Foxg1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Foxg1
Description: forkhead box G1
Alias: 2900064B05Rik, BF-1, Bf1, Hfh9, Hfhbf1, forkhead box protein G1, HNF-3/forkhead homolog, brain factor 1, forkhead-related protein FKHL1
Species: mouse
Products:     Foxg1

Top Publications

  1. Kiernan A, Xu J, Gridley T. The Notch ligand JAG1 is required for sensory progenitor development in the mammalian inner ear. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e4 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that JAG1-mediated Notch signaling is essential during early development for establishing the prosensory regions of the inner ear. ..
  2. Pauley S, Lai E, Fritzsch B. Foxg1 is required for morphogenesis and histogenesis of the mammalian inner ear. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2470-82 pubmed
    ..Several Fox genes (Foxi1, Foxg1) are expressed in the developing otocyst of both zebrafish and mammals...
  3. Fotaki V, Yu T, Zaki P, Mason J, Price D. Abnormal positioning of diencephalic cell types in neocortical tissue in the dorsal telencephalon of mice lacking functional Gli3. J Neurosci. 2006;26:9282-92 pubmed
    ..We observed occasional cells with diencephalic character in the Foxg1 (forkhead box)-expressing Gli3(Xt/Xt) telencephalon at embryonic day 10...
  4. Duggan C, DeMaria S, Baudhuin A, Stafford D, Ngai J. Foxg1 is required for development of the vertebrate olfactory system. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We show in both mouse and zebrafish that the winged helix transcription factor Foxg1 is expressed in an early progenitor population of the olfactory placode...
  5. Martynoga B, Morrison H, Price D, Mason J. Foxg1 is required for specification of ventral telencephalon and region-specific regulation of dorsal telencephalic precursor proliferation and apoptosis. Dev Biol. 2005;283:113-27 pubmed
    Null mutation of the Foxg1 gene causes hypoplasia of the mouse telencephalon and loss of ventral telencephalic structures. We show that a crucial early requirement for Foxg1 is in the induction of ventral cell fate in the telencephalon...
  6. Herrera E, Marcus R, Li S, Williams S, Erskine L, Lai E, et al. Foxd1 is required for proper formation of the optic chiasm. Development. 2004;131:5727-39 pubmed
    ..retina, proteins designating the ipsilateral projection, such as Zic2 and EphB1, are missing, and the domain of Foxg1 (BF-1) expands from nasal retina into the VT crescent...
  7. Zhang Z, Cerrato F, Xu H, Vitelli F, Morishima M, Vincentz J, et al. Tbx1 expression in pharyngeal epithelia is necessary for pharyngeal arch artery development. Development. 2005;132:5307-15 pubmed
    ..We also thereby demonstrate conclusively that the role of Tbx1 in fourth PAA development is cell non-autonomous...
  8. Dou C, Lee J, Liu B, Liu F, Massague J, Xuan S, et al. BF-1 interferes with transforming growth factor beta signaling by associating with Smad partners. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6201-11 pubmed
    The winged-helix (WH) BF-1 gene, which encodes brain factor 1 (BF-1) (also known as foxg1), is essential for the proliferation of the progenitor cells of the cerebral cortex...
  9. Manuel M, Martynoga B, Yu T, West J, Mason J, Price D. The transcription factor Foxg1 regulates the competence of telencephalic cells to adopt subpallial fates in mice. Development. 2010;137:487-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Foxg1 is required for development of the ventral telencephalon in the embryonic mammalian forebrain...
  10. Kiernan A, Cordes R, Kopan R, Gossler A, Gridley T. The Notch ligands DLL1 and JAG2 act synergistically to regulate hair cell development in the mammalian inner ear. Development. 2005;132:4353-62 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the Notch pathway plays a dual role in regulating cellular differentiation and patterning in the cochlea, acting both through lateral inhibition and the control of cellular proliferation...

Detail Information

Publications67

  1. Kiernan A, Xu J, Gridley T. The Notch ligand JAG1 is required for sensory progenitor development in the mammalian inner ear. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e4 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that JAG1-mediated Notch signaling is essential during early development for establishing the prosensory regions of the inner ear. ..
  2. Pauley S, Lai E, Fritzsch B. Foxg1 is required for morphogenesis and histogenesis of the mammalian inner ear. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2470-82 pubmed
    ..Several Fox genes (Foxi1, Foxg1) are expressed in the developing otocyst of both zebrafish and mammals...
