follicle stimulating hormone receptor


Gene Symbol: follicle stimulating hormone receptor
Description: follicle stimulating hormone receptor
Alias: follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, follitropin receptor
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. Kumar T, Wang Y, Lu N, Matzuk M. Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility. Nat Genet. 1997;15:201-4 pubmed
    ..Our findings have important implications for male contraceptive development in humans. ..
  2. O Shaughnessy P, Monteiro A, Abel M. Testicular development in mice lacking receptors for follicle stimulating hormone and androgen. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35136 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-pubertally, germ cell numbers and spermatogenesis are dependent on FSH and androgen action through the Sertoli cells. ..
  3. Dierich A, Sairam M, Monaco L, Fimia G, Gansmuller A, LeMeur M, et al. Impairing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) signaling in vivo: targeted disruption of the FSH receptor leads to aberrant gametogenesis and hormonal imbalance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13612-7 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of FSH-R -/- mice is reminiscent of human hypergonadotropic ovarian dysgenesis and infertility. ..
  4. Abel M, Baker P, Charlton H, Monteiro A, Verhoeven G, De Gendt K, et al. Spermatogenesis and sertoli cell activity in mice lacking sertoli cell receptors for follicle-stimulating hormone and androgen. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the Sertoli cell retains a significant capacity for activity, which is independent of direct hormonal regulation. ..
  5. Hirst R, Abel M, Wilkins V, Simpson C, Knight P, Zhang F, et al. Influence of mutations affecting gonadotropin production or responsiveness on expression of inhibin subunit mRNA and protein in the mouse ovary. Reproduction. 2004;128:43-52 pubmed
    ..The high percentage of antral granulosa cells is likely to account for the significantly higher levels of inhibin B production in these ovaries. ..
  6. Abel M, Wootton A, Wilkins V, Huhtaniemi I, Knight P, Charlton H. The effect of a null mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene on mouse reproduction. Endocrinology. 2000;141:1795-803 pubmed
    ..In the male, however, inability to respond to FSH does not impair fertility, although testicular weight is reduced, and feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotropins and intratesticular paracrine interactions may be disturbed. ..
  7. Johnston H, Baker P, Abel M, Charlton H, Jackson G, Fleming L, et al. Regulation of Sertoli cell number and activity by follicle-stimulating hormone and androgen during postnatal development in the mouse. Endocrinology. 2004;145:318-29 pubmed
    ..Specific effects of androgens were not seen in the adult, although these may be masked by the effects of cryptorchidism. ..
  8. Baker P, Pakarinen P, Huhtaniemi I, Abel M, Charlton H, Kumar T, et al. Failure of normal Leydig cell development in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor-deficient mice, but not FSHbeta-deficient mice: role for constitutive FSH receptor activity. Endocrinology. 2003;144:138-45 pubmed
    ..The presence of the hormone itself is not required when circulating LH levels are adequate. ..
  9. Zhang S, Li W, Zhu C, Wang X, Li Z, Zhang J, et al. Sertoli cell-specific expression of metastasis-associated protein 2 (MTA2) is required for transcriptional regulation of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene during spermatogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40471-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also underscore an unexpected reproductive facet of MTA2, which may operate as a novel integrator linking synergistic actions of FSH and androgen signaling in SCs. ..

More Information


  1. Tong G, Heng B, Ng S. Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2007;8:533-9 pubmed
    ..This would imply that the poor preimplantation developmental competence of SCNT embryos derived from cumulus cells is due to incomplete reprogramming of other embryonic genes, rather than cumulus-specific genes. ..
  2. Zhu L, BLAIR H, Cao J, Yuen T, Latif R, Guo L, et al. Blocking antibody to the ?-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the data prompt the future development of an FSH-blocking agent as a means of uncoupling bone formation and bone resorption to a therapeutic advantage in humans. ..
  3. Rumora L, Lovric J, Sairam M, Maysinger D. Impairments of heat shock protein expression and MAPK translocation in the central nervous system of follitropin receptor knockout mice. Exp Gerontol. 2007;42:619-28 pubmed
    ..Their regulation is disturbed in aging. We assessed the expression of Hsps in hippocampus and cortex of follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mice, known to exhibit gender and age-dependent imbalance in sex steroids and ..
