pituitary development. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:939-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Otx2 expression early in head development is important for establishing normal craniofacial features including development of the brain, eyes and pituitary gland. ..
  13. Zhou J, Yao W, Li C, Wu W, Li Q, Liu H. Administration of follicle-stimulating hormone induces autophagy via upregulation of HIF-1? in mouse granulosa cells. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e3001 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on mouse granulosa cells (MGCs)...
  14. Kreisman M, Song C, Yip K, Natale B, Natale D, Breen K. Androgens Mediate Sex-Dependent Gonadotropin Expression During Late Prenatal Development in the Mouse. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2884-2894 pubmed publisher
  15. Ikeda Y, Luo X, Abbud R, Nilson J, Parker K. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 is essential for the formation of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Mol Endocrinol. 1995;9:478-86 pubmed
    ..These studies define SF-1's essential role within a discrete hypothalamic nucleus previously linked to reproduction. ..
  16. Mistry D, Tsutsumi R, Fernandez M, Sharma S, Cardenas S, Lawson M, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse sensitivity of follicle-stimulating hormone-beta gene is mediated by differential expression of positive regulatory activator protein 1 factors and corepressors SKIL and TGIF1. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1387-403 pubmed publisher
    ..By mining a previous microarray data set, we found that mRNA for positive regulators of Fshb expression, such as Fos and Jun, were up-regulated at slower pulse frequencies than a number of potential negative ..
  17. Kumar T, Varani S, Wreford N, Telfer N, de Kretser D, Matzuk M. Male reproductive phenotypes in double mutant mice lacking both FSHbeta and activin receptor IIA. Endocrinology. 2001;142:3512-8 pubmed
    ..Similarly, FSHbeta null male mice are fertile despite reduced testis size and Sertoli cell number...
  18. Siracusa L, Silan C, Justice M, Mercer J, Bauskin A, Ben Neriah Y, et al. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1990;6:491-504 pubmed
    ..were subjected to Southern blot analysis using molecular probes that identified the Abl, Acra, Ass, C5, Cas-1, Fshb, Gcg, Hox-5...
  19. Balla A, Danilovich N, Yang Y, Sairam M. Dynamics of ovarian development in the FORKO immature mouse: structural and functional implications for ovarian reserve. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1281-93 pubmed
    ..FORKO ovaries are 45% smaller, indicating a postnatal or perinatal deficit consequent to FSH receptor ablation. This is attributable to decreased numbers of growing follicles and reduced diameter...
  20. Kumar T, Palapattu G, Wang P, Woodruff T, Boime I, Byrne M, et al. Transgenic models to study gonadotropin function: the role of follicle-stimulating hormone in gonadal growth and tumorigenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:851-65 pubmed
    The role of FSH in gonadal tumorigenesis and, in particular, in human ovarian cancer has been debated. It is also unclear what role the elevated FSH levels in the inhibin-deficient mouse play in the gonadal tumorigenesis...
  21. Matsumoto S, Yamazaki C, Masumoto K, Nagano M, Naito M, Soga T, et al. Abnormal development of the olfactory bulb and reproductive system in mice lacking prokineticin receptor PKR2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4140-5 pubmed
    ..Our current findings demonstrated that physiological activation of PKR2 is essential for normal development of the OB and sexual maturation...
  22. Gumbel J, Patterson E, Owusu S, Kabat B, Jung D, Simmons J, et al. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52156 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation. ..
  23. Wang H, Butnev V, Bousfield G, Kumar T. A human FSHB transgene encoding the double N-glycosylation mutant (Asn(7Δ) Asn(24Δ)) FSHβ subunit fails to rescue Fshb null mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;426:113-24 pubmed publisher
    ..24Δ) double N-glycosylation site mutant subunit, and separately introduced these transgenes onto Fshb null background using a genetic rescue strategy...
