Gene Symbol: Flt3l
Description: FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand
Alias: Flt3lg, Ly72L, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, flt3 ligand
Species: mouse
Products:     Flt3l

Top Publications

  1. Lyman S, James L, Vanden Bos T, de Vries P, Brasel K, Gliniak B, et al. Molecular cloning of a ligand for the flt3/flk-2 tyrosine kinase receptor: a proliferative factor for primitive hematopoietic cells. Cell. 1993;75:1157-67 pubmed
  2. Sambandam A, Maillard I, Zediak V, Xu L, Gerstein R, Aster J, et al. Notch signaling controls the generation and differentiation of early T lineage progenitors. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:663-70 pubmed
    ..In contrast, multipotent hematopoietic progenitors circulated in the blood even in the absence of Notch signaling, suggesting that critical Notch signals during early T lineage development are delivered early after thymic entry. ..
  3. Brasel K, Escobar S, Anderberg R, de Vries P, Gruss H, Lyman S. Expression of the flt3 receptor and its ligand on hematopoietic cells. Leukemia. 1995;9:1212-8 pubmed
    ..Surface expression of flt3 receptor and flt3 ligand were detected by flow cytometry using biotinylated human flt3 ligand or biotinylated soluble human flt3 ..
  4. Sitnicka E, Buza Vidas N, Ahlenius H, Cilio C, Gekas C, Nygren J, et al. Critical role of FLT3 ligand in IL-7 receptor independent T lymphopoiesis and regulation of lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors. Blood. 2007;110:2955-64 pubmed
  5. Brawand P, Fitzpatrick D, Greenfield B, Brasel K, Maliszewski C, De Smedt T. Murine plasmacytoid pre-dendritic cells generated from Flt3 ligand-supplemented bone marrow cultures are immature APCs. J Immunol. 2002;169:6711-9 pubmed
    ..study, we report that large numbers of bone marrow-derived murine CD11c(+)B220(+) pDCs can be generated with Flt3 ligand (FL) as the sole exogenous differentiation/growth factor and that pDC generation is regulated in vivo by FL ..
  6. Sitnicka E, Bryder D, Theilgaard Monch K, Buza Vidas N, Adolfsson J, Jacobsen S. Key role of flt3 ligand in regulation of the common lymphoid progenitor but not in maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell pool. Immunity. 2002;17:463-72 pubmed
    ..first evidence for a nonredundant regulator of this process, in that adult mice deficient in expression of the flt3 ligand (FL) have severely (10-fold) reduced levels of the CLP, accompanied by reductions in the earliest identifiable ..
  7. Böiers C, Buza Vidas N, Jensen C, Pronk C, Kharazi S, Wittmann L, et al. Expression and role of FLT3 in regulation of the earliest stage of normal granulocyte-monocyte progenitor development. Blood. 2010;115:5061-8 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of FLT3 was found in preGMP compared with GMP, and preGMPs were more responsive to stimulation with FLT3 ligand (FL)...
  8. Fancke B, Suter M, Hochrein H, O Keeffe M. M-CSF: a novel plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cell poietin. Blood. 2008;111:150-9 pubmed
    ..It is noteworthy that using mice deficient in FL indicated that the M-CSF-driven generation of pDCs and cDCs in vitro and in vivo was independent of endogenous FL. ..
  9. Lyman S, Jacobsen S. c-kit ligand and Flt3 ligand: stem/progenitor cell factors with overlapping yet distinct activities. Blood. 1998;91:1101-34 pubmed

More Information


  1. McKenna H, Stocking K, Miller R, Brasel K, De Smedt T, Maraskovsky E, et al. Mice lacking flt3 ligand have deficient hematopoiesis affecting hematopoietic progenitor cells, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. Blood. 2000;95:3489-97 pubmed
    ..The flt3 ligand (flt3L) is a growth factor for hematopoietic progenitors and induces hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell ..
  2. Buza Vidas N, Cheng M, Duarte S, Nozad H, Jacobsen S, Sitnicka E. Crucial role of FLT3 ligand in immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation and high-dose chemotherapy. Blood. 2007;110:424-32 pubmed
  3. Walzer T, Brawand P, Swart D, Tocker J, De Smedt T. No defect in T-cell priming, secondary response, or tolerance induction in response to inhaled antigens in Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand-deficient mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:192-9 pubmed
    ..Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) is a hematopoietic growth factor that drives the development of multiple subsets of DCs in the lymphoid organs...
