Gene Symbol: Foxl2
Description: forkhead box L2
Alias: AU045128, BPES, PINTO, Pfrk, forkhead box protein L2, P-Frk, pituitary forkhead factor
Species: mouse
Products:     Foxl2

Top Publications

  1. Maatouk D, DiNapoli L, Alvers A, Parker K, Taketo M, Capel B. Stabilization of beta-catenin in XY gonads causes male-to-female sex-reversal. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2949-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of beta-catenin as a key pro-ovarian and anti-testis signaling molecule will further our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sex determination and the molecular mechanisms that lead to sex-reversal. ..
  2. Warr N, Carré G, Siggers P, Faleato J, Brixey R, Pope M, et al. Gadd45? and Map3k4 interactions regulate mouse testis determination via p38 MAPK-mediated control of Sry expression. Dev Cell. 2012;23:1020-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest a requirement for GADD45? in promoting MAP3K4-mediated activation of p38 MAPK signaling in embryonic gonadal somatic cells for testis determination in the mouse. ..
  3. Crisponi L, Deiana M, Loi A, Chiappe F, Uda M, Amati P, et al. The putative forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 is mutated in blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome. Nat Genet. 2001;27:159-66 pubmed
    ..We have positionally cloned a novel, putative winged helix/forkhead transcription factor gene, FOXL2, that is mutated to produce truncated proteins in type I families and larger proteins in type II...
  4. DeFalco T, Takahashi S, Capel B. Two distinct origins for Leydig cell progenitors in the fetal testis. Dev Biol. 2011;352:14-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the cellular diversity of the interstitial cell population and suggests that complex cell-cell interactions among cells in the interstitium are involved in testis morphogenesis...
  5. Wilhelm D, Washburn L, Truong V, Fellous M, Eicher E, Koopman P. Antagonism of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways during ovotestis development in mice. Mech Dev. 2009;126:324-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied expression of several markers of mouse fetal testis (SRY, SOX9) or ovary (FOXL2, Rspo1) development in B6-XY(POS) ovotestes by immunofluorescence, using normal testes and ovaries as controls...
  6. Tran S, Lamba P, Wang Y, Bernard D. SMADs and FOXL2 synergistically regulate murine FSHbeta transcription via a conserved proximal promoter element. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1170-83 pubmed publisher
    ..homolog of Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) proteins as well as the forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 (FOXL2)...
  7. Chassot A, Ranc F, Gregoire E, Roepers Gajadien H, Taketo M, Camerino G, et al. Activation of beta-catenin signaling by Rspo1 controls differentiation of the mammalian ovary. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1264-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a balance between Sox9 and beta-catenin activation determines the fate of the gonad, with Rspo1 acting as a crucial regulator of canonical beta-catenin signaling required for female development. ..
  8. Auguste A, Chassot A, Gregoire E, Renault L, Pannetier M, Treier M, et al. Loss of R-spondin1 and Foxl2 amplifies female-to-male sex reversal in XX mice. Sex Dev. 2011;5:304-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, a loss of function mutations in Rspo1 and Foxl2 promote partial female-to-male sex reversal...
  9. Justice N, Blount A, Pelosi E, Schlessinger D, Vale W, Bilezikjian L. Impaired FSHbeta expression in the pituitaries of Foxl2 mutant animals. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1404-15 pubmed publisher
    Forkhead box L2 (FoxL2) is required for ovarian development and differentiation...

More Information


  1. Corpuz P, Lindaman L, Mellon P, Coss D. FoxL2 Is required for activin induction of the mouse and human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit genes. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1037-51 pubmed publisher
    Activin is a major physiological regulator of FSH. We identify FoxL2 as a critical component in activin induction of FSHbeta, both for the mouse gene, induction of which is Sma- and Mad-related protein (Smad) dependent, and for the human ..
  2. Polanco J, Wilhelm D, Davidson T, Knight D, Koopman P. Sox10 gain-of-function causes XX sex reversal in mice: implications for human 22q-linked disorders of sex development. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..1, our results functionally implicate SOX10 in the etiology of these DSDs. ..
