Foxn1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Foxn1
Description: forkhead box N1
Alias: D11Bhm185e, Fkh19, HFH-11, Hfh11, Whn, nude, forkhead box protein N1, HNF-3/forkhead homolog 11, hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 forkhead homolog 11, winged-helix transcription factor nude
Species: mouse
Products:     Foxn1

Top Publications

  1. Mori K, Itoi M, Tsukamoto N, Amagai T. Foxn1 is essential for vascularization of the murine thymus anlage. Cell Immunol. 2010;260:66-9 pubmed publisher
    We addressed whether vascularization of the thymus anlage depends on Foxn1 expression. In the thymus anlagen of wild-type mice, CD31(+) endothelial cells are initially observed between epithelial cells on embryonic day (Ed)12...
  2. Itoi M, Tsukamoto N, Amagai T. Expression of Dll4 and CCL25 in Foxn1-negative epithelial cells in the post-natal thymus. Int Immunol. 2007;19:127-32 pubmed
    b>Foxn1 transcription factor is known to be essential for development of the thymic organ...
  3. Guy Grand D, Pardigon N, Darche S, Lantz O, Kourilsky P, Vassalli P. Contribution of double-negative thymic precursors to CD8alpha alpha (+) intraepithelial lymphocytes of the gut in mice bearing TCR transgenes. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:2593-602 pubmed
    ..between the TCR(+) lymphocytes present in the lymphoid organs and the gut mucosa in euthymic versus athymic (nude) animals...
  4. Mecklenburg L, Tychsen B, Paus R. Learning from nudity: lessons from the nude phenotype. Exp Dermatol. 2005;14:797-810 pubmed
    In mice, rats, and humans, loss of function of Foxn1, a member of the winged helix/forkhead family of transcription factors, leads to macroscopic nudity and an inborn dysgenesis of the thymus...
  5. Zook E, Krishack P, Zhang S, Zeleznik Le N, Firulli A, Witte P, et al. Overexpression of Foxn1 attenuates age-associated thymic involution and prevents the expansion of peripheral CD4 memory T cells. Blood. 2011;118:5723-31 pubmed publisher
    The forkhead box n1 (Foxn1) transcription factor is essential for thymic organogenesis during embryonic development; however, a functional role of Foxn1 in the postnatal thymus is less well understood...
  6. Gordon J, Patel S, Mishina Y, Manley N. Evidence for an early role for BMP4 signaling in thymus and parathyroid morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;339:141-54 pubmed publisher
    ..of Bmp4 or Alk3 from the pharyngeal endoderm and/or the surrounding mesenchyme using Foxg1-Cre, Wnt1-Cre or Foxn1-Cre...
  7. Balciunaite G, Keller M, Balciunaite E, Piali L, Zuklys S, Mathieu Y, et al. Wnt glycoproteins regulate the expression of FoxN1, the gene defective in nude mice. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:1102-8 pubmed
    ..these characteristics is dependent on expression of the forkhead (also known as winged-helix) transcription factor FoxN1, as a lack of functional FoxN1 results in aberrant epithelial morphogenesis and an inability to attract lymphoid ..
  8. Akiyama T, Maeda S, Yamane S, Ogino K, Kasai M, Kajiura F, et al. Dependence of self-tolerance on TRAF6-directed development of thymic stroma. Science. 2005;308:248-51 pubmed
    ..Engraftment of thymic stroma of TRAF6(-/-) embryos into athymic nude mice induced autoimmunity...
  9. Koch U, Fiorini E, Benedito R, Besseyrias V, Schuster Gossler K, Pierres M, et al. Delta-like 4 is the essential, nonredundant ligand for Notch1 during thymic T cell lineage commitment. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2515-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they strongly suggest that N1-expressing thymic progenitors interact with DL4-expressing TECs to suppress B lineage potential and to induce the first steps of intrathymic T cell development. ..