  4. Skarica M, Wang T, McCadden E, Kardian D, Calabresi P, Small D, et al. Signal transduction inhibition of APCs diminishes th17 and Th1 responses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2009;182:4192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, use of this class of signal transduction inhibitors may represent a novel method to treat autoimmunity by dampening the autoreactive polarizing condition driven by DCs. ..
  5. Mollah S, Dobrin J, Feder R, Tse S, Matos I, Cheong C, et al. Flt3L dependence helps define an uncharacterized subset of murine cutaneous dendritic cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:1265-1275 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we build on the observation that Langerin-CD11b- migDCs are Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) dependent and strongly Flt3L responsive, which may relate them to classical DCs...
  6. Dolence J, Gwin K, Frank E, Medina K. Threshold levels of Flt3-ligand are required for the generation and survival of lymphoid progenitors and B-cell precursors. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that Flt3 signaling initiates a cascade of events in Flt3(low) precursors that promote the survival of LHP from which BCP are derived. ..
  7. Meredith M, Liu K, Darrasse Jèze G, Kamphorst A, Schreiber H, Guermonprez P, et al. Expression of the zinc finger transcription factor zDC (Zbtb46, Btbd4) defines the classical dendritic cell lineage. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that CD11c-expressing non-cDCs make significant contributions to initiating immunity to parasites and tumors. ..
  8. Swee L, Bosco N, Malissen B, Ceredig R, Rolink A. Expansion of peripheral naturally occurring T regulatory cells by Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand treatment. Blood. 2009;113:6277-87 pubmed publisher
    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) plays a major role in dendritic cell (DC) biology...
  9. Teshima T, Reddy P, Lowler K, KuKuruga M, Liu C, Cooke K, et al. Flt3 ligand therapy for recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants expands host CD8 alpha(+) dendritic cells and reduces experimental acute graft-versus-host disease. Blood. 2002;99:1825-32 pubmed
    Recent evidence suggests that dendritic cells (DCs) can regulate and amplify immune responses. Flt3 ligand (FL)-derived DC function was tested as a stimulator of allogeneic lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo...
  10. O Keeffe M, Hochrein H, Vremec D, Pooley J, Evans R, Woulfe S, et al. Effects of administration of progenipoietin 1, Flt-3 ligand, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and pegylated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on dendritic cell subsets in mice. Blood. 2002;99:2122-30 pubmed
    ..Such selective expansion of DC populations and alterations in their cytokine-secretion capacity have implications for clinical use of the studied cytokines in immune modulation. ..
  11. Kinnebrew M, Buffie C, Diehl G, Zenewicz L, Leiner I, Hohl T, et al. Interleukin 23 production by intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells in response to bacterial flagellin enhances mucosal innate immune defense. Immunity. 2012;36:276-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CD103(+)CD11b(+) LPDCs, in addition to promoting long-term tolerance to ingested antigens, also rapidly produce IL-23 in response to detection of flagellin in the lamina propria. ..
  12. Hannum C, Culpepper J, Campbell D, McClanahan T, Zurawski S, Bazan J, et al. Ligand for FLT3/FLK2 receptor tyrosine kinase regulates growth of haematopoietic stem cells and is encoded by variant RNAs. Nature. 1994;368:643-8 pubmed
  13. Sathaliyawala T, O Gorman W, Greter M, Bogunovic M, Konjufca V, Hou Z, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin controls dendritic cell development downstream of Flt3 ligand signaling. Immunity. 2010;33:597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokine Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) controls the development of DCs and is particularly important for the pDC and CD8(+) cDC and their ..
  14. Ginhoux F, Liu K, Helft J, Bogunovic M, Greter M, Hashimoto D, et al. The origin and development of nonlymphoid tissue CD103+ DCs. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3115-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that nonlymphoid tissue CD103(+) DCs and lymphoid organ CD8(+) DCs derive from the same precursor and follow a related differentiation program. ..
  15. O Keeffe M, Brodnicki T, Fancke B, Vremec D, Morahan G, Maraskovsky E, et al. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand administration overcomes a genetically determined dendritic cell deficiency in NOD mice and protects against diabetes development. Int Immunol. 2005;17:307-14 pubmed
    ..This points to a possible clinical use of FL to prevent autoimmune disease. ..