  4. Li Y, Ganta S, Cheng C, Craig R, Ganta R, Freeman L. FSH stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth by action on growth factor variant receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;267:26-37 pubmed
    ..9kb transcript. Immunoblot analysis confirmed expression of FSH-R3 but not FSHR-1 in ID8. Together, these data suggest that FSH-R3 signaling promotes proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. ..
  5. Layman L, McDonough P. Mutations of follicle stimulating hormone-beta and its receptor in human and mouse: genotype/phenotype. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000;161:9-17 pubmed
    ..With partial FSH deficiency in males, spermatogenesis is affected, but fertility may still be possible. FSH may also be necessary for normal androgen synthesis in males and females. ..
  6. Takase M, Tsutsui K. Inhibitory role of prolactin in the downregulation of testicular follicle-stimulating hormone receptors in mice. J Exp Zool. 1997;278:234-42 pubmed
    ..A similar result was obtained by the 10-day treatment. Therefore, PRL was suggested to have an inhibitory role in the downregulation of testicular FSH receptors by FSH in adult mice. ..
  7. Danilovich N, Sairam M, Maysinger D. The menopausal mouse: a new neural paradigm of a distressing human condition. Neuroreport. 2003;14:1617-22 pubmed
    ..We propose using this animal model to test the effectiveness of potential therapeutics in paradigms of accelerated aging. ..
  8. Belo N, Sairam M, Dos Reis A. Impairment of the natriuretic peptide system in follitropin receptor knockout mice and reversal by estradiol: implications for obesity-associated hypertension in menopause. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1399-406 pubmed
    ..This study establishes a relation between estrogen, adipose tissue, and ANP, which may have important implications in menopausal women. ..
  9. Stilley J, Christensen D, Dahlem K, Guan R, Santillan D, England S, et al. FSH receptor (FSHR) expression in human extragonadal reproductive tissues and the developing placenta, and the impact of its deletion on pregnancy in mice. Biol Reprod. 2014;91:74 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest heretofore unappreciated roles of extragonadal FSHR in female reproductive physiology. ..
  10. Chen X, Zhang H, Aravindakshan J, Gotlieb W, Sairam M. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of a novel human and mouse ovarian tumor-associated gene OTAG-12: downregulation, alternative splicing and drug sensitization. Oncogene. 2011;30:2874-87 pubmed publisher
    In studying the age dependence and chronology of ovarian tumors in follicle stimulating hormone receptor knockout mice, we identified a novel ovarian tumor associated gene-12 (OTAG-12), which is progressively downregulated and maps to ..
  11. Patsoula E, Loutradis D, Drakakis P, Kallianidis K, Bletsa R, Michalas S. Expression of mRNA for the LH and FSH receptors in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Reproduction. 2001;121:455-61 pubmed
  12. Wang X, Greenhalgh D, Eckhardt J, Rothnagel J, Roop D. Epidermal expression of transforming growth factor-alpha in transgenic mice: induction of spontaneous and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced papillomas via a mechanism independent of Ha-ras activation or overexpression. Mol Carcinog. 1994;10:15-22 pubmed
    ..TGF alpha mice proceeds frequently via a pathway independent of Ha-ras activation or overexpression, and, thus, that other events are required for autonomous growth and malignant conversion. ..
  13. Danilovich N, Sairam M. Targeting gonadotropin receptor genes: reproductive biology, aging, and related health implications. Endocrine. 2005;26:219-26 pubmed
    ..Both types of mice represent good models for testing hormone replacement therapy in different combinations. The FSH-R heterozygous females could also be useful for studying age-dependent phenotypes. ..
  14. Upton D, Fuller E, Colvin E, Walters K, Jimenez M, Desai R, et al. Granulosa Cell-Specific Brca1 Loss Alone or Combined with Trp53 Haploinsufficiency and Transgenic FSH Expression Fails to Induce Ovarian Tumors. Horm Cancer. 2015;6:142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that the ovary is remarkably resistant to oncogenesis, and support the emerging view of an extragonadal, multi-hit origin for ovarian tumorigenesis. ..