  3. Fotaki V, Yu T, Zaki P, Mason J, Price D. Abnormal positioning of diencephalic cell types in neocortical tissue in the dorsal telencephalon of mice lacking functional Gli3. J Neurosci. 2006;26:9282-92 pubmed
    ..We observed occasional cells with diencephalic character in the Foxg1 (forkhead box)-expressing Gli3(Xt/Xt) telencephalon at embryonic day 10...
  4. Duggan C, DeMaria S, Baudhuin A, Stafford D, Ngai J. Foxg1 is required for development of the vertebrate olfactory system. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We show in both mouse and zebrafish that the winged helix transcription factor Foxg1 is expressed in an early progenitor population of the olfactory placode...
  5. Martynoga B, Morrison H, Price D, Mason J. Foxg1 is required for specification of ventral telencephalon and region-specific regulation of dorsal telencephalic precursor proliferation and apoptosis. Dev Biol. 2005;283:113-27 pubmed
    Null mutation of the Foxg1 gene causes hypoplasia of the mouse telencephalon and loss of ventral telencephalic structures. We show that a crucial early requirement for Foxg1 is in the induction of ventral cell fate in the telencephalon...
  6. Herrera E, Marcus R, Li S, Williams S, Erskine L, Lai E, et al. Foxd1 is required for proper formation of the optic chiasm. Development. 2004;131:5727-39 pubmed
    ..retina, proteins designating the ipsilateral projection, such as Zic2 and EphB1, are missing, and the domain of Foxg1 (BF-1) expands from nasal retina into the VT crescent...
  7. Zhang Z, Cerrato F, Xu H, Vitelli F, Morishima M, Vincentz J, et al. Tbx1 expression in pharyngeal epithelia is necessary for pharyngeal arch artery development. Development. 2005;132:5307-15 pubmed
    ..We also thereby demonstrate conclusively that the role of Tbx1 in fourth PAA development is cell non-autonomous...
  8. Dou C, Lee J, Liu B, Liu F, Massague J, Xuan S, et al. BF-1 interferes with transforming growth factor beta signaling by associating with Smad partners. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6201-11 pubmed
    The winged-helix (WH) BF-1 gene, which encodes brain factor 1 (BF-1) (also known as foxg1), is essential for the proliferation of the progenitor cells of the cerebral cortex...
  9. Manuel M, Martynoga B, Yu T, West J, Mason J, Price D. The transcription factor Foxg1 regulates the competence of telencephalic cells to adopt subpallial fates in mice. Development. 2010;137:487-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Foxg1 is required for development of the ventral telencephalon in the embryonic mammalian forebrain...
  10. Kiernan A, Cordes R, Kopan R, Gossler A, Gridley T. The Notch ligands DLL1 and JAG2 act synergistically to regulate hair cell development in the mammalian inner ear. Development. 2005;132:4353-62 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the Notch pathway plays a dual role in regulating cellular differentiation and patterning in the cochlea, acting both through lateral inhibition and the control of cellular proliferation...
  11. Hanashima C, Fernandes M, Hebert J, Fishell G. The role of Foxg1 and dorsal midline signaling in the generation of Cajal-Retzius subtypes. J Neurosci. 2007;27:11103-11 pubmed
    ..bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt (wingless-type MMTV integration site family) expression but lacking in Foxg1 (forkhead box G1) is a major source of CR neurons...
  12. Wang W, Chan E, Baron S, Van de Water T, Lufkin T. Hmx2 homeobox gene control of murine vestibular morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5017-29 pubmed
  13. Higginbotham H, Guo J, Yokota Y, Umberger N, Su C, Li J, et al. Arl13b-regulated cilia activities are essential for polarized radial glial scaffold formation. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1000-7 pubmed publisher
  14. Manuel M, Martynoga B, Molinek M, Quinn J, Kroemmer C, Mason J, et al. The transcription factor Foxg1 regulates telencephalic progenitor proliferation cell autonomously, in part by controlling Pax6 expression levels. Neural Dev. 2011;6:9 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor Foxg1 is an important regulator of telencephalic cell cycles...
  15. Duncan J, Fritzsch B. Continued expression of GATA3 is necessary for cochlear neurosensory development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62046 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Foxg1(Cre)?Gata3(f/f) mice show recombination of Gata3 around E8...