  3. Treier M, Gleiberman A, O Connell S, Szeto D, McMahon J, McMahon A, et al. Multistep signaling requirements for pituitary organogenesis in vivo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1691-704 pubmed
  4. Ottolenghi C, Omari S, Garcia Ortiz J, Uda M, Crisponi L, Forabosco A, et al. Foxl2 is required for commitment to ovary differentiation. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2053-62 pubmed
    ..We find that mouse XX gonads lacking the forkhead transcription factor Foxl2 form meiotic prophase oocytes, but then activate the genetic program for somatic testis determination...
  5. Crisponi L, Uda M, Deiana M, Loi A, Nagaraja R, Chiappe F, et al. FOXL2 inactivation by a translocation 171 kb away: analysis of 500 kb of chromosome 3 for candidate long-range regulatory sequences. Genomics. 2004;83:757-64 pubmed
    A translocation breakpoint 171 kb 5' of the transcription start of FOXL2 causes blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) and associated premature ovarian failure...
  6. Cocquet J, Pailhoux E, Jaubert F, Servel N, Xia X, Pannetier M, et al. Evolution and expression of FOXL2. J Med Genet. 2002;39:916-21 pubmed
  7. Tran S, Zhou X, Lafleur C, Calderon M, Ellsworth B, Kimmins S, et al. Impaired fertility and FSH synthesis in gonadotrope-specific Foxl2 knockout mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:407-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we discovered a critical role for forkhead protein L2 (FOXL2) in activin-stimulated FSH ?-subunit (Fshb) transcription in immortalized cells in vitro...
  8. Ellsworth B, Egashira N, Haller J, Butts D, Cocquet J, Clay C, et al. FOXL2 in the pituitary: molecular, genetic, and developmental analysis. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2796-805 pubmed
    b>FOXL2 is a forkhead transcription factor expressed in the eye, ovary, and pituitary gland...
  9. Ottolenghi C, Pelosi E, Tran J, Colombino M, Douglass E, Nedorezov T, et al. Loss of Wnt4 and Foxl2 leads to female-to-male sex reversal extending to germ cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2795-804 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that inactivation of two ovarian somatic factors, Wnt4 and Foxl2, produces testis differentiation in XX mice, resulting in the formation of testis tubules and spermatogonia...
  10. Bouma G, Washburn L, Albrecht K, Eicher E. Correct dosage of Fog2 and Gata4 transcription factors is critical for fetal testis development in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14994-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that in humans the FOG2 and/or GATA4 genes might be haploinsufficient for normal testis determination and thus could be the cause of some previously unassigned cases of XY gonadal sex reversal. ..
  11. Gregoire E, Lavery R, Chassot A, Akiyama H, Treier M, Behringer R, et al. Transient development of ovotestes in XX Sox9 transgenic mice. Dev Biol. 2011;349:65-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, ovarian cells of the XX Wt1:Sox9 ovotestis undergo apoptosis during late embryogenesis leading to complete female-to-male sex reversal of the transgenic mice at birth...
  12. Jameson S, Lin Y, Capel B. Testis development requires the repression of Wnt4 by Fgf signaling. Dev Biol. 2012;370:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we found that the relationship between these two signaling factors is not symmetric: loss of Fgf9 in XX Wnt4(-/-) gonads does not rescue their partial female-to-male sex-reversal. ..
  13. Loffler K, Zarkower D, Koopman P. Etiology of ovarian failure in blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome: FOXL2 is a conserved, early-acting gene in vertebrate ovarian development. Endocrinology. 2003;144:3237-43 pubmed
    ..inversus syndrome (BPES) is a human disorder caused by mutations in the forkhead transcription factor gene FOXL2 and is characterized by facial dysmorphology combined in some cases with ovarian failure...