  15. Ebrahimian T, Sairam M, Schiffrin E, Touyz R. Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with altered thioredoxin and ASK-1 signaling in a mouse model of menopause. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H1481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Aged female wild-type (WT) and follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mice (20-24 wk), with hormonal imbalances, were studied...
  16. Umehara T, Kawashima I, Kawai T, Hoshino Y, Morohashi K, Shima Y, et al. Neuregulin 1 Regulates Proliferation of Leydig Cells to Support Spermatogenesis and Sexual Behavior in Adult Mice. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4899-4913 pubmed
  17. Grover A, Sairam M, Smith C, Hermo L. Structural and functional modifications of sertoli cells in the testis of adult follicle-stimulating hormone receptor knockout mice. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:117-29 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FSH-R signaling normally maintains water balance in Sertoli cells in addition to regulating ABP production. ..
  18. Kotlar T, Young R, Albanese C, Crowley W, Scully R, Jameson J. A mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor occurs frequently in human ovarian sex cord tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:1020-6 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of the F591S mutation in the FSH-R suggests that it plays a role in the development of ovarian sex cord tumors. ..
  19. Danilovich N, Babu P, Xing W, Gerdes M, Krishnamurthy H, Sairam M. Estrogen deficiency, obesity, and skeletal abnormalities in follicle-stimulating hormone receptor knockout (FORKO) female mice. Endocrinology. 2000;141:4295-308 pubmed
    ..Thus, the phenotypes evident in these genetically altered FSH-R mutants may provide an experimental system to explore the effects of estrogenic compounds on different targets including the ovary in a nonsurgical setting. ..
  20. Danilovich N, Roy I, Sairam M. Ovarian pathology and high incidence of sex cord tumors in follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mice. Endocrinology. 2001;142:3673-84 pubmed
    ..Circulating LH and FSH levels were increased in follitropin receptor knockout mice and remained severalfold higher in tumor-bearing animals...
  21. Krishnamurthy H, Danilovich N, Morales C, Sairam M. Qualitative and quantitative decline in spermatogenesis of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:1146-59 pubmed
    ..These data allow us to conclude that genetic disruption of FSH receptor signaling in the rodent induces major changes that might contribute to reduced fertility. ..
  22. Zhang H, Chen X, Sairam M. Novel genes of visceral adiposity: identification of mouse and human mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipose (MEDA)-4 gene and its adipogenic function. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2665-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore it might play an important role in adipose tissue expansion in normal and aberrant hormonal conditions and pathophysiological states. ..
  23. Gao J, Tiwari Pandey R, Samadfam R, Yang Y, Miao D, Karaplis A, et al. Altered ovarian function affects skeletal homeostasis independent of the action of follicle-stimulating hormone. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2613-21 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that ovarian secretory products, notably estrogen, and peripheral conversion of ovarian androgen to estrogen can alter bone homeostasis independent of any bone resorptive action of FSH. ..
  24. Abel M, Huhtaniemi I, Pakarinen P, Kumar T, Charlton H. Age-related uterine and ovarian hypertrophy in FSH receptor knockout and FSHbeta subunit knockout mice. Reproduction. 2003;125:165-73 pubmed
  25. Peltoketo H, Strauss L, Karjalainen R, Zhang M, Stamp G, Segaloff D, et al. Female mice expressing constitutively active mutants of FSH receptor present with a phenotype of premature follicle depletion and estrogen excess. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1872-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations of the FSHR in mice bring about distinct and clear changes in ovarian function, informative in the search of similar mutations in humans. ..
  26. Huhtaniemi I, Eskola V, Pakarinen P, Matikainen T, Sprengel R. The murine luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor genes: transcription initiation sites, putative promoter sequences and promoter activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992;88:55-66 pubmed
    ..Both promoter elements seem to be still under tissue specific control, since neither LH receptor nor FSH receptor promoter activity was detectable in another cell line (CHO) investigated. ..