  16. Yao J, Lai E, Stifani S. The winged-helix protein brain factor 1 interacts with groucho and hes proteins to repress transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1962-72 pubmed
  17. Yu T, Fotaki V, Mason J, Price D. Analysis of early ventral telencephalic defects in mice lacking functional Gli3 protein. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:613-27 pubmed publisher
    ..1, Mash1, and Foxg1 and its lack of expression of Pax6. We found that at embryonic day (E)10...
  18. Jacques B, Montcouquiol M, Layman E, Lewandoski M, Kelley M. Fgf8 induces pillar cell fate and regulates cellular patterning in the mammalian cochlea. Development. 2007;134:3021-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PCs might exist in a transient state of differentiation that makes them potential targets for regenerative therapies. ..
  19. Hatini V, Tao W, Lai E. Expression of winged helix genes, BF-1 and BF-2, define adjacent domains within the developing forebrain and retina. J Neurobiol. 1994;25:1293-309 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that in addition to playing a role in the subdivision of the forebrain, these two WH factors may also function to establish positional information in the retinal neuroepithelium. ..
  20. Kawauchi S, Shou J, Santos R, Hebert J, McConnell S, Mason I, et al. Fgf8 expression defines a morphogenetic center required for olfactory neurogenesis and nasal cavity development in the mouse. Development. 2005;132:5211-23 pubmed
  21. Hebert J, McConnell S. Targeting of cre to the Foxg1 (BF-1) locus mediates loxP recombination in the telencephalon and other developing head structures. Dev Biol. 2000;222:296-306 pubmed
    ..A mouse line was produced in which cre was targeted to the Foxg1 (BF-1) locus, a gene expressed specifically in the telencephalon and discrete head structures...
  22. Kopecky B, Santi P, Johnson S, Schmitz H, Fritzsch B. Conditional deletion of N-Myc disrupts neurosensory and non-sensory development of the ear. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1373-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the function of N-Myc, we conditionally knocked out N-Myc in the ear using Tg(Pax2-Cre) and Foxg1(KiCre)...
  23. Storm E, Garel S, Borello U, Hebert J, Martinez S, McConnell S, et al. Dose-dependent functions of Fgf8 in regulating telencephalic patterning centers. Development. 2006;133:1831-44 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that the hypoplasia results from decreased Foxg1 expression, reduced cell proliferation and increased cell death...
  24. Gutin G, Fernandes M, Palazzolo L, Paek H, Yu K, Ornitz D, et al. FGF signalling generates ventral telencephalic cells independently of SHH. Development. 2006;133:2937-46 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the Fgfr1;Fgfr2 phenotype, unlike the Shh phenotype, is not rescued by loss of Gli3, further indicating that FGFs act downstream of Shh and Gli3 to generate ventral telencephalic cell types. ..
  25. Marcus R, Shimamura K, Sretavan D, Lai E, Rubenstein J, Mason C. Domains of regulatory gene expression and the developing optic chiasm: correspondence with retinal axon paths and candidate signaling cells. J Comp Neurol. 1999;403:346-58 pubmed
    ..Together, these data support the hypothesis that molecularly distinct, longitudinally aligned domains in the forebrain regulate the pattern of retinal axon projections in the developing hypothalamus. ..
  26. Marcal N, Patel H, Dong Z, Belanger Jasmin S, Hoffman B, Helgason C, et al. Antagonistic effects of Grg6 and Groucho/TLE on the transcription repression activity of brain factor 1/FoxG1 and cortical neuron differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10916-29 pubmed
    ..In particular, Gro/TLE1 interacts with forkhead transcription factor brain factor 1 (BF-1; also termed FoxG1)...
  27. O Hara L, Welsh M, Saunders P, Smith L. Androgen receptor expression in the caput epididymal epithelium is essential for development of the initial segment and epididymal spermatozoa transit. Endocrinology. 2011;152:718-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that epithelial AR signaling is essential for postnatal development and function of the epididymal epithelium and that disruption of this signaling can contribute to obstructive azoospermia...
  28. Tian N, Pratt T, Price D. Foxg1 regulates retinal axon pathfinding by repressing an ipsilateral program in nasal retina and by causing optic chiasm cells to exert a net axonal growth-promoting activity. Development. 2008;135:4081-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigate how development of these patterns of projection is regulated by the contralateral determinant Foxg1, a forkhead box transcription factor expressed in nasal retina and at the chiasm...