  14. Chassot A, Gregoire E, Lavery R, Taketo M, de Rooij D, Adams I, et al. RSPO1/?-catenin signaling pathway regulates oogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis in the mouse fetal ovary. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25641 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that RSPO1/?-catenin signaling is involved in meiosis in fetal germ cells and contributes to the cellular decision of germ cells to differentiate into oocyte or sperm...
  15. Lavery R, Lardenois A, Ranc Jianmotamedi F, Pauper E, Gregoire E, Vigier C, et al. XY Sox9 embryonic loss-of-function mouse mutants show complete sex reversal and produce partially fertile XY oocytes. Dev Biol. 2011;354:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we found that XY Sf1:Cre(Tg/+); Sox9(flox/flox) females are capable of producing viable offspring albeit at a reduced level. ..
  16. Ghochani Y, Saini J, Mellon P, Thackray V. FOXL2 is involved in the synergy between activin and progestins on the follicle-stimulating hormone ?-subunit promoter. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that the FOXL2 transcription factor is also necessary for the full synergistic response between activin and progestins...
  17. Pisarska M, Bae J, Klein C, Hsueh A. Forkhead l2 is expressed in the ovary and represses the promoter activity of the steroidogenic acute regulatory gene. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3424-33 pubmed
    ..has been associated with nonsense mutations in the gene encoding a Forkhead transcription factor, Forkhead L2 (FOXL2). However, the exact function of FOXL2 in the ovary is unclear...
  18. Kuroki S, Matoba S, Akiyoshi M, Matsumura Y, Miyachi H, Mise N, et al. Epigenetic regulation of mouse sex determination by the histone demethylase Jmjd1a. Science. 2013;341:1106-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Jmjd1a directly and positively controls Sry expression by regulating H3K9me2 marks. These studies reveal a pivotal role of histone demethylation in mammalian sex determination. ..
  19. Bogani D, Siggers P, Brixey R, Warr N, Beddow S, Edwards J, et al. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP3K4) reveals a requirement for MAPK signalling in mouse sex determination. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000196 pubmed publisher
  20. Schmidt D, Ovitt C, Anlag K, Fehsenfeld S, Gredsted L, Treier A, et al. The murine winged-helix transcription factor Foxl2 is required for granulosa cell differentiation and ovary maintenance. Development. 2004;131:933-42 pubmed
    ..type I is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with premature ovarian failure (POF) caused by mutations in FOXL2, a winged-helix/forkhead domain transcription factor...
  21. Schlessinger D, Garcia Ortiz J, Forabosco A, Uda M, Crisponi L, Pelosi E. Determination and stability of gonadal sex. J Androl. 2010;31:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women; and in animal models, Foxl2 is required for folliculogenesis as well ..
  22. Barrionuevo F, Bagheri Fam S, Klattig J, Kist R, Taketo M, Englert C, et al. Homozygous inactivation of Sox9 causes complete XY sex reversal in mice. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:195-201 pubmed
    ..5 reveals immediate, complete sex reversal, as shown by expression of the early ovary-specific markers Wnt4 and Foxl2 and by lack of testis cord and Leydig cell formation...
  23. Ellsworth B, Burns A, Escudero K, Duval D, Nelson S, Clay C. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor activating sequence (GRAS) is a composite regulatory element that interacts with multiple classes of transcription factors including Smads, AP-1 and a forkhead DNA binding protein. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;206:93-111 pubmed
    ..Finally, a recently identified member of the forkhead family of transcription factors, FoxL2, is also capable of interacting at GRAS...
  24. Uhlenhaut N, Jakob S, Anlag K, Eisenberger T, Sekido R, Kress J, et al. Somatic sex reprogramming of adult ovaries to testes by FOXL2 ablation. Cell. 2009;139:1130-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate in the mouse that a single factor, the forkhead transcriptional regulator FOXL2, is required to prevent transdifferentiation of an adult ovary to a testis...