  10. Manley N, Selleri L, Brendolan A, Gordon J, Cleary M. Abnormalities of caudal pharyngeal pouch development in Pbx1 knockout mice mimic loss of Hox3 paralogs. Dev Biol. 2004;276:301-12 pubmed
    ..However, some aspects of the Pbx1 mutant phenotype included specific defects that were less severe than those found in known Hox mutant mice, suggesting that some functions of Hox proteins in this region are Pbx1-independent...

Detail Information

Publications64

  1. Mori K, Itoi M, Tsukamoto N, Amagai T. Foxn1 is essential for vascularization of the murine thymus anlage. Cell Immunol. 2010;260:66-9 pubmed publisher
    We addressed whether vascularization of the thymus anlage depends on Foxn1 expression. In the thymus anlagen of wild-type mice, CD31(+) endothelial cells are initially observed between epithelial cells on embryonic day (Ed)12...
  2. Itoi M, Tsukamoto N, Amagai T. Expression of Dll4 and CCL25 in Foxn1-negative epithelial cells in the post-natal thymus. Int Immunol. 2007;19:127-32 pubmed
    b>Foxn1 transcription factor is known to be essential for development of the thymic organ...
  3. Guy Grand D, Pardigon N, Darche S, Lantz O, Kourilsky P, Vassalli P. Contribution of double-negative thymic precursors to CD8alpha alpha (+) intraepithelial lymphocytes of the gut in mice bearing TCR transgenes. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:2593-602 pubmed
    ..between the TCR(+) lymphocytes present in the lymphoid organs and the gut mucosa in euthymic versus athymic (nude) animals...
  4. Mecklenburg L, Tychsen B, Paus R. Learning from nudity: lessons from the nude phenotype. Exp Dermatol. 2005;14:797-810 pubmed
    In mice, rats, and humans, loss of function of Foxn1, a member of the winged helix/forkhead family of transcription factors, leads to macroscopic nudity and an inborn dysgenesis of the thymus...
  5. Zook E, Krishack P, Zhang S, Zeleznik Le N, Firulli A, Witte P, et al. Overexpression of Foxn1 attenuates age-associated thymic involution and prevents the expansion of peripheral CD4 memory T cells. Blood. 2011;118:5723-31 pubmed publisher
    The forkhead box n1 (Foxn1) transcription factor is essential for thymic organogenesis during embryonic development; however, a functional role of Foxn1 in the postnatal thymus is less well understood...
  6. Gordon J, Patel S, Mishina Y, Manley N. Evidence for an early role for BMP4 signaling in thymus and parathyroid morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;339:141-54 pubmed publisher
    ..of Bmp4 or Alk3 from the pharyngeal endoderm and/or the surrounding mesenchyme using Foxg1-Cre, Wnt1-Cre or Foxn1-Cre...
  7. Balciunaite G, Keller M, Balciunaite E, Piali L, Zuklys S, Mathieu Y, et al. Wnt glycoproteins regulate the expression of FoxN1, the gene defective in nude mice. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:1102-8 pubmed
    ..these characteristics is dependent on expression of the forkhead (also known as winged-helix) transcription factor FoxN1, as a lack of functional FoxN1 results in aberrant epithelial morphogenesis and an inability to attract lymphoid ..
  8. Akiyama T, Maeda S, Yamane S, Ogino K, Kasai M, Kajiura F, et al. Dependence of self-tolerance on TRAF6-directed development of thymic stroma. Science. 2005;308:248-51 pubmed
    ..Engraftment of thymic stroma of TRAF6(-/-) embryos into athymic nude mice induced autoimmunity...
  9. Koch U, Fiorini E, Benedito R, Besseyrias V, Schuster Gossler K, Pierres M, et al. Delta-like 4 is the essential, nonredundant ligand for Notch1 during thymic T cell lineage commitment. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2515-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they strongly suggest that N1-expressing thymic progenitors interact with DL4-expressing TECs to suppress B lineage potential and to induce the first steps of intrathymic T cell development. ..