  24. Abel M, Huhtaniemi I, Pakarinen P, Kumar T, Charlton H. Age-related uterine and ovarian hypertrophy in FSH receptor knockout and FSHbeta subunit knockout mice. Reproduction. 2003;125:165-73 pubmed
    Female mice in which the gene encoding the follicle-stimulating hormone FSH receptor (FSHR) knockout (KO) or its ligand (FSHbetaKO) have been disrupted were infertile...
  25. Thompson I, Ciccone N, Xu S, Zaytseva S, Carroll R, Kaiser U. GnRH pulse frequency-dependent stimulation of FSH? transcription is mediated via activation of PKA and CREB. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:606-18 pubmed publisher
    Expression of pituitary FSH and LH, under the control of pulsatile GnRH, is essential for fertility...
  26. Shibusawa N, Yamada M, Hirato J, Monden T, Satoh T, Mori M. Requirement of thyrotropin-releasing hormone for the postnatal functions of pituitary thyrotrophs: ontogeny study of congenital tertiary hypothyroidism in mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2000;14:137-46 pubmed
    ..Moreover, reflecting its name, TRH has more critical effects on the pituitary thyrotrophs than on other pituitary hormone-producing cells. ..
  27. Wreford N, Rajendra Kumar T, Matzuk M, de Kretser D. Analysis of the testicular phenotype of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit knockout and the activin type II receptor knockout mice by stereological analysis. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2916-20 pubmed
    ..stereological analysis of testicular cell types in mice with targeted disruption of genes encoding the FSH beta-subunit and the activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA)...
  28. Kumar T, Low M, Matzuk M. Genetic rescue of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 1998;139:3289-95 pubmed
    ..FSH-deficient mouse model using embryonic stem (ES) cell technology by introducing a null mutation in the unique FSHbeta gene. Male mice deficient in FSH are fertile despite their small testes and reduced sperm number and motility...
  29. Basham K, Hung H, Lerario A, Hammer G. Mouse models of adrenocortical tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;421:82-97 pubmed publisher
    ..New paradigms of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression that have emerged from this work will be discussed. ..
  30. El Hayek S, Demeestere I, Clarke H. Follicle-stimulating hormone regulates expression and activity of epidermal growth factor receptor in the murine ovarian follicle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:16778-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a previously unknown role for FSH in this signaling cascade. We show that follicles of Fshb(-/-) mice, which cannot produce FSH, have a severely impaired ability to support two essential EGFR-regulated ..
  31. Wang Y, Libasci V, Bernard D. Activin A induction of FSHbeta subunit transcription requires SMAD4 in immortalized gonadotropes. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010;44:349-62 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear accumulation of SMAD2 and SMAD3, which bind to a consensus SMAD-binding element in the proximal murine FSHbeta (Fshb) subunit gene to drive transcription...
  32. Lawler J, Duquette M, Ferro P, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N. Characterization of the murine thrombospondin gene. Genomics. 1991;11:587-600 pubmed
    ..of (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus) F1 x C57BL/6J mice indicates that the thrombospondin gene is tightly linked to the Fshb, Actcl, Ltk, and B2M loci on murine chromosome 2...
  33. Cogliati T, Delgado Romero P, Norwitz E, Guduric Fuchs J, Kaiser U, Wray S, et al. Pubertal impairment in Nhlh2 null mice is associated with hypothalamic and pituitary deficiencies. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:3013-27 pubmed
  34. Layman L, McDonough P. Mutations of follicle stimulating hormone-beta and its receptor in human and mouse: genotype/phenotype. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000;161:9-17 pubmed
    ..b>FSHbeta knock-out mice and transgenic mice, serve as models for FSH deficiency and excess, respectively...
  35. Zhou J, Kumar T, Matzuk M, Bondy C. Insulin-like growth factor I regulates gonadotropin responsiveness in the murine ovary. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:1924-33 pubmed
    The present study shows that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and FSH receptor (FSHR) mRNAs are selectively coexpressed in a subset of healthy-appearing follicles in murine ovaries, irrespective of cycle stage...