  25. Uda M, Ottolenghi C, Crisponi L, Garcia J, Deiana M, Kimber W, et al. Foxl2 disruption causes mouse ovarian failure by pervasive blockage of follicle development. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1171-81 pubmed
    b>FOXL2 mutations cause gonadal dysgenesis or premature ovarian failure (POF) in women, as well as eyelid/forehead dysmorphology in both sexes (the 'blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome', BPES)...
  26. Minkina A, Matson C, Lindeman R, Ghyselinck N, Bardwell V, Zarkower D. DMRT1 protects male gonadal cells from retinoid-dependent sexual transdifferentiation. Dev Cell. 2014;29:511-520 pubmed publisher their opposite-sex equivalents by loss of a single transcription factor, DMRT1 in the testis or FOXL2 in the ovary. Here, we investigate what mechanism DMRT1 prevents from triggering transdifferentiation...
  27. Shi F, Ding S, Zhao S, Han M, Zhuang Y, Xu T, et al. A piggyBac insertion disrupts Foxl2 expression that mimics BPES syndrome in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:3792-800 pubmed publisher
    ..While mutations of the forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 are associated with and likely be responsible for many BPES cases, how FOXL2 affects craniofacial development ..
  28. Warr N, Siggers P, Carré G, Bogani D, Brixey R, Akiyoshi M, et al. Transgenic expression of Map3k4 rescues T-associated sex reversal (Tas) in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:3035-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Map3k4 haploinsufficiency is the cause of T-associated sex reversal and that levels of this signalling molecule are a major determinant of the expression profile of Sry. ..
  29. Gustin S, Hogg K, Stringer J, Rastetter R, Pelosi E, Miles D, et al. WNT/β-catenin and p27/FOXL2 differentially regulate supporting cell proliferation in the developing ovary. Dev Biol. 2016;412:250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, XX supporting cells express p27 and FOXL2 and are maintained in mitotic arrest...
  30. Kim S, Weiss J, Tong M, Laronda M, Lee E, Jameson J. Foxl2, a forkhead transcription factor, modulates nonclassical activity of the estrogen receptor-alpha. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5085-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Foxl2 is a forkhead transcription factor required for ovary development and ovarian follicle maturation...
  31. Yang W, Gutierrez N, Wang L, Ellsworth B, Wang C. Synergistic activation of the Mc2r promoter by FOXL2 and NR5A1 in mice. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:842-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Forkhead box protein L2 (FOXL2) is the earliest ovarian marker and plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol and steroid metabolism, inflammation, apoptosis, and ovarian development and function...
  32. Lavery R, Chassot A, Pauper E, Gregoire E, Klopfenstein M, de Rooij D, et al. Testicular differentiation occurs in absence of R-spondin1 and Sox9 in mouse sex reversals. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003170 pubmed publisher
    ..The dogma that considers female differentiation as a default pathway therefore needs to be definitively revised. ..
  33. Wright K, Mahoney Rogers A, Zhang J, Shim K. Cooperative and independent functions of FGF and Wnt signaling during early inner ear development. BMC Dev Biol. 2015;15:33 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest that although specification of the otic placode may be globally regulated by FGF signaling, otic specification of cells in which both FGF and Wnt signaling are active may be more tightly regulated. ..
  34. Dai A, Sun H, Fang T, Zhang Q, Wu S, Jiang Y, et al. MicroRNA-133b stimulates ovarian estradiol synthesis by targeting Foxl2. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:2474-82 pubmed publisher
    Forkhead L2 (Foxl2) is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells and participates in steroidogenesis by transcriptionally regulating target genes such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and CYP19A1...
  35. Herndon M, Nilson J. Maximal expression of Foxl2 in pituitary gonadotropes requires ovarian hormones. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0126527 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent in vivo studies cast SMAD4 and FOXL2 as master transcriptional mediators of activin signaling that act together and independently of GnRH to regulate ..
  36. Gonen N, Quinn A, O Neill H, Koopman P, Lovell Badge R. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006520 pubmed publisher
    ..of Sox9 compared to wild type, and a significant increase in the expression of the granulosa cell marker Foxl2. This indicates that the threshold in mice where sex reversal begins to be seen is about half that of the ~50% ..
