Gene Symbol: Fgfr2
Description: fibroblast growth factor receptor 2
Alias: AU043015, AW556123, Bek, Fgfr-2, Fgfr-7, Fgfr7, KGFR, KGFRTr, svs, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, keratinocyte growth factor receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Fgfr2

Top Publications

  1. Pauley S, Wright T, Pirvola U, Ornitz D, Beisel K, Fritzsch B. Expression and function of FGF10 in mammalian inner ear development. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:203-15 pubmed
    ..Together these data suggest that FGF10 plays a major role in ear morphogenesis. Most of these data are consistent with earlier findings on a null mutation in FGFR2b, one of FGF10's main receptors. ..
  2. Lilleväli K, Haugas M, Matilainen T, Pussinen C, Karis A, Salminen M. Gata3 is required for early morphogenesis and Fgf10 expression during otic development. Mech Dev. 2006;123:415-29 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of Gata3 leads also to a loss of Fgf10 expression in otic epithelium and auditory ganglion demonstrating that Gata3 is an important regulator of Fgf-signalling during otic development. ..
  3. Revest J, Spencer Dene B, Kerr K, De Moerlooze L, Rosewell I, Dickson C. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-IIIb acts upstream of Shh and Fgf4 and is required for limb bud maintenance but not for the induction of Fgf8, Fgf10, Msx1, or Bmp4. Dev Biol. 2001;231:47-62 pubmed
    Mice deficient for FgfR2-IIIb were generated by placing translational stop codons and an IRES-LacZ cassette into exon IIIb of FgfR2...
  4. Nie X. Apoptosis, proliferation and gene expression patterns in mouse developing tongue. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2005;210:125-32 pubmed
    ..Fgf2 was seen in the tongue muscles at the late embryonic and postnatal stages. These results suggest that Bmp and Fgf signalling regulates tongue development at multiple stages, possibly related to proliferation and differentiation. ..
  5. Pirvola U, Zhang X, Mantela J, Ornitz D, Ylikoski J. Fgf9 signaling regulates inner ear morphogenesis through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Dev Biol. 2004;273:350-60 pubmed
    ..stages, Fgf9 is expressed in specific nonsensory domains of the otic epithelium and its receptors, Fgfr1(IIIc) and Fgfr2(IIIc), widely in the surrounding mesenchyme...
  6. Burns R, Fairbanks T, Sala F, De Langhe S, Mailleux A, Thiery J, et al. Requirement for fibroblast growth factor 10 or fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-IIIb signaling for cecal development in mouse. Dev Biol. 2004;265:61-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, FGF10 signaling via FGFR2b appears to be critical in the extension of the epithelium into the mesenchyme during cecal development. ..
  7. Yu K, Xu J, Liu Z, Sosic D, Shao J, Olson E, et al. Conditional inactivation of FGF receptor 2 reveals an essential role for FGF signaling in the regulation of osteoblast function and bone growth. Development. 2003;130:3063-74 pubmed
    Human craniosynostosis syndromes, resulting from activating or neomorphic mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), underscore an essential role for FGFR2 signaling in skeletal development...
  8. Lu P, Ewald A, Martin G, Werb Z. Genetic mosaic analysis reveals FGF receptor 2 function in terminal end buds during mammary gland branching morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;321:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we employed a genetic mosaic analysis based on Cre-mediated recombination to investigate FGF receptor 2 (Fgfr2) function in the postnatal mammary gland...
  9. Ottolenghi C, Omari S, Garcia Ortiz J, Uda M, Crisponi L, Forabosco A, et al. Foxl2 is required for commitment to ovary differentiation. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2053-62 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possible continued involvement of sex-determining genes in maintaining ovarian function throughout female reproductive life. ..