  36. Million Passe C, White C, King M, Quirk P, Iovanna J, Quirk C. Loss of the protein NUPR1 (p8) leads to delayed LHB expression, delayed ovarian maturation, and testicular development of a sertoli-cell-only syndrome-like phenotype in mice. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:598-607 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the role of NUPR1 in gonadotropin expression appears specific for LHB, as no difference in FSHB is observed in Nupr1(-/-) and Nupr1(+/+) embryos. The gonads are also impacted by the absence of NUPR1...
  37. Matthews C, Borgato S, Beck Peccoz P, Adams M, Tone Y, Gambino G, et al. Primary amenorrhoea and infertility due to a mutation in the beta-subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone. Nat Genet. 1993;5:83-6 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of the FSH beta-subunit gene indicated that she is homozygous for a two nucleotide frameshift deletion in the coding sequence...
  38. Burns K, Yan C, Kumar T, Matzuk M. Analysis of ovarian gene expression in follicle-stimulating hormone beta knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2742-51 pubmed
    ..It acts on Sertoli cells of the testis and granulosa cells of the ovary. We previously demonstrated that FSHbeta knockout female mice are infertile due to a block in folliculogenesis preceding antral stage development...
  39. Barton D, Kwon B, Francke U. Human tyrosinase gene, mapped to chromosome 11 (q14----q21), defines second region of homology with mouse chromosome 7. Genomics. 1988;3:17-24 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the genetic maps of human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 7 leads to hypotheses regarding the evolution of human chromosome 11. ..
  40. Thompson I, Ciccone N, Zhou Q, Xu S, Khogeer A, Carroll R, et al. GnRH Pulse Frequency Control of Fshb Gene Expression Is Mediated via ERK1/2 Regulation of ICER. Mol Endocrinol. 2016;30:348-60 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (CREB) and inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), have been implicated in the regulation of rat Fshb gene expression. We previously showed that the protein kinase A pathway mediates GnRH-stimulated CREB activation...
  41. Ciccone N, Xu S, Lacza C, Carroll R, Kaiser U. Frequency-dependent regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone beta by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone is mediated by functional antagonism of bZIP transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1028-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the alpha and LH beta subunit genes, FSH beta subunit transcription is preferentially stimulated at low rather than high frequencies of pulsatile GnRH...
  42. Iqbal J, Sun L, Kumar T, Blair H, Zaidi M. Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates TNF production from immune cells to enhance osteoblast and osteoclast formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14925-30 pubmed
    ..We recently found that mice deficient in the beta-subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) are protected from bone loss despite severe estrogen deficiency...
  43. Pitteloud N, Zhang C, Pignatelli D, Li J, Raivio T, Cole L, et al. Loss-of-function mutation in the prokineticin 2 gene causes Kallmann syndrome and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17447-52 pubmed
    ..Homozygous loss-of-function PROK2 mutations cause both KS and nIHH...
  44. Adriaenssens T, Mazoyer C, Segers I, Wathlet S, Smitz J. Differences in collagen expression in cumulus cells after exposure to highly purified menotropin or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone in a mouse follicle culture model. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:1015-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The study revealed that exposure to 100 IU/L FSH, as in both superovulation conditions, significantly influenced the follicle morphology and slowed down nuclear ..
  45. Feng J, Lawson M, Melamed P. A proteomic comparison of immature and mature mouse gonadotrophs reveals novel differentially expressed nuclear proteins that regulate gonadotropin gene transcription and RNA splicing. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:546-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Of those found at higher levels in alphaT3-1 nuclei, 1110005A23RIK was found associated with the Fshb gene promoter and repressed its expression...
  46. Raetzman L, Ward R, Camper S. Lhx4 and Prop1 are required for cell survival and expansion of the pituitary primordia. Development. 2002;129:4229-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, Lhx4 and Prop1 have critical, but mechanistically different roles in specification and expansion of specialized anterior pituitary cells. ..
  47. Mantamadiotis T, Kretz O, Ridder S, Bleckmann S, Bock D, Grone H, et al. Hypothalamic 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein loss causes anterior pituitary hypoplasia and dwarfism in mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:204-11 pubmed
    ..These findings show that CREB is required for the efficient production of GHRH in hypothalamus, in addition to its previously reported role in pituitary GH production and somatotroph expansion. ..