  27. Danilovich N, Javeshghani D, Xing W, Sairam M. Endocrine alterations and signaling changes associated with declining ovarian function and advanced biological aging in follicle-stimulating hormone receptor haploinsufficient mice. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:370-8 pubmed
    ..As these features in our FSH-R +/- mice resemble reproductive failure occurring in middle-age women, further studies in this model might provide useful insights into the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging. ..
  28. Zhang H, Chen X, Sairam M. Novel hormone-regulated genes in visceral adipose tissue: cloning and identification of proinflammatory cytokine-like mouse and human MEDA-7: implications for obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia. 2011;54:2368-80 pubmed publisher
    ..MEDA-7 is a hormone-regulated adipokine/proinflammatory cytokine that is implicated in causing chronic inflammation, affecting cellular expansion and blunting insulin response in adipocytes. ..
  29. Danilovich N, Sairam M. Haploinsufficiency of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor accelerates oocyte loss inducing early reproductive senescence and biological aging in mice. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:361-9 pubmed
    ..Thus FSH-R status is an important determinant of ovarian aging and all phenomena that arise from subsequent estrogen deficiency and other aberrations. ..
  30. Migrenne S, Moreau E, Pakarinen P, Dierich A, Merlet J, Habert R, et al. Mouse testis development and function are differently regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone receptors signaling during fetal and prepubertal life. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e53257 pubmed publisher
  31. Aravindakshan J, Chen X, Sairam M. Age-dependent bimodal GDNF regulation during ovarian tumorigenesis in follitropin receptor mutant mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:507-13 pubmed
    Most ovarian tumors in women occur upon aging. Follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mice are sterile and have age-dependent abnormalities including increased ovarian tumor incidence...
  32. Hahn K, Johnson J, Beres B, Howard S, Wilson Rawls J. Lunatic fringe null female mice are infertile due to defects in meiotic maturation. Development. 2005;132:817-28 pubmed
    ..This represents a new role for the Notch signaling pathway and lunatic fringe in mammalian folliculogenesis. ..
  33. Tena Sempere M, Manna P, Huhtaniemi I. Molecular cloning of the mouse follicle-stimulating hormone receptor complementary deoxyribonucleic acid: functional expression of alternatively spliced variants and receptor inactivation by a C566T transition in exon 7 of the coding sequence. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:1515-27 pubmed
    ..In addition, we provide evidence for mFSHR inactivation by a C566T transition in exon 7 of the coding sequence, thus paving the way for further development of animal models of hypergonadotropic ovarian failure. ..
  34. O Shaughnessy P, McLelland D, McBride M. Regulation of luteinizing hormone-receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone-receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels during development in the neonatal mouse ovary. Biol Reprod. 1997;57:602-8 pubmed
    ..Further development of LH-receptor mRNA levels is gonadotropin-dependent although FSH-receptor mRNA levels continue to increase independently until early secondary follicles are present. ..
  35. O Shaughnessy P, Marsh P, Dudley K. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mRNA in the mouse ovary during post-natal development in the normal mouse and in the adult hypogonadal (hpg) mouse: structure of alternate transcripts. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994;101:197-201 pubmed
    ..Results confirm that the FSH receptor primary transcript undergoes alternate splicing in the ovary and that the pattern of splicing changes as the ovary develops, probably as a result of follicular development. ..
  36. Chen X, Aravindakshan J, Yang Y, Tiwari Pandey R, Sairam M. Aberrant expression of PDGF ligands and receptors in the tumor prone ovary of follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:903-15 pubmed
    ..Microarray analyses of ovaries from young follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mice that are prone to late ovarian tumors upon aging have revealed significant imbalances ..
  37. Tam J, Danilovich N, Nilsson K, Sairam M, Maysinger D. Chronic estrogen deficiency leads to molecular aberrations related to neurodegenerative changes in follitropin receptor knockout female mice. Neuroscience. 2002;114:493-506 pubmed
    The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse undergoes ovarian failure, thereby providing an animal model to investigate the consequences of the depletion of circulating estrogen in females...