  29. Muzio L, Mallamaci A. Foxg1 confines Cajal-Retzius neuronogenesis and hippocampal morphogenesis to the dorsomedial pallium. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4435-41 pubmed
    ..b>Foxg1, encoding for one of these factors, previously was reported to be necessary for basal ganglia morphogenesis, ..
  30. Hanashima C, Shen L, Li S, Lai E. Brain factor-1 controls the proliferation and differentiation of neocortical progenitor cells through independent mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2002;22:6526-36 pubmed
    The winged helix gene Brain factor-1 (BF1) has a pleiotropic role in the development of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Mice lacking BF1 have defects in the morphogenesis of the structures of the dorsal telencephalon (e.g...
  31. Ding J, Yang L, Yan Y, Chen A, Desai N, Wynshaw Boris A, et al. Cripto is required for correct orientation of the anterior-posterior axis in the mouse embryo. Nature. 1998;395:702-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Cripto signalling is essential for the conversion of a proximal-distal asymmetry into an orthogonal anterior-posterior axis. ..
  32. Seah C, Levy M, Jiang Y, Mokhtarzada S, Higgs D, Gibbons R, et al. Neuronal death resulting from targeted disruption of the Snf2 protein ATRX is mediated by p53. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings show that ATRX deficiency leads to p53-dependent neuronal apoptosis which is responsible for some but not all of the phenotypic consequences of ATRX deficiency in the forebrain. ..
  33. Warr N, Powles Glover N, Chappell A, Robson J, Norris D, Arkell R. Zic2-associated holoprosencephaly is caused by a transient defect in the organizer region during gastrulation. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2986-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis provides genetic evidence that Zic2 functions during organizer formation and that the PCP develops via a multi-step process. ..
  34. Seoane J, Le H, Shen L, Anderson S, Massague J. Integration of Smad and forkhead pathways in the control of neuroepithelial and glioblastoma cell proliferation. Cell. 2004;117:211-23 pubmed
    ..FoxO Forkhead transcription factors are shown here to act as signal transducers at the confluence of Smad, PI3K, and FoxG1 pathways...
  35. Burton Q, Cole L, Mulheisen M, Chang W, Wu D. The role of Pax2 in mouse inner ear development. Dev Biol. 2004;272:161-75 pubmed
  36. Hartman B, Reh T, Bermingham McDonogh O. Notch signaling specifies prosensory domains via lateral induction in the developing mammalian inner ear. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15792-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a model where activation of Notch and propagation through lateral induction promote prosensory character in specific regions of the developing otocyst. ..
  37. Tao W, Lai E. Telencephalon-restricted expression of BF-1, a new member of the HNF-3/fork head gene family, in the developing rat brain. Neuron. 1992;8:957-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that BF-1 plays an important role in the establishment of the regional subdivision of the developing brain and in the development of the telencephalon. ..
  38. Pirvola U, Ylikoski J, Trokovic R, Hebert J, McConnell S, Partanen J. FGFR1 is required for the development of the auditory sensory epithelium. Neuron. 2002;35:671-80 pubmed
    ..Full inactivation of Fgfr1 in the inner ear epithelium by Foxg1-Cre-mediated deletion leads to an 85% reduction in the number of auditory hair cells...
  39. Rodriguez S, Sickles H, Deleonardis C, Alcaraz A, Gridley T, Lin D. Notch2 is required for maintaining sustentacular cell function in the adult mouse main olfactory epithelium. Dev Biol. 2008;314:40-58 pubmed
  40. Pratt T, Tian N, Simpson T, Mason J, Price D. The winged helix transcription factor Foxg1 facilitates retinal ganglion cell axon crossing of the ventral midline in the mouse. Development. 2004;131:3773-84 pubmed
    ..The transcription factor Foxg1 (also known as BF1) is expressed at several key locations along this pathway...
  41. Chang W, Lin Z, Kulessa H, Hebert J, Hogan B, Wu D. Bmp4 is essential for the formation of the vestibular apparatus that detects angular head movements. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000050 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that, in comparison to sensory bristles, crista formation within the inner ear requires an additional step of sensory and non-sensory fate specification...