  16. McClanahan T, Culpepper J, Campbell D, Wagner J, Franz Bacon K, Mattson J, et al. Biochemical and genetic characterization of multiple splice variants of the Flt3 ligand. Blood. 1996;88:3371-82 pubmed
    ..performed a comprehensive analysis of cell lines and tissues to compare and contrast the expression patterns of Flt3 ligand (FL), c-Kit ligand (KL), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor as well as their receptors, Flt3, c-Kit, and ..
  17. Fry T, Sinha M, Milliron M, Chu Y, Kapoor V, Gress R, et al. Flt3 ligand enhances thymic-dependent and thymic-independent immune reconstitution. Blood. 2004;104:2794-800 pubmed
    ..Indeed, flt3 ligand (flt3L) treatment of athymic mice subjected to T-cell depletion (without DC depletion) substantially enhanced ..
  18. Guermonprez P, Helft J, Claser C, Deroubaix S, Karanje H, Gazumyan A, et al. Inflammatory Flt3l is essential to mobilize dendritic cells and for T cell responses during Plasmodium infection. Nat Med. 2013;19:730-8 pubmed publisher
    ..triggered by Plasmodium infection that regulates dendritic cell homeostasis and adaptive immunity through Flt3 ligand (Flt3l) release...
  19. Tamoutounour S, Guilliams M, Montanana Sanchis F, Liu H, Terhorst D, Malosse C, et al. Origins and functional specialization of macrophages and of conventional and monocyte-derived dendritic cells in mouse skin. Immunity. 2013;39:925-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a high degree of functional specialization occurs among the mononuclear phagocytes of the skin. ..
  20. Anandasabapathy N, Victora G, Meredith M, Feder R, Dong B, Kluger C, et al. Flt3L controls the development of radiosensitive dendritic cells in the meninges and choroid plexus of the steady-state mouse brain. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1695-705 pubmed publisher
    ..DCs in both sites shared an intrinsic requirement for Flt3 ligand. Microarrays revealed differences in expression of transcripts encoding surface molecules, transcription ..
  21. Prat M, Demarquay C, Frick J, Dudoignon N, Thierry D, Bertho J. Use of flt3 ligand to evaluate residual hematopoiesis after heterogeneous irradiation in mice. Radiat Res. 2006;166:504-11 pubmed
    We evaluated the possibility of using plasma Flt3 ligand (FL) concentration as a biological indicator of bone marrow function after heterogeneous irradiation. Mice were irradiated with 4, 7...
  22. Schwarz B, Sambandam A, Maillard I, Harman B, Love P, Bhandoola A. Selective thymus settling regulated by cytokine and chemokine receptors. J Immunol. 2007;178:2008-17 pubmed
    ..We conclude that fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 signaling is required for the generation of T lineage-competent progenitors, which selectively express molecules, including CCR9, that allow them to settle within the thymus. ..
  23. D Amico A, Wu L. The early progenitors of mouse dendritic cells and plasmacytoid predendritic cells are within the bone marrow hemopoietic precursors expressing Flt3. J Exp Med. 2003;198:293-303 pubmed
    b>Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) is a growth factor for hemopoietic progenitors and can promote the expansion of both conventional dendritic cells (DCs) and plasmacytoid predendritic cells (p-preDCs)...
  24. Bozzacco L, Trumpfheller C, Huang Y, Longhi M, Shimeliovich I, Schauer J, et al. HIV gag protein is efficiently cross-presented when targeted with an antibody towards the DEC-205 receptor in Flt3 ligand-mobilized murine DC. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..and this subset can be increased 10-fold in numbers following Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) treatment in vivo. Therefore, we studied cross-presentation by abundant Flt3L DC using HIV gag protein...
  25. Lyman S, Stocking K, Davison B, Fletcher F, Johnson L, Escobar S. Structural analysis of human and murine flt3 ligand genomic loci. Oncogene. 1995;11:1165-72 pubmed
    Both the murine and human genomic loci that encode flt3 ligand have been cloned. flt3 ligand is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells...
  26. Kingston D, Schmid M, Onai N, Obata Onai A, Baumjohann D, Manz M. The concerted action of GM-CSF and Flt3-ligand on in vivo dendritic cell homeostasis. Blood. 2009;114:835-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These data thus show the concerted action of GM-CSF and Flt3-ligand on DC homeostasis in vivo. ..