  38. Kong D, Guan Q, Li G, Xin W, Qi X, Guo Y, et al. Expression of FSHR in chondrocytes and the effect of FSH on chondrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:587-593 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse chondrocytes and human articular cartilage express functional FSHR. Moreover, FSH can act on chondrocytes and cause genetic changes. ..
  39. Danilovich N, Roy I, Sairam M. Emergence of uterine pathology during accelerated biological aging in FSH receptor-haploinsufficient mice. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3618-27 pubmed
    ..The Fshr-haploinsufficient mice might help in understanding the molecular basis of induction of uterine pathology and tissue patterning. ..
  40. Choi Y, Rajkovic A. Genetics of early mammalian folliculogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:579-90 pubmed
    ..Genes critical in early folliculogenesis are important determinants of reproductive life span and represent candidate genes for human ovarian failure. ..
  41. Nakayama Y, Yamamoto T, Oba Y, Nagahama Y, Abe S. Molecular cloning, functional characterization, and gene expression of a follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in the testis of newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;275:121-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that FSH stimulates newt spermatogenesis through the FSH-R. This study, as far as we know, reports for the first time the cloning of an amphibian FSH-R cDNA...
  42. Danilovich N, Ram Sairam M. Recent female mouse models displaying advanced reproductive aging. Exp Gerontol. 2006;41:117-22 pubmed
    ..The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse, in its null and haploinsufficient state as well as the dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon ..
  43. Urano A, Endoh M, Wada T, Morikawa Y, Itoh M, Kataoka Y, et al. Infertility with defective spermiogenesis in mice lacking AF5q31, the target of chromosomal translocation in human infant leukemia. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6834-45 pubmed
    ..These results may have clinical implications in the understanding of human male infertility. ..
  44. Babu P, Danilovich N, Sairam M. Hormone-induced receptor gene splicing: enhanced expression of the growth factor type I follicle-stimulating hormone receptor motif in the developing mouse ovary as a new paradigm in growth regulation. Endocrinology. 2001;142:381-9 pubmed
    ..The results reveal for the first time the expression of a different growth-promoting receptor for FSH in the developing and cycling mouse ovary. These observations introduce a new paradigm in the control of ovarian function. ..
  45. Aravindakshan J, Chen X, Sairam M. Chronology and complexities of ovarian tumorigenesis in FORKO mice: age-dependent gene alterations and progressive dysregulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and II profiles. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;329:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mice with early and sustained sex steroid hormone disharmony develop various age-dependent ..
  46. Patel H, Bhartiya D. Testicular Stem Cells Express Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptors and Are Directly Modulated by FSH. Reprod Sci. 2016;23:1493-1508 pubmed
  47. Yang Y, Balla A, Danilovich N, Sairam M. Developmental and molecular aberrations associated with deterioration of oogenesis during complete or partial follicle-stimulating hormone receptor deficiency in mice. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1294-302 pubmed
    ..We believe that these data provide an experimental paradigm to explore the mechanisms responsible for preserving the structural integrity and quality of oocytes at different ages. ..
  48. Véliz L, González F, Duling B, Saez J, Boric M. Functional role of gap junctions in cytokine-induced leukocyte adhesion to endothelium in vivo. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H1056-H1066 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate an important role for GJ communication in leukocyte adhesion and transmigration during acute inflammation in vivo and further suggest that endothelial Cx43 is key in these processes. ..
  49. Hermann B, Hornbaker K, Rice D, Sawadogo M, Heckert L. In vivo regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor by the transcription factors upstream stimulatory factor 1 and upstream stimulatory factor 2 is cell specific. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5297-306 pubmed publisher
  50. Danilovich N, Harada N, Sairam M, Maysinger D. Age-related neurodegenerative changes in the central nervous system of estrogen-deficient follitropin receptor knockout mice. Exp Neurol. 2003;183:559-72 pubmed
    ..The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) female mouse displays hormonal imbalance characterized by very low levels of circulating ..