  42. Ohkubo Y, Chiang C, Rubenstein J. Coordinate regulation and synergistic actions of BMP4, SHH and FGF8 in the rostral prosencephalon regulate morphogenesis of the telencephalic and optic vesicles. Neuroscience. 2002;111:1-17 pubmed
  43. Puligilla C, Feng F, Ishikawa K, Bertuzzi S, Dabdoub A, Griffith A, et al. Disruption of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 signaling results in defects in cellular differentiation, neuronal patterning, and hearing impairment. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1905-17 pubmed
  44. Shimamura K, Rubenstein J. Inductive interactions direct early regionalization of the mouse forebrain. Development. 1997;124:2709-18 pubmed
    ..The anterior neural ridge is essential for expression of BF1, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for regionalization and growth of the telencephalic and optic ..
  45. Regad T, Roth M, Bredenkamp N, Illing N, Papalopulu N. The neural progenitor-specifying activity of FoxG1 is antagonistically regulated by CKI and FGF. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:531-40 pubmed
    b>FoxG1 is an evolutionarily conserved, winged-helix transcriptional repressor that maintains progenitor cells in the vertebrate forebrain. How the activity of FoxG1 is regulated is not known...
  46. Dou C, Li S, Lai E. Dual role of brain factor-1 in regulating growth and patterning of the cerebral hemispheres. Cereb Cortex. 1999;9:543-50 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that BF-1 may modulate both progenitor cell proliferation and regional patterning by regulating the expression or activity of inductive signals which act on the telencephalic neuroepithelium. ..
  47. Hebert J, Lin M, Partanen J, Rossant J, McConnell S. FGF signaling through FGFR1 is required for olfactory bulb morphogenesis. Development. 2003;130:1101-11 pubmed
    ..Together the results demonstrate an essential role for Fgfr1 in patterning and morphogenesis of the telencephalon. ..
  48. Yamamoto N, Chang W, Kelley M. Rbpj regulates development of prosensory cells in the mammalian inner ear. Dev Biol. 2011;353:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest important roles for Rbpj and notch signaling in multiple aspects of inner ear development including prosensory cell maturation, cellular differentiation and survival. ..
  49. Fotaki V, Price D, Mason J. Wnt/?-catenin signaling is disrupted in the extra-toes (Gli3(Xt/Xt) ) mutant from early stages of forebrain development, concomitant with anterior neural plate patterning defects. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1640-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal that Gli3 is required at the neural plate stage to regulate Wnt expression and Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the presumptive forebrain and confirm its previously proposed role in patterning the anterior neural plate. ..
  50. Huh S, Hatini V, Marcus R, Li S, Lai E. Dorsal-ventral patterning defects in the eye of BF-1-deficient mice associated with a restricted loss of shh expression. Dev Biol. 1999;211:53-63 pubmed
    ..This localized deficit in shh expression may also contribute to the prominence of the ventral defects in the telencephalon of the BF-1(-/-) mutant. ..
  51. Carreres M, Escalante A, Murillo B, Chauvin G, Gaspar P, Vegar C, et al. Transcription factor Foxd1 is required for the specification of the temporal retina in mammals. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results indicate that Foxd1 functions as a conserved determinant of temporal identity but reveal that the downstream effectors, and likely their mechanisms of action, are different in mammals and birds. ..
  52. Wang W, Grimmer J, Van De Water T, Lufkin T. Hmx2 and Hmx3 homeobox genes direct development of the murine inner ear and hypothalamus and can be functionally replaced by Drosophila Hmx. Dev Cell. 2004;7:439-53 pubmed
  53. Kawauchi S, Kim J, Santos R, Wu H, Lander A, Calof A. Foxg1 promotes olfactory neurogenesis by antagonizing Gdf11. Development. 2009;136:1453-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Foxg1, a winged-helix transcription factor, promotes the development of anterior neural structures; in mice lacking Foxg1, development of the cerebral hemispheres and olfactory epithelium (OE) is severely reduced...
  54. Kersigo J, D Angelo A, Gray B, Soukup G, Fritzsch B. The role of sensory organs and the forebrain for the development of the craniofacial shape as revealed by Foxg1-cre-mediated microRNA loss. Genesis. 2011;49:326-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that the transcription factor Foxg1 is essential the for development of the telencephalon, olfactory epithelium, parts of the eye and the ear...