  37. Zhang H, Liu L, Li X, Busayavalasa K, Shen Y, Hovatta O, et al. Life-long in vivo cell-lineage tracing shows that no oogenesis originates from putative germline stem cells in adult mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:17983-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By in vivo tracing of oocytes and follicles in the Sohlh1-CreER(T2);R26R and Foxl2-CreER(T2);mT/mG mouse models, respectively, we have shown that the initial pool of oocytes is the only source of ..
  38. Manuylov N, Zhou B, Ma Q, Fox S, Pu W, Tevosian S. Conditional ablation of Gata4 and Fog2 genes in mice reveals their distinct roles in mammalian sexual differentiation. Dev Biol. 2011;353:229-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results now demonstrate that these two genes also have non-overlapping essential functions in testis development. ..
  39. Fleming A, Ghahramani N, Zhu M, Délot E, Vilain E. Membrane ?-catenin and adherens junctions in early gonadal patterning. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1782-98 pubmed publisher
  40. Maatouk D, Mork L, Hinson A, Kobayashi A, McMahon A, Capel B. Germ cells are not required to establish the female pathway in mouse fetal gonads. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47238 pubmed publisher
    ..Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells. ..
  41. Siggers P, Carré G, Bogani D, Warr N, Wells S, Hilton H, et al. A novel mouse Fgfr2 mutant, hobbyhorse (hob), exhibits complete XY gonadal sex reversal. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e100447 pubmed publisher
    ..We exploited the consistent phenotype of this constitutive mutant by analysing MAPK signalling at the sex-determining stage of gonad development, but no significant abnormalities in mutant embryos were detected. ..
  42. Bellessort B, Le Cardinal M, Bachelot A, Narboux Nême N, Garagnani P, Pirazzini C, et al. Dlx5 and Dlx6 control uterine adenogenesis during post-natal maturation: possible consequences for endometriosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:97-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Given their importance for female reproduction, DLX5 and DLX6 must be regarded as interesting targets for future clinical research. ..
  43. Krentz A, Murphy M, Sarver A, Griswold M, Bardwell V, Zarkower D. DMRT1 promotes oogenesis by transcriptional activation of Stra8 in the mammalian fetal ovary. Dev Biol. 2011;356:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus DMRT1 controls Stra8 sex-specifically, activating it in the fetal ovary and repressing it in the adult testis. ..
  44. Bagheri Fam S, Ono M, Li L, Zhao L, Ryan J, Lai R, et al. FGFR2 mutation in 46,XY sex reversal with craniosynostosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6699-710 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study identifies the first FGFR2 mutation in a 46,XY GD patient. We conclude that, in certain rare genetic contexts, maintaining normal levels of FGFR2 signaling is important for human testis determination. ..
  45. Maatouk D, Mork L, Chassot A, Chaboissier M, Capel B. Disruption of mitotic arrest precedes precocious differentiation and transdifferentiation of pregranulosa cells in the perinatal Wnt4 mutant ovary. Dev Biol. 2013;383:295-306 pubmed publisher
    ..This may explain the lack of complete sex reversal in such mutants at the sex-determining stage. ..
  46. Tran S, Wang Y, Lamba P, Zhou X, Boehm U, Bernard D. The CpG island in the murine foxl2 proximal promoter is differentially methylated in primary and immortalized cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76642 pubmed publisher
    Forkhead box L2 (Foxl2), a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, plays important roles in pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and in ovarian maintenance and function...
  47. Levasseur A, Paquet M, Boerboom D, Boyer A. Yes-associated protein and WW-containing transcription regulator 1 regulate the expression of sex-determining genes in Sertoli cells, but their inactivation does not cause sex reversal. Biol Reprod. 2017;97:162-175 pubmed publisher
    ..genes Dhh, Dmrt1, Sox9, and Wt1, whereas those of genes involved in female differentiation (Wnt4, Rspo1, and Foxl2) were induced...