  51. Wei S, Guo H, Gong Z, Zhang F, Ma Z. Triptorelin and cetrorelix induce immune responses and affect uterine development and expressions of genes and proteins of ESR1, LHR, and FSHR of mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2016;38:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..It lessened the LHR protein levels. TRI immunity blocked EET and UWT, inhibited uterine growth and development. The efficacy of CET immunity was more obvious than TRI. ..
  52. Xing Y, Gosden R, Lasko P, Clarke H. Murine homologues of the Drosophila gustavus gene are expressed in ovarian granulosa cells. Reproduction. 2006;131:905-15 pubmed
    ..Based on their tissue-restricted pattern of expression and apparent abundance in granulosa cells, we propose that SSB-1 and SSB-4 play key roles in regulating granulosa cell physiology. ..
  53. Haywood M, Tymchenko N, Spaliviero J, Koch A, Jimenez M, Gromoll J, et al. An activated human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor stimulates FSH-like activity in gonadotropin-deficient transgenic mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2582-91 pubmed
    ..This novel transgenic paradigm provides a unique approach to investigate the in vivo actions of mutated activating gonadotropin receptors. ..
  54. Sun L, Peng Y, Sharrow A, Iqbal J, Zhang Z, Papachristou D, et al. FSH directly regulates bone mass. Cell. 2006;125:247-60 pubmed
    ..Osteoclasts and their precursors possess G(i2alpha)-coupled FSHRs that activate MEK/Erk, NF-kappaB, and Akt to result in enhanced osteoclast formation and function. We suggest that high circulating FSH causes hypogonadal bone loss. ..
  55. Aittomaki K, Herva R, Stenman U, Juntunen K, Ylostalo P, Hovatta O, et al. Clinical features of primary ovarian failure caused by a point mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:3722-6 pubmed
  56. Laissue P. Aetiological coding sequence variants in non-syndromic premature ovarian failure: From genetic linkage analysis to next generation sequencing. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;411:243-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Considerations have also been included regarding the polygenic nature of reproduction and POF, as well as future approaches for identifying novel aetiological genes based on next generation sequencing (NGS). ..
  57. Balla A, Danilovich N, Yang Y, Sairam M. Dynamics of ovarian development in the FORKO immature mouse: structural and functional implications for ovarian reserve. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1281-93 pubmed
    Adult Follitropin Receptor Knockout (FORKO) female mice are infertile and estrogen deficient...
  58. Zaidi S, Zhu L, Mali R, Iqbal J, Yang G, Zaidi M, et al. Regulation of FSH receptor promoter activation in the osteoclast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:910-5 pubmed
    ..We surmise that the FSHR expression is regulated distinctly in the osteoclast, and differently from other cells, such as the ovarian follicular and Leydig cells. ..
  59. Krishnamurthy H, Babu P, Morales C, Sairam M. Delay in sexual maturity of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor knockout male mouse. Biol Reprod. 2001;65:522-31 pubmed
    ..Based on these data we suggest that the FORKO mouse might be a useful experimental model to define the molecular mechanisms that underlie the delay in puberty. ..
  60. Vigone G, Merico V, Redi C, Mazzini G, Garagna S, Zuccotti M. FSH and LH receptors are differentially expressed in cumulus cells surrounding developmentally competent and incompetent mouse fully grown antral oocytes. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2015;27:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that both FSHR and LHR proteins are significantly upregulated in CCs surrounding oocytes arrested at the 2-cell stage, reflecting their developmental incompetence. ..
  61. Xing W, Krishnamurthy H, Sairam M. Role of follitropin receptor signaling in nuclear protein transitions and chromatin condensation during spermatogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;312:697-701 pubmed
    b>Follitropin receptor (FSHR) in testicular Sertoli cells mediates signaling by pituitary follitropin (FSH) promoting intercellular communication with germ cells for normal spermatogenesis...
  62. Kim K, Kim E, Lee K. SEBOX is essential for early embryogenesis at the two-cell stage in the mouse. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:1192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..9%) and the four- and eight-cell (15.1%) stages. We concluded that Sebox is a new addition to maternal effect genes that produced and stored in oocytes and function in preimplantation embryo development. ..