  55. Xuan S, Baptista C, Balas G, Tao W, Soares V, Lai E. Winged helix transcription factor BF-1 is essential for the development of the cerebral hemispheres. Neuron. 1995;14:1141-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that BF-1 controls the morphogenesis of the telencephalon by regulating the rate of neuroepithelial cell proliferation and the timing of neuronal differentiation. ..
  56. Tian C, Gong Y, Yang Y, Shen W, Wang K, Liu J, et al. Foxg1 has an essential role in postnatal development of the dentate gyrus. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2931-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Foxg1, formerly BF-1, is expressed continuously in the postnatal and adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG)...
  57. Yamamoto N, Okano T, Ma X, Adelstein R, Kelley M. Myosin II regulates extension, growth and patterning in the mammalian cochlear duct. Development. 2009;136:1977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also provide insights into the cellular mechanisms that are required for the formation of highly ordered cellular patterns...
  58. Hanashima C, Li S, Shen L, Lai E, Fishell G. Foxg1 suppresses early cortical cell fate. Science. 2004;303:56-9 pubmed
    ..of the earliest born neurons, the Cajal-Retzius cells, is suppressed by the telencephalic transcription factor Foxg1. In Foxg1 null mutants, we observed an excess of Cajal-Retzius neuron production in the cortex...
  59. Brooker R, Hozumi K, Lewis J. Notch ligands with contrasting functions: Jagged1 and Delta1 in the mouse inner ear. Development. 2006;133:1277-86 pubmed
    ..Our findings confirm that Notch signalling in the ear has distinct prosensory and lateral-inhibitory functions, for which different ligands are primarily responsible. ..
  60. Martinez Barbera J, Clements M, Thomas P, Rodriguez T, Meloy D, Kioussis D, et al. The homeobox gene Hex is required in definitive endodermal tissues for normal forebrain, liver and thyroid formation. Development. 2000;127:2433-45 pubmed
    ..All together, these results demonstrate that Hex function is essential in definitive endoderm for normal development of the forebrain, liver and thyroid gland. ..
  61. Arnold J, Braunstein E, Ohyama T, Groves A, Adams J, Brown M, et al. Tissue-specific roles of Tbx1 in the development of the outer, middle and inner ear, defective in 22q11DS patients. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1629-39 pubmed
    ..first pharyngeal pouch (PPI) in forming outer and middle ears, we tissue-specifically inactivated the gene using Foxg1-Cre. In the conditional mutants, PPI failed to outgrow, preventing the middle ear bone condensations from forming...
  62. Arnold J, Werling U, Braunstein E, Liao J, Nowotschin S, Edelmann W, et al. Inactivation of Tbx1 in the pharyngeal endoderm results in 22q11DS malformations. Development. 2006;133:977-87 pubmed
    ..To assess the role of Tbx1 in the PE, a conditional allele of Tbx1 was generated using the Cre/loxP system. Foxg1-Cre was used to drive PE-specific ablation of Tbx1...
  63. Dominguez Frutos E, López Hernández I, Vendrell V, Neves J, Gallozzi M, Gutsche K, et al. N-myc controls proliferation, morphogenesis, and patterning of the inner ear. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7178-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that N-myc regulates growth, morphogenesis, and pattern formation during the development of the inner ear. ..
  64. Tole S, Gutin G, Bhatnagar L, Remedios R, Hebert J. Development of midline cell types and commissural axon tracts requires Fgfr1 in the cerebrum. Dev Biol. 2006;289:141-51 pubmed
  65. Zhao L, Zevallos S, Rizzoti K, Jeong Y, Lovell Badge R, Epstein D. Disruption of SoxB1-dependent Sonic hedgehog expression in the hypothalamus causes septo-optic dysplasia. Dev Cell. 2012;22:585-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that reduced levels of Shh expression in the hypothalamus cause SOD. ..
  66. Kelly M, Chang Q, Pan A, Lin X, Chen P. Atoh1 directs the formation of sensory mosaics and induces cell proliferation in the postnatal mammalian cochlea in vivo. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6699-710 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Atoh1 also activates proliferation within the normally postmitotic cochlear epithelium. These results provide insight into the potential and limitations of Atoh1-mediated hair cell regeneration...
  67. Wang Y, Martin J, Bai C. Direct and indirect requirements of Shh/Gli signaling in early pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2010;348:199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore suggest both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous requirements for Gli2 in regulation of pituitary progenitor specification, proliferation and differentiation. ..