  48. Liu C, Peng J, Matzuk M, Yao H. Lineage specification of ovarian theca cells requires multicellular interactions via oocyte and granulosa cells. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6934 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide the first genetic evidence for the origins of theca cells and reveal a multicellular interaction critical for the formation of a functional theca. ..
  49. Sarraj M, Drummond A. Mammalian foetal ovarian development: consequences for health and disease. Reproduction. 2012;143:151-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of these early cellular and morphological events will facilitate further study into the regulation of oocyte development, manifestation of ovarian disease and basis of female infertility. ..
  50. Meng Q, Mongan M, Carreira V, Kurita H, Liu C, Kao W, et al. Eyelid closure in embryogenesis is required for ocular adnexa development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:7652-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to providing a protective barrier for the ocular surface, eyelid closure in embryogenesis is required for the development of ocular adnexa, including eyelid and extraocular muscles. ..
  51. Ludbrook L, Bernard P, Bagheri Fam S, Ryan J, Sekido R, Wilhelm D, et al. Excess DAX1 leads to XY ovotesticular disorder of sex development (DSD) in mice by inhibiting steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) activation of the testis enhancer of SRY-box-9 (Sox9). Endocrinology. 2012;153:1948-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In cultured cells, increasing levels of DAX1 antagonized SF1-, SF1/SRY-, and SF1/SOX9-mediated activation of TES, due to reduced binding of SF1 to TES, providing a likely mechanism for DSS. ..
  52. Nicol B, Yao H. Gonadal Identity in the Absence of Pro-Testis Factor SOX9 and Pro-Ovary Factor Beta-Catenin in Mice. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings not only provide insight into the mechanism of sex determination, but also identify candidate genes that are potentially involved in disorders of sex development. ..
  53. Takasawa K, Kashimada K, Pelosi E, Takagi M, Morio T, Asahara H, et al. FOXL2 transcriptionally represses Sf1 expression by antagonizing WT1 during ovarian development in mice. FASEB J. 2014;28:2020-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that Sf1 is repressed by the transcription factor Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) during ovarian development...
  54. Arora R, Altman E, Tran N, Laird D. Novel domains of expression for orphan receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 in the human and mouse reproductive system. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:1037-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sets the stage to explore function for this tyrosine kinase receptor in novel regions of expression in the developing reproductive system in both mouse and human. ..
  55. Arora R, Abby E, Ross A, Cantu A, Kissner M, Castro V, et al. Meiotic onset is reliant on spatial distribution but independent of germ cell number in the mouse ovary. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:2493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our studies underscore the importance of considering germ cell migration defects while studying meiosis to discern secondary effects resulting from positioning versus primary meiotic entry phenotypes. ..
  56. Fortin J, Ongaro L, Li Y, Tran S, Lamba P, Wang Y, et al. Minireview: Activin Signaling in Gonadotropes: What Does the FOX say… to the SMAD?. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:963-77 pubmed publisher
    ..molecules SMAD3 and SMAD4 appear to partner with the winged-helix/forkhead transcription factor, forkhead box L2 (FOXL2), to regulate expression of all 3 genes. However, in vivo data paint a different picture...
  57. Kioussi C, O Connell S, St Onge L, Treier M, Gleiberman A, Gruss P, et al. Pax6 is essential for establishing ventral-dorsal cell boundaries in pituitary gland development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14378-82 pubmed
    ..becomes ventralized, with dorsal extension of the transcriptional determinants of ventral cell types, particularly PFrk. This ventralization is followed by a marked decrease in terminally differentiated dorsal somatotrope and ..
  58. Fortin J, Boehm U, Deng C, Treier M, Bernard D. Follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and fertility depend on SMAD4 and FOXL2. FASEB J. 2014;28:3396-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, when the Smad4 gene is ablated in combination with its DNA binding cofactor Foxl2 in gonadotrope cells, mice make essentially no FSH and females are sterile...