  48. Wang Y, Ho C, Bang E, Rejon C, Libasci V, Pertchenko P, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates noncanonical SMAD2/3 signaling via the BMP type 1A receptor in gonadotrope-like cells: implications for FSH synthesis. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1970-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Activins stimulate FSH synthesis via transcriptional regulation of its ?-subunit gene (Fshb)...
  49. Pope C, McNeilly J, Coutts S, Millar M, Anderson R, McNeilly A. Gonadotrope and thyrotrope development in the human and mouse anterior pituitary gland. Dev Biol. 2006;297:172-81 pubmed
    ..immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, we found that most fetal gonadotropes expressed alpha-GSU, LHbeta, and FSHbeta gonadotropin subunits while almost no cells expressed alpha-GSU and LHbeta alone...
  50. Sun Y, Bak B, Schoenmakers N, van Trotsenburg A, Oostdijk W, Voshol P, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1375-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our observations delineate a new X-linked disorder in which loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause central hypothyroidism, likely secondary to an associated impairment in pituitary TRH signaling. ..
  51. Thackray V, Mellon P. Synergistic induction of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene expression by gonadal steroid hormone receptors and Smad proteins. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1091-102 pubmed
    ..We previously demonstrated that progesterone and testosterone can stimulate expression of the FSH beta-subunit gene in immortalized gonadotrope-derived LbetaT2 cells...
  52. Garcia Campayo V, Boime I, Ma X, Daphna Iken D, Kumar T. A single-chain tetradomain glycoprotein hormone analog elicits multiple hormone activities in vivo. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:301-8 pubmed
    ..similar to recombinant human FSH or equine CG (eCG) as confirmed by induction of aromatase in the ovaries of FSHbeta knockout mice...
  53. Wen S, Ai W, Alim Z, Boehm U. Embryonic gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling is necessary for maturation of the male reproductive axis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16372-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments define a functional role of embryonic GnRH signaling. ..
  54. Kim S, Zhu J, Woodruff T. A truncated, activin-induced Smad3 isoform acts as a transcriptional repressor of FSH? expression in mouse pituitary. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;342:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..an ultra-short, activin-responsive feedback loop utilizing two different isoforms of Smad3, one which acts as an agonist (Smad3) and another that acts as an intracrine antagonist (truncated Smad3 isoform) to regulate FSH? production.
  55. Ho C, Bernard D. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signals via BMPR1A to regulate murine follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit transcription. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:133-41 pubmed publisher
    Follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (Fshb) expression is regulated by transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligands...
  56. Shen S, Yu J. Cloning and gene expression of a cDNA for the chicken follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-beta-subunit. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2002;125:375-86 pubmed
    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of pituitary glycoprotein hormones that are composed of two dissimilar subunits, alpha and beta...
  57. An B, Poon S, So W, Hammond G, Leung P. Rapid effect of GNRH1 on follicle-stimulating hormone beta gene expression in LbetaT2 mouse pituitary cells requires the progesterone receptor. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that GNRH1 increases Fshb mRNA levels in LbetaT2 mouse pituitary cells within 8 h and is three times more effective than GNRH2...
  58. O HARA B, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Shows T, Eddy R, et al. Chromosomal assignment of the heparin-binding cytokine genes MDK and PTN in mouse and man. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1995;69:40-3 pubmed
    ..A pseudogene of Mdk was mapped to mouse Chromosome 11. The closely related human gene PTN was mapped to a separate location on human chromosome region 7q22-->qter. ..
  59. Combelles C, Carabatsos M, Kumar T, Matzuk M, Albertini D. Hormonal control of somatic cell oocyte interactions during ovarian follicle development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;69:347-55 pubmed
    ..We show that in prepubertal unprimed mice and mice carrying a targeted deletion of the FSHbeta subunit gene, granulosa cells exhibit orientation towards the oocyte manifest by the elaboration of transzonal ..