  10. Manley N, Selleri L, Brendolan A, Gordon J, Cleary M. Abnormalities of caudal pharyngeal pouch development in Pbx1 knockout mice mimic loss of Hox3 paralogs. Dev Biol. 2004;276:301-12 pubmed
    ..However, some aspects of the Pbx1 mutant phenotype included specific defects that were less severe than those found in known Hox mutant mice, suggesting that some functions of Hox proteins in this region are Pbx1-independent...
  11. Zamisch M, Moore Scott B, Su D, Lucas P, Manley N, Richie E. Ontogeny and regulation of IL-7-expressing thymic epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2005;174:60-7 pubmed
    ..5 and is expressed in a Foxn1-independent pathway...
  12. Su D, Ellis S, Napier A, Lee K, Manley N. Hoxa3 and pax1 regulate epithelial cell death and proliferation during thymus and parathyroid organogenesis. Dev Biol. 2001;236:316-29 pubmed
    ..compound mutants initiates normal expression of the parathyroid-specific Gcm2 and thymus-specific Foxn1 genes. However, Gcm2 expression is reduced at E11...
  13. Gawronska Kozak B. Scarless skin wound healing in FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice is associated with distinctive matrix metalloproteinase expression. Matrix Biol. 2011;30:290-300 pubmed publisher
    Similar to mammalian fetuses FOXN1 deficient (nude) mice are able to restore the structure and integrity of injured skin in a scarless healing process by mechanisms independent of the genetic background...
  14. Sun L, Guo J, Brown R, Amagai T, Zhao Y, Su D. Declining expression of a single epithelial cell-autonomous gene accelerates age-related thymic involution. Aging Cell. 2010;9:347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of epithelial cell-autonomous gene FoxN1 may be involved in the process, but it is still a puzzle because of the shortage of evidence from gradual loss-of-..
  15. Liu Z, Yu S, Manley N. Gcm2 is required for the differentiation and survival of parathyroid precursor cells in the parathyroid/thymus primordia. Dev Biol. 2007;305:333-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Gcm2 is not required for pouch patterning or to establish the parathyroid domain, but is required for differentiation and subsequent survival of parathyroid cells...
  16. Blackburn C, Augustine C, Li R, Harvey R, Malin M, Boyd R, et al. The nu gene acts cell-autonomously and is required for differentiation of thymic epithelial progenitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5742-6 pubmed
    The nude mutation (nu) causes athymia and hairlessness, but the molecular mechanisms by which it acts have not been determined...
  17. Zook E, Zhang S, Gerstein R, Witte P, Le P. Enhancing T lineage production in aged mice: a novel function of Foxn1 in the bone marrow niche. J Immunol. 2013;191:5583-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Foxn1 is essential for thymic organogenesis and T lymphopoiesis...
  18. Corbeaux T, Hess I, Swann J, Kanzler B, Haas Assenbaum A, Boehm T. Thymopoiesis in mice depends on a Foxn1-positive thymic epithelial cell lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16613-8 pubmed publisher
    The thymus is essential for T-cell development. Here, we focus on the role of the transcription factor Foxn1 in the development and function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) of the mouse...
  19. Griffith A, Cardenas K, Carter C, Gordon J, Iberg A, Engleka K, et al. Increased thymus- and decreased parathyroid-fated organ domains in Splotch mutant embryos. Dev Biol. 2009;327:216-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of Foxn1 and Gcm2 expression revealed a dorsal shift in the border between parathyroid- and thymus-fated domains at E11...
  20. Xiao S, Su D, Manley N. T cell development from kit-negative progenitors in the Foxn1Delta/Delta mutant thymus. J Immunol. 2008;180:914-21 pubmed
    Foxn1Delta is a hypomorphic allele of the nude gene that causes arrested thymic epithelial cell differentiation and abnormal thymic architecture lacking cortical and medullary domains...