  27. Darrasse Jèze G, Deroubaix S, Mouquet H, Victora G, Eisenreich T, Yao K, et al. Feedback control of regulatory T cell homeostasis by dendritic cells in vivo. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1853-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in T reg cells induced by DC expansion is sufficient to prevent type 1 autoimmune diabetes and IBD, which suggests that interference with this feedback loop will create new opportunities for immune-based therapies. ..
  28. Sugiyama D, Kulkeaw K, Mizuochi C, Horio Y, Okayama S. Hepatoblasts comprise a niche for fetal liver erythropoiesis through cytokine production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;410:301-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations demonstrate that hepatoblasts comprise a niche for erythropoiesis through cytokine secretion. ..
  29. Cheng M, Charoudeh H, Brodin P, Tang Y, Lakshmikanth T, Höglund P, et al. Distinct and overlapping patterns of cytokine regulation of thymic and bone marrow-derived NK cell development. J Immunol. 2009;182:1460-8 pubmed
    ..gamma-chain (Il2rg) essential for IL-15-induced signaling, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor ligand (Flt3l) were previously identified as important regulatory pathways of the BM NK cell compartment based on lack of ..
  30. Wiesner D, Specht C, Lee C, Smith K, Mukaremera L, Lee S, et al. Chitin recognition via chitotriosidase promotes pathologic type-2 helper T cell responses to cryptococcal infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1004701 pubmed publisher
  31. Wu X, Satpathy A, Kc W, Liu P, Murphy T, Murphy K. Bcl11a controls Flt3 expression in early hematopoietic progenitors and is required for pDC development in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64800 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Bcl11a (-/-) cells showed severely impaired in vitro development of Flt3L-derived pDCs and classical DCs (cDCs)...
  32. Xiang X, Zhao Y, Li N, Li Q, Li J. Accumulation of DC in lamina propria induced by FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand aggravates the intestinal inflammatory response during endotoxemia. Inflammation. 2010;33:34-45 pubmed publisher
    ..improve protective immunity to bacterial translocation and outcome in endotoxemic mice, we pre-treated mice with Flt3L or normal saline, and then challenged them with or without LPS...
  33. Quintana E, Fernández A, Velasco P, de Andrés B, Liste I, Sancho D, et al. DNGR-1(+) dendritic cells are located in meningeal membrane and choroid plexus of the noninjured brain. Glia. 2015;63:2231-48 pubmed publisher
    ..membranes and choroid plexus (m/Ch), and its expression is enhanced by fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), a cytokine involved in DC homeostasis...
  34. Dupont C, Harms Pritchard G, Hidano S, Christian D, Wagage S, Muallem G, et al. Flt3 Ligand Is Essential for Survival and Protective Immune Responses during Toxoplasmosis. J Immunol. 2015;195:4369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokine Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) is critical for the generation and maintenance of DCs, and Flt3L(-/-) mice were found to be highly ..
  35. Svensson M, Erlandsson M, Jonsson I, Andersson K, Bokarewa M. Impaired signaling through the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor increases osteoclast formation and bone damage in arthritis. J Leukoc Biol. 2016;99:413-23 pubmed publisher
    ..by immunohistochemistry in methylated bovine serum albumin-induced arthritis using mice that lack the gene for Flt3l (Flt3L(-/-)) and by an in vitro assay...
  36. Pirih F, Michalski M, Cho S, Koh A, Berry J, Ghaname E, et al. Parathyroid hormone mediates hematopoietic cell expansion through interleukin-6. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13657 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PTH acts with Flt-3L to maintain hematopoietic cells by limiting apoptosis. IL-6 is a critical mediator of bone marrow cell expansion and is responsible for PTH actions in hematopoietic cell expansion. ..
  37. Bohannon J, Cui W, Sherwood E, Toliver Kinsky T. Dendritic cell modification of neutrophil responses to infection after burn injury. J Immunol. 2010;185:2847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that prophylactic treatment of burn-injured mice with the DC growth factor FLT3 ligand (FL) significantly increases resistance to burn wound infections in a DC-dependent manner that is correlated ..
  38. Satpathy A, Briseño C, Lee J, Ng D, Manieri N, Kc W, et al. Notch2-dependent classical dendritic cells orchestrate intestinal immunity to attaching-and-effacing bacterial pathogens. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:937-48 pubmed publisher
    ..rodentium, but CD103(+) cDCs dependent on the transcription factor Batf3 were not. Our results demonstrate a nonredundant function for CD11b(+) cDCs in the response to pathogens in vivo. ..