  60. El Hayek S, Clarke H. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Increases Gap Junctional Communication Between Somatic and Germ-Line Follicular Compartments During Murine Oogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) drives the terminal stage of follicular development...
  61. Choi S, Wang Q, Jia J, Chikina M, Pincas H, Dolios G, et al. Characterization of Gonadotrope Secretoproteome Identifies Neurosecretory Protein VGF-derived Peptide Suppression of Follicle-stimulating Hormone Gene Expression. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:21322-21334 pubmed
    ..Paradoxically, Fshb gene expression is maximally induced at lower frequency GnRH pulses, which provide a very low average concentration ..
  62. Marcinkiewicz M, Day R, Seidah N, Chretien M. Ontogeny of the prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the mouse hypophysis and their colocalization with corticotropin and alpha-melanotropin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:4922-6 pubmed
    ..It is expected that beta-endorphin processing will follow that of alpha MSH. ..
  63. Roybal L, Hambarchyan A, Meadows J, Barakat N, Pepa P, Breen K, et al. Roles of binding elements, FOXL2 domains, and interactions with cJUN and SMADs in regulation of FSH?. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:1640-55 pubmed publisher
    We previously identified FOXL2 as a critical component in FSH? gene transcription...
  64. Lannes J, L Hôte D, Garrel G, Laverrière J, Cohen Tannoudji J, Quérat B. Rapid communication: A microRNA-132/212 pathway mediates GnRH activation of FSH expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We first showed that the GnRH stimulation of FSH secretion was reduced and Fshb mRNA abolished by blocking miR-132/212 action in rat pituitary cells...
  65. Buensuceso A, Deroo B. The ephrin signaling pathway regulates morphology and adhesion of mouse granulosa cells in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:25 pubmed publisher
    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated changes in granulosa cell adhesion and morphology are essential for preovulatory follicle development, given the dramatic changes in follicle size and granulosa cell number that occur during ..
  66. Gaston Massuet C, McCabe M, Scagliotti V, Young R, Carreno G, Gregory L, et al. Transcription factor 7-like 1 is involved in hypothalamo-pituitary axis development in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E548-57 pubmed publisher
  67. Hirst R, Abel M, Wilkins V, Simpson C, Knight P, Zhang F, et al. Influence of mutations affecting gonadotropin production or responsiveness on expression of inhibin subunit mRNA and protein in the mouse ovary. Reproduction. 2004;128:43-52 pubmed
    ..In hpg females where lack of GnRH production results in the absence of gonadotropin synthesis, in FSHbeta knockout (FSHbetaKO) females where disruption of the gene encoding FSHbeta results in the absence of FSH ..
  68. Prince K, Colvin S, Park S, Lai X, Witzmann F, Rhodes S. Developmental analysis and influence of genetic background on the Lhx3 W227ter mouse model of combined pituitary hormone deficiency disease. Endocrinology. 2013;154:738-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, as is noted in human disease, genetic background significantly impacts the phenotypic outcome of these monogenic endocrine diseases...
  69. Kumar T, Agno J, Janovick J, Conn P, Matzuk M. Regulation of FSHbeta and GnRH receptor gene expression in activin receptor II knockout male mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;212:19-27 pubmed
    ..Compared to castrated wild-type (WT) mice, FSHbeta mRNA levels in the pituitaries of Acvr2 null mice were significantly downregulated in the absence of gonadal ..
  70. Fortin J, Boehm U, Deng C, Treier M, Bernard D. Follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and fertility depend on SMAD4 and FOXL2. FASEB J. 2014;28:3396-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in the FSHB/Fshb gene cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and mice...
  71. Holley S, Hall S, Mellon P. Complementary expression of IGF-II and IGFBP-5 during anterior pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2002;244:319-28 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the timing of IGF-II expression and regulation of its accessibility by IGFBP-5 may play a role in anterior pituitary differentiation, survival, and/or proliferation. ..
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