  21. Gordon J, Xiao S, Hughes B, Su D, Navarre S, Condie B, et al. Specific expression of lacZ and cre recombinase in fetal thymic epithelial cells by multiplex gene targeting at the Foxn1 locus. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:69 pubmed
    ..Since the Foxn1 gene is expressed in all presumptive TECs from the early stages of thymus organogenesis and broadly in the adult ..
  22. Anderson M, Venanzi E, Chen Z, Berzins S, Benoist C, Mathis D. The cellular mechanism of Aire control of T cell tolerance. Immunity. 2005;23:227-39 pubmed
    ..In Aire's absence, autoimmunity and ultimately overt autoimmune disease develops. ..
  23. Cunliffe V, Furley A, Keenan D. Complete rescue of the nude mutant phenotype by a wild-type Foxn1 transgene. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:245-52 pubmed
    ..paper we describe the production and analysis of mice carrying a 110-kb transgene that encompasses the wild-type Foxn1 genomic locus. Mutations in Foxn1 cause the nude phenotype...
  24. Xu P, Zheng W, Laclef C, Maire P, Maas R, Peters H, et al. Eya1 is required for the morphogenesis of mammalian thymus, parathyroid and thyroid. Development. 2002;129:3033-44 pubmed
    ..5 in Eya1(-/-) embryos. Our results indicate that Eya1 controls critical early inductive events involved in the morphogenesis of thymus, parathyroid and thyroid. ..
  25. Gordon J, Bennett A, Blackburn C, Manley N. Gcm2 and Foxn1 mark early parathyroid- and thymus-specific domains in the developing third pharyngeal pouch. Mech Dev. 2001;103:141-3 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanism that specifies this primordium into distinct organ domains is not known. The Gcm2 and Foxn1 transcription factors are required for development of the parathyroid and thymus respectively, and are attractive ..
  26. Brissette J, Li J, Kamimura J, Lee D, Dotto G. The product of the mouse nude locus, Whn, regulates the balance between epithelial cell growth and differentiation. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2212-21 pubmed
    Mutations in the winged-helix nude (whn) gene result in the nude mouse and rat phenotypes...
  27. Xia J, Wang H, Guo J, Zhang Z, Coder B, Su D. Age-Related Disruption of Steady-State Thymic Medulla Provokes Autoimmune Phenotype via Perturbing Negative Selection. Aging Dis. 2012;3:248-59 pubmed
    ..Age-related FoxN1 decline induces disruption of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs)...
  28. Liu C, Saito F, Liu Z, Lei Y, Uehara S, Love P, et al. Coordination between CCR7- and CCR9-mediated chemokine signals in prevascular fetal thymus colonization. Blood. 2006;108:2531-9 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, CCL21, a CCR7 ligand, was expressed not by Foxn1-dependent thymic primordium but by Gcm2-dependent parathyroid primordium, whereas CCL25, a CCR9 ligand, was ..
  29. Xiao S, Su D, Manley N. Atypical memory phenotype T cells with low homeostatic potential and impaired TCR signaling and regulatory T cell function in Foxn1Delta/Delta mutant mice. J Immunol. 2007;179:8153-63 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the phenotype of peripheral T cells in Foxn1Delta/Delta mutant mice is the result of atypical progenitor cells developing in an abnormal thymic microenvironment with a deficient TCR and IL7 signaling system. ..
  30. Bredenkamp N, Nowell C, Blackburn C. Regeneration of the aged thymus by a single transcription factor. Development. 2014;141:1627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, diminished expression of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-specific transcription factor Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) has been implicated as a component of the mechanism regulating age-related involution...
  31. Su D, Navarre S, Oh W, Condie B, Manley N. A domain of Foxn1 required for crosstalk-dependent thymic epithelial cell differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1128-35 pubmed
    Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are required for T cell maturation within the thymus. In the nude (Foxn1(nu/nu)) mouse, TECs fail to differentiate...