  59. Marongiu M, Deiana M, Meloni A, Marcia L, Puddu A, Cao A, et al. The forkhead transcription factor Foxl2 is sumoylated in both human and mouse: sumoylation affects its stability, localization, and activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9477 pubmed publisher
    The FOXL2 forkhead transcription factor is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells, and mutated FOXL2 causes the blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) and predisposes to premature ovarian failure...
  60. Brinkmeier M, Potok M, Davis S, Camper S. TCF4 deficiency expands ventral diencephalon signaling and increases induction of pituitary progenitors. Dev Biol. 2007;311:396-407 pubmed
    ..Thus, TCF4 is necessary both intrinsically and extrinsically to Rathke's pouch to ensure the proper growth of the pituitary gland. ..
  61. Wainwright E, Jorgensen J, Kim Y, Truong V, Bagheri Fam S, Davidson T, et al. SOX9 regulates microRNA miR-202-5p/3p expression during mouse testis differentiation. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that expression of the conserved gonad microRNA, miR-202-5p/3p, is downstream of the testis-determining factor SOX9, suggesting an early role in testis development. ..
  62. Koizumi M, Oyama K, Yamakami Y, Kida T, Satoh R, Kato S, et al. Lgr4 controls specialization of female gonads in mice. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that Lgr4 is critical for ovarian somatic cell specialization via the cooperative signaling of Rspo1 and Wnt/beta-catenin. ..
  63. Thackray V. Fox tales: regulation of gonadotropin gene expression by forkhead transcription factors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;385:62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on the role of four specific FOX factors (FOXD1, FOXL2, FOXO1 and FOXP3) in gonadotropin hormone production and discuss our current understanding of the molecular ..
  64. Bellessort B, Bachelot A, Heude Ã, Alfama G, Fontaine A, Le Cardinal M, et al. Role of Foxl2 in uterine maturation and function. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:3092-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Foxl2 codes for a forkhead/HNF3 transcription factor essential for follicular maturation and maintenance of ovarian identity...
  65. Ng A, Tan S, Singh G, Rizk P, Swathi Y, Tan T, et al. Lgr5 marks stem/progenitor cells in ovary and tubal epithelia. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult Lgr5(+) populations maintain OSE homeostasis and ovulatory regenerative repair in vivo. Thus, Lgr5 marks stem/progenitor cells of the ovary and tubal epithelia. ..
  66. Otsuka S, Konno A, Hashimoto Y, Sasaki N, Endoh D, Kon Y. Oocytes in newborn MRL mouse testes. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that newborn male MRL/MpJ mice with XY chromosomes can produce oocytes in their testes and that one of the genes causing this exists on the Y chromosome. ..
  67. Cocquet J, De Baere E, Gareil M, Pannetier M, Xia X, Fellous M, et al. Structure, evolution and expression of the FOXL2 transcription unit. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2003;101:206-11 pubmed publisher
    b>FOXL2 is a putative transcription factor involved in ovarian development and function. Its mutations in humans are responsible for the blepharophimosis syndrome, characterized by eyelid malformations and premature ovarian failure (POF)...
  68. Georges A, L Hôte D, Todeschini A, Auguste A, Legois B, Zider A, et al. The transcription factor FOXL2 mobilizes estrogen signaling to maintain the identity of ovarian granulosa cells. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    b>FOXL2 is a lineage determining transcription factor in the ovary, but its direct targets and modes of action are not fully characterized...
  69. Naillat F, Prunskaite Hyyryläinen R, Pietilä I, Sormunen R, Jokela T, Shan J, et al. Wnt4/5a signalling coordinates cell adhesion and entry into meiosis during presumptive ovarian follicle development. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1539-50 pubmed publisher
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    ..showed that Cyp26b1 up-regulation by SOX9/SF1 was attenuated by the ovarian transcription factor Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) in TM3 cells, whereas in Foxl2-null mice, Cyp26b1 expression in XX gonads was increased ?20-fold relative to WT ..
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    ..Together, the data support a model in which AP-1 family members contribute to Sox9 action in the transition of chondrocytes to the hypertrophic program. ..