  39. Xu Y, Jiang D, Hu Y, Li Y, Zhang X, Wang J, et al. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand is required for thymic dendritic cell generation from bone marrow-derived CD117⁺ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:6969-75 pubmed publisher
    ..culture (FTOC) and a hanging drop culture system in the presence of fms‑like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), termed the Flt3L/FTOC system...
  40. Tussiwand R, Onai N, Mazzucchelli L, Manz M. Inhibition of natural type I IFN-producing and dendritic cell development by a small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with Flt3 affinity. J Immunol. 2005;175:3674-80 pubmed
    ..and DC progenitors and their respective downstream cell populations express the flt3 receptor, and Flt3 ligand (Flt3L)(-/-) mice have reduced while Flt3L-injected mice develop markedly increased numbers of both cell types...
  41. Chilton P, Rezzoug F, Fugier Vivier I, Weeter L, Xu H, Huang Y, et al. Flt3-ligand treatment prevents diabetes in NOD mice. Diabetes. 2004;53:1995-2002 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Flt3-ligand treatment and/or the establishment of mixed chimerism in prediabetic candidates may provide a benign and novel approach to treat diabetes. ..
  42. Brasel K, McKenna H, Charrier K, Morrissey P, Williams D, Lyman S. Flt3 ligand synergizes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells into the peripheral blood of mice. Blood. 1997;90:3781-8 pubmed
    ..We investigated the capacity of several different growth factors, including human flt3 ligand (FL), alone and in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF ) or granulocyte ..
  43. O Keeffe M, Fancke B, Suter M, Ramm G, Clark J, Wu L, et al. Nonplasmacytoid, high IFN-?-producing, bone marrow dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2012;188:3774-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these DC constitute a novel bone marrow inflammatory DC type, ideally geared to linking innate and adaptive immune responses in bone marrow via their potent IFN-? production and high T cell stimulatory capacity. ..
  44. Singh T, Zhang H, Borek I, Wolf P, Hedrick M, Singh S, et al. Monocyte-derived inflammatory Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells mediate psoriasis-like inflammation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13581 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Flt3L-dependent DCs and resident Langerhans cells are dispensable for the inflammation...
  45. Lauterbach H, Bathke B, Gilles S, Traidl Hoffmann C, Luber C, Fejer G, et al. Mouse CD8alpha+ DCs and human BDCA3+ DCs are major producers of IFN-lambda in response to poly IC. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2703-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IFN-? production in response to poly IC is a novel function of mouse CD8?(+) cDCs and their human equivalents. ..
  46. Wang Z, Castellaneta A, De Creus A, Shufesky W, Morelli A, Thomson A. Heart, but not skin, allografts from donors lacking Flt3 ligand exhibit markedly prolonged survival time. J Immunol. 2004;172:5924-30 pubmed
    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) administration leads to dramatic increases in dendritic cells (DC) in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues...
  47. Kawamura T, Koka R, Ma A, Kumar V. Differential roles for IL-15R alpha-chain in NK cell development and Ly-49 induction. J Immunol. 2003;171:5085-90 pubmed
    ..when bone marrow (BM) progenitors from IL-15Ralpha(-/-) mice were cultured with IL-7, stem cell factor and flt3 ligand, followed by IL-15, they were able to differentiate into functional NK cells, indicating that IL-15Ralpha is ..
  48. del Rio M, Cote Sierra J, Rodriguez Barbosa J. Flt3L-mobilized dendritic cells bearing H2-Kbm1 apoptotic cells do not induce cross-tolerance to CD8+ T cells across a class I MHC mismatched barrier. Transpl Int. 2011;24:501-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Rag2/?(c) KO B6 mice were treated with Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L)-transduced B16 melanoma cells to drive a rapid expansion and mobilization of DC in vivo...
  49. Dyer K, Moser J, Czapiga M, Siegel S, Percopo C, Rosenberg H. Functionally competent eosinophils differentiated ex vivo in high purity from normal mouse bone marrow. J Immunol. 2008;181:4004-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, differentiating bmEos are readily transfected with lentiviral vectors, suggesting a means for rapid production of genetically manipulated cells. ..