  32. Guy Grand D, Azogui O, Celli S, Darche S, Nussenzweig M, Kourilsky P, et al. Extrathymic T cell lymphopoiesis: ontogeny and contribution to gut intraepithelial lymphocytes in athymic and euthymic mice. J Exp Med. 2003;197:333-41 pubmed
  33. Nowell C, Bredenkamp N, Tételin S, Jin X, Tischner C, Vaidya H, et al. Foxn1 regulates lineage progression in cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells but is dispensable for medullary sublineage divergence. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002348 pubmed publisher
    The forkhead transcription factor Foxn1 is indispensable for thymus development, but the mechanisms by which it mediates thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development are poorly understood...
  34. Cai J, Lee J, Kopan R, Ma L. Genetic interplays between Msx2 and Foxn1 are required for Notch1 expression and hair shaft differentiation. Dev Biol. 2009;326:420-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use compound genetic mutants to demonstrate that two transcription factors, Msx2 and Foxn1, are both required to maintain Notch1 expression in the hair follicle matrix...
  35. Nehls M, Lüno K, Schorpp M, Krause S, Matysiak Scholze U, Prokop C, et al. A yeast artificial chromosome contig on mouse chromosome 11 encompassing the nu locus. Eur J Immunol. 1994;24:1721-3 pubmed
    Mutations at the nude locus disrupt the homing process of T cell progenitor cells to the thymic rudiment, a key aspect of T cell differentiation...
  36. Nehls M, Pfeifer D, Schorpp M, Hedrich H, Boehm T. New member of the winged-helix protein family disrupted in mouse and rat nude mutations. Nature. 1994;372:103-7 pubmed
    Mutations at the nude locus of mice and rats disrupt normal hair growth and thymus development, causing nude mice and rats to be immune-deficient...
  37. Cheng L, Guo J, Sun L, Fu J, Barnes P, Metzger D, et al. Postnatal tissue-specific disruption of transcription factor FoxN1 triggers acute thymic atrophy. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5836-47 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor FoxN1 is essential for differentiation of thymic epithelial cell (TEC) progenitors during thymic organogenesis...
  38. Weiner L, Han R, Scicchitano B, Li J, Hasegawa K, Grossi M, et al. Dedicated epithelial recipient cells determine pigmentation patterns. Cell. 2007;130:932-42 pubmed
    ..We identify Foxn1 (a transcription factor) as an activator of this "pigment recipient phenotype" and Fgf2 (a growth factor ..
  39. Nehls M, Kyewski B, Messerle M, Waldschutz R, Schüddekopf K, Smith A, et al. Two genetically separable steps in the differentiation of thymic epithelium. Science. 1996;272:886-9 pubmed
    ..With the use of a targeted disruption of the whn gene, which recapitulates the phenotype of the athymic nude mouse, the WHN transcription factor was shown to be the product of the nude locus...
  40. Guo J, Feng Y, Barnes P, Huang F, Idell S, Su D, et al. Deletion of FoxN1 in the thymic medullary epithelium reduces peripheral T cell responses to infection and mimics changes of aging. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34681 pubmed publisher
    ..The forkhead-class transcription factor, encoded by FoxN1, regulates development, differentiation, and function of TECs, both in the prenatal and postnatal thymus...
  41. Schorpp M, Hofmann M, Dear T, Boehm T. Characterization of mouse and human nude genes. Immunogenetics. 1997;46:509-15 pubmed
    ..into subcapsular, cortical, and medullary epithelial cells of the mature thymus requires the activity of the nude gene product Whn. Whn is also required for proper keratinization of the hair shaft...
  42. Hu B, Lefort K, Qiu W, Nguyen B, Rajaram R, Castillo E, et al. Control of hair follicle cell fate by underlying mesenchyme through a CSL-Wnt5a-FoxN1 regulatory axis. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1519-32 pubmed publisher
    ..essential downstream mediator of Notch-CSL signaling, impinging on expression in the keratinocyte compartment of FoxN1, a gene with a key hair follicle regulatory function...
  43. Vosshenrich C, Garcia Ojeda M, Samson Villéger S, Pasqualetto V, Enault L, Richard Le Goff O, et al. A thymic pathway of mouse natural killer cell development characterized by expression of GATA-3 and CD127. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:1217-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that bone marrow and thymic NK cell pathways generate distinct mouse NK cells with properties similar to those of the two human CD56 NK cell subsets. ..
  44. Bleul C, Corbeaux T, Reuter A, Fisch P, Mönting J, Boehm T. Formation of a functional thymus initiated by a postnatal epithelial progenitor cell. Nature. 2006;441:992-6 pubmed
    ..For instance, cell-autonomous genetic defects of forkhead box N1 (Foxn1) and autoimmune regulator (Aire) in thymic epithelial cells cause primary immunodeficiency and autoimmunity, ..
  45. Gordon J, Manley N. Mechanisms of thymus organogenesis and morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:3865-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies are making significant progress in identifying the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control specification, early organogenesis and morphogenesis of the thymus. ..
  46. Bleul C, Boehm T. Laser capture microdissection-based expression profiling identifies PD1-ligand as a target of the nude locus gene product. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:2497-503 pubmed
    ..their unique phenotype under the control of the winged-helix transcription factor Whn, which is lacking in the nude mouse. Whn-dependent genes may therefore be important regulators of lympho-epithelial interactions...
  47. Liston A, Farr A, Chen Z, Benoist C, Mathis D, Manley N, et al. Lack of Foxp3 function and expression in the thymic epithelium. J Exp Med. 2007;204:475-80 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in mice the only known role for Foxp3 remains promotion of T reg cell differentiation within the T cell lineage, whereas there is no role for Foxp3 in thymic epithelial cells. ..
  48. Zou D, Silvius D, Davenport J, Grifone R, Maire P, Xu P. Patterning of the third pharyngeal pouch into thymus/parathyroid by Six and Eya1. Dev Biol. 2006;293:499-512 pubmed
    ..rudiments fail to maintain the expression of the parathyroid-specific gene Gcm2 and the thymus-specific gene Foxn1 and subsequently undergo abnormal apoptosis, leading to a complete disappearance of organ primordia by E12.5...
  49. Chen L, Xiao S, Manley N. Foxn1 is required to maintain the postnatal thymic microenvironment in a dosage-sensitive manner. Blood. 2009;113:567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The Foxn1 gene is a key regulator of TEC differentiation, and is required for multiple aspects of fetal TEC differentiation...
  50. Dooley J, Erickson M, Farr A. Lessons from thymic epithelial heterogeneity: FoxN1 and tissue-restricted gene expression by extrathymic, endodermally derived epithelium. J Immunol. 2009;183:5042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One is that within epithelial tissues derived from pharyngeal endoderm, FoxN1 expression is signature for the thymic epithelial lineage...
  51. Ott R, Simma O, Kollmann K, Weisz E, Zebedin E, Schorpp Kistner M, et al. JunB is a gatekeeper for B-lymphoid leukemia. Oncogene. 2007;26:4863-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, JunB functions as a gatekeeper during tumor evolution. In its absence, transformed leukemic cells acquire an enhanced proliferative capacity, which presages a more malignant disease...
  52. Guo J, Rahman M, Cheng L, Zhang S, Tvinnereim A, Su D. Morphogenesis and maintenance of the 3D thymic medulla and prevention of nude skin phenotype require FoxN1 in pre- and post-natal K14 epithelium. J Mol Med (Berl). 2011;89:263-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the FoxN1-null mutant develops a rudimentary two-dimensional (2D) cystic thymus, 2D thymic cyst lining resulting from a dGUO ..