  50. Jacobsen R, Nowlan B, Brunck M, Barbier V, Winkler I, Levesque J. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) ligand depletes erythroid island macrophages and blocks medullar erythropoiesis in the mouse. Exp Hematol. 2016;44:207-12.e4 pubmed publisher
    The cytokines granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Flt3 ligand (Flt3-L) mobilize hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into the peripheral blood of primates, humans, and mice...
  51. Busch M, Westhofen T, Koch M, Lutz M, Zernecke A. Dendritic cell subset distributions in the aorta in healthy and atherosclerotic mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88452 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand-deficient (Flt3l (-/-)) mice, a specific loss of CD103(+) DCs but also CD103(-) CD11b(+) F4/80(-) DCs was evidenced...
  52. Kenins L, Gill J, Hollander G, Wodnar Filipowicz A. Flt3 ligand-receptor interaction is important for maintenance of early thymic progenitor numbers in steady-state thymopoiesis. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:81-90 pubmed publisher
    ..After irradiation-induced thymic damage, thymic recovery is facilitated by Flt3 ligand (FL), expressed by perivascular fibroblasts surrounding the thymic entry site of Flt3 receptor-positive ..
  53. Dore G, Leclerc C, Lazarini F. Treatment by CpG or Flt3-ligand does not affect mouse susceptibility to BSE prions. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;197:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of DC in a murine model of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) by the use of the growth factor Flt3 ligand, which stimulates DC generation, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, which induce DC maturation...
  54. Fric J, Lim C, Mertes A, Lee B, Viganò E, Chen J, et al. Calcium and calcineurin-NFAT signaling regulate granulocyte-monocyte progenitor cell cycle via Flt3-L. Stem Cells. 2014;32:3232-44 pubmed publisher
  55. Bohannon J, Cui W, Toliver Kinsky T. Endogenous Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand levels are not altered in mice after a severe burn and infection. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:47 pubmed publisher
    Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (Flt3L) is a hemopoietic cytokine and dendritic cell (DC) growth factor that promotes the proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells into DCs...
  56. Böiers C, Carrelha J, Lutteropp M, Luc S, Green J, Azzoni E, et al. Lymphomyeloid contribution of an immune-restricted progenitor emerging prior to definitive hematopoietic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:535-48 pubmed publisher
  57. Sproull M, Avondoglio D, Kramp T, Shankavaram U, Camphausen K. Correlation of plasma FL expression with bone marrow irradiation dose. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58558 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that plasma FL levels might be used as a marker of hematopoietically active bone marrow and radiation exposure in mice. ..
  58. Ge Y, Waldemer R, Nalluri R, Nuzzi P, Chen J. Flt3L is a novel regulator of skeletal myogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:3370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the identification of Fms-like tyrokine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) signaling as a novel regulator of skeletal myogenesis...
  59. Chen T, Darrasse Jèze G, Bergot A, Courau T, Churlaud G, Valdivia K, et al. Self-specific memory regulatory T cells protect embryos at implantation in mice. J Immunol. 2013;191:2273-81 pubmed publisher
  60. Miller G, Pillarisetty V, Shah A, Lahrs S, Dematteo R. Murine Flt3 ligand expands distinct dendritic cells with both tolerogenic and immunogenic properties. J Immunol. 2003;170:3554-64 pubmed
    Human Flt3 ligand can expand dendritic cells (DC) and enhance immunogenicity in mice. However, little is known about the effects of murine Flt3 ligand (mFlt3L) on mouse DC development and function...
  61. Wang H, Pierce L, Spangrude G. Distinct roles of IL-7 and stem cell factor in the OP9-DL1 T-cell differentiation culture system. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:1730-40 pubmed
    ..We examined the roles played by IL-7, Flt3 ligand, and stem cell factor (SCF) in differentiation of adult bone marrow cells in the OP9-DL1 culture system...
  62. Tornack J, Kawano Y, Garbi N, Hämmerling G, Melchers F, Tsuneto M. Flt3 ligand-eGFP-reporter expression characterizes functionally distinct subpopulations of CD150+ long-term repopulating murine hematopoietic stem cells. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1477-1487 pubmed publisher
    ..The Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) and its receptor Flt3 are important regulators of HSC maintenance, expansion and differentiation...