  53. Baxter R, Brissette J. Role of the nude gene in epithelial terminal differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118:303-9 pubmed
    Loss-of-function mutations in Whn (Hfh11, Foxn1), a winged-helix/forkhead transcription factor, cause the nude phenotype, which is characterized by the abnormal morphogenesis of the epidermis, hair follicles, and thymus...
  54. Tsukamoto N, Itoi M, Nishikawa M, Amagai T. Lack of Delta like 1 and 4 expressions in nude thymus anlages. Cell Immunol. 2005;234:77-80 pubmed
    ..In contrast, epithelial cells of the nude thymus anlages express neither Dll1 nor Dll4. These results indicate that expressions of Dll1 and Dll4 in thymic epithelial cells are regulated by Foxn1 transcriptional factor.
  55. Schlake T, Schorpp M, Nehls M, Boehm T. The nude gene encodes a sequence-specific DNA binding protein with homologs in organisms that lack an anticipatory immune system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3842-7 pubmed
    In the mouse, the product of the nude locus, Whn, is required for the keratinization of the hair shaft and the differentiation of epithelial progenitor cells in the thymus...
  56. Zhang Z, Burnley P, Coder B, Su D. Insights on FoxN1 biological significance and usages of the "nude" mouse in studies of T-lymphopoiesis. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8:1156-67 pubmed publisher
    Mutation in the "nude" gene, i.e. the FoxN1 gene, induces a hairless phenotype and a rudimentary thymus gland in mice (nude mouse) and humans (T-cell related primary immunodeficiency)...
  57. Prowse D, Lee D, Weiner L, Jiang N, Magro C, Baden H, et al. Ectopic expression of the nude gene induces hyperproliferation and defects in differentiation: implications for the self-renewal of cutaneous epithelia. Dev Biol. 1999;212:54-67 pubmed
    ..This phenotype results from loss-of-function mutations in Whn (Hfh11), a winged-helix transcription factor...
  58. Bleul C, Boehm T. Chemokines define distinct microenvironments in the developing thymus. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:3371-9 pubmed
    ..The in vivo significance of this finding is demonstrated by studies in the nude mouse where the thymic anlage lacks TECK and SDF-1 expression and prothymocytes home to the parathyroid anlage ..
  59. Calderón L, Boehm T. Synergistic, context-dependent, and hierarchical functions of epithelial components in thymic microenvironments. Cell. 2012;149:159-72 pubmed publisher
  60. Garfin P, Min D, Bryson J, Serwold T, Edris B, Blackburn C, et al. Inactivation of the RB family prevents thymus involution and promotes thymic function by direct control of Foxn1 expression. J Exp Med. 2013;210:1087-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In RB family mutant TECs, increased activity of E2F transcription factors drives increased expression of Foxn1, a central regulator of the thymic epithelium...
  61. Lee D, Prowse D, Brissette J. Association between mouse nude gene expression and the initiation of epithelial terminal differentiation. Dev Biol. 1999;208:362-74 pubmed
    Loss-of-function mutations in Whn (Hfh 11), a winged-helix/forkhead transcription factor, result in the nude mouse phenotype...
  62. Byrd L. Regional localization of the nu mutation on mouse chromosome 11. Immunogenetics. 1993;37:157-9 pubmed
  63. Segre J, Nemhauser J, Taylor B, Nadeau J, Lander E. Positional cloning of the nude locus: genetic, physical, and transcription maps of the region and mutations in the mouse and rat. Genomics. 1995;28:549-59 pubmed
    Mutations in the nude locus in mice and rats produce the pleiotropic phenotype of hairlessness and athymia, resulting in severely compromised immune system...
  64. BURNLEY P, Rahman M, Wang H, Zhang Z, Sun X, Zhuge Q, et al. Role of the p63-FoxN1 regulatory axis in thymic epithelial cell homeostasis during aging. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e932 pubmed publisher
    The p63 gene regulates thymic epithelial cell (TEC) proliferation, whereas FoxN1 regulates their differentiation. However, their collaborative role in the regulation of TEC homeostasis during thymic aging is largely unknown...