  63. Jensen C, Böiers C, Kharazi S, Lübking A, Ryden T, Sigvardsson M, et al. Permissive roles of hematopoietin and cytokine tyrosine kinase receptors in early T-cell development. Blood. 2008;111:2083-90 pubmed
    ..However, we demonstrate that, whereas thymopoiesis is abolished in adult mice doubly deficient in IL-7 and FLT3 ligand (FLT3L), TSLP does not play a key role in IL-7-independent or FLT3L-independent T lymphopoiesis...
  64. Kenins L, Gill J, Boyd R, Hollander G, Wodnar Filipowicz A. Intrathymic expression of Flt3 ligand enhances thymic recovery after irradiation. J Exp Med. 2008;205:523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the BM transplant model to investigate the importance of Flt3 ligand (FL) for the regeneration of the T cell compartment...
  65. Bailey E, Duffield A, Greenblatt S, Aplan P, Small D. Effect of FLT3 ligand on survival and disease phenotype in murine models harboring a FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutation. Comp Med. 2013;63:218-26 pubmed
    ..FLT3 inhibitors have been developed and have some efficacy, but patients often relapse. Levels of FLT3 ligand (FL) are significantly elevated in patients during chemotherapy and may be an important component contributing ..
  66. Ge Y, Waldemer R, Nalluri R, Nuzzi P, Chen J. RNAi screen reveals potentially novel roles of cytokines in myoblast differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68068 pubmed publisher
  67. Pereira de Sousa A, Berthault C, Granato A, Dias S, Ramond C, Kee B, et al. Inhibitors of DNA binding proteins restrict T cell potential by repressing Notch1 expression in Flt3-negative common lymphoid progenitors. J Immunol. 2012;189:3822-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies Id proteins as negative regulators of T cell specification, before B and NK commitment, and provides important insights into the transcriptional networks orchestrating hematopoiesis. ..
  68. Tussiwand R, Everts B, Grajales Reyes G, Kretzer N, Iwata A, Bagaitkar J, et al. Klf4 expression in conventional dendritic cells is required for T helper 2 cell responses. Immunity. 2015;42:916-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Klf4 guides a transcriptional program promoting IRF4-expressing cDCs heterogeneity. ..
  69. Larocque D, Sanderson N, Bergeron J, Curtin J, Girton J, Wibowo M, et al. Exogenous fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand overrides brain immune privilege and facilitates recognition of a neo-antigen without causing autoimmune neuropathology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the prediction that expression of fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand 3 (Flt3L) in the brain will recruit dendritic cells and induce a systemic immune response against exogenous influenza ..
  70. Masten B, Olson G, Kusewitt D, Lipscomb M. Flt3 ligand preferentially increases the number of functionally active myeloid dendritic cells in the lungs of mice. J Immunol. 2004;172:4077-83 pubmed
    In the present study, we investigated the effects of in vivo Flt3L administration on the generation, phenotype, and function of lung dendritic cells (DCs) to evaluate whether Flt3L favors the expansion and maturation of a particular DC ..
  71. Lyman S, James L, Escobar S, Downey H, de Vries P, Brasel K, et al. Identification of soluble and membrane-bound isoforms of the murine flt3 ligand generated by alternative splicing of mRNAs. Oncogene. 1995;10:149-57 pubmed
    We have recently described a novel hematopoietic growth factor, referred to as the flt3 ligand, that stimulates the proliferation of sub-populations of hematopoietic cells that are enriched for stem and progenitor cells...
  72. Thom J, Walton S, Torti N, Oxenius A. Salivary gland resident APCs are Flt3L- and CCR2-independent macrophage-like cells incapable of cross-presentation. Eur J Immunol. 2014;44:706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammatory monocytes, monocyte-derived DCs as well as conventional, Flt3L-dependent DCs do not contribute to this population...
  73. Medina K, Tangen S, Seaburg L, Thapa P, Gwin K, Shapiro V. Separation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells from B-cell-biased lymphoid progenitor (BLP) and Pre-pro B cells using PDCA-1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78408 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the presence of PDCA-1(+) pDCs within CLPs may help to explain the conflicting results regarding the origin of these cells. ..
  74. Ohtsuka H, Sakamoto A, Pan J, Inage S, Horigome S, Ichii H, et al. Bcl6 is required for the development of mouse CD4+ and CD8?+ dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Bcl6 is required in cDC precursors for survival and in activated DCs for modulating the cytokine profile. ..