More Information


  1. Pulkkinen M, Spencer Dene B, Dickson C, Otonkoski T. The IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is required for proper growth and branching of pancreatic ductal epithelium but not for differentiation of exocrine or endocrine cells. Mech Dev. 2003;120:167-75 pubmed
    ..Recently it was shown that Fgf10, a major ligand for the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2b), has an important regulatory role in early pancreas development...
  2. Murakami M, Nguyen L, Zhuang Z, Zhang Z, Moodie K, Carmeliet P, et al. The FGF system has a key role in regulating vascular integrity. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3355-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, FGF signaling plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular integrity. ..
  3. Satoh Y, Haraguchi R, Wright T, Mansour S, Partanen J, Hajihosseini M, et al. Regulation of external genitalia development by concerted actions of FGF ligands and FGF receptors. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2004;208:479-86 pubmed
    ..Therefore, FGF10/FGFR2IIIb signals seem to constitute a developmental cascade for such morphogenesis. ..
  4. Aldridge K, Hill C, Austin J, Percival C, Martinez Abadias N, Neuberger T, et al. Brain phenotypes in two FGFR2 mouse models for Apert syndrome. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:987-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Nearly 100% of individuals diagnosed with AS carry one of two neighboring mutations on Fgfr2. The cranial phenotype associated with these two mutations includes coronal suture synostosis, either unilateral (..
  5. Lu P, Yu Y, Perdue Y, Werb Z. The apical ectodermal ridge is a timer for generating distal limb progenitors. Development. 2008;135:1395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we genetically ablated the AER by conditionally removing FGFR2 function and found that distal limb development failed in mutant mice...
  6. Shukla V, Coumoul X, Wang R, Kim H, Deng C. RNA interference and inhibition of MEK-ERK signaling prevent abnormal skeletal phenotypes in a mouse model of craniosynostosis. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1145-50 pubmed
    ..primarily caused by missense mutations leading to amino acid changes S252W or P253R in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)...
  7. Wiedemann M, Trueb B. The mouse Fgfrl1 gene coding for a novel FGF receptor-like protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1520:247-50 pubmed
    ..The gene for Fgfrl1 comprises six exons and is located on mouse chromosome 5 in close proximity to the Idua gene for L-iduronidase. ..
  8. Hart A, Papadopoulou S, Edlund H. Fgf10 maintains notch activation, stimulates proliferation, and blocks differentiation of pancreatic epithelial cells. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:185-93 pubmed
    ..Together, our data suggest a role for FGF10/FGFR2b signalling in regulation of pancreatic cell proliferation and differentiation and that FGF10/FGFR2b signalling affects the Notch-mediated lateral inhibition pathway. ..
  9. Fairbanks T, Kanard R, De Langhe S, Sala F, Del Moral P, Warburton D, et al. A genetic mechanism for cecal atresia: the role of the Fgf10 signaling pathway. J Surg Res. 2004;120:201-9 pubmed
    ..Epithelial and muscular layers of the cecum are not present in the atretic cecum. The Fgf10(-/-) and Fgfr2b(-/-) mutants represent a genetically reproducible animal model of autosomal recessive intestinal atresia. ..
  10. Desai T, Malpel S, Flentke G, Smith S, Cardoso W. Retinoic acid selectively regulates Fgf10 expression and maintains cell identity in the prospective lung field of the developing foregut. Dev Biol. 2004;273:402-15 pubmed
    ..Our study supports RA as an essential regulator of gene expression and cellular activities during primary bud formation. ..
  11. De Moerlooze L, Spencer Dene B, Revest J, Hajihosseini M, Rosewell I, Dickson C. An important role for the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in mesenchymal-epithelial signalling during mouse organogenesis. Development. 2000;127:483-92 pubmed
    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene is differentially spliced to encode two transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor proteins that have different ligand-binding specificities and exclusive tissue distributions...
  12. Yu K, Ornitz D. FGF signaling regulates mesenchymal differentiation and skeletal patterning along the limb bud proximodistal axis. Development. 2008;135:483-91 pubmed
    ..the molecular mechanism of FGF functions during limb development, we conditionally inactivated fgf receptor 2 (Fgfr2) in the mouse AER to terminate all AER functions; for comparison, we inactivated both Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 in limb ..
  13. Hung I, Yu K, Lavine K, Ornitz D. FGF9 regulates early hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and skeletal vascularization in the developing stylopod. Dev Biol. 2007;307:300-13 pubmed
    ..In developing stylopod elements, FGF9 promotes chondrocyte hypertrophy at early stages and regulates vascularization of the growth plate and osteogenesis at later stages of skeletal development. ..
  14. Hayashi T, Ray C, Bermingham McDonogh O. Fgf20 is required for sensory epithelial specification in the developing cochlea. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus define the period of FGF-dependent sensory cell specification and the ligand that mediates this step in cochlear development. ..
  15. Arman E, Haffner Krausz R, Gorivodsky M, Lonai P. Fgfr2 is required for limb outgrowth and lung-branching morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11895-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of Fgfr2 during later stages of embryonic development...
  16. Garcia C, Yu K, Zhao H, Ashery Padan R, Ornitz D, Robinson M, et al. Signaling through FGF receptor-2 is required for lens cell survival and for withdrawal from the cell cycle during lens fiber cell differentiation. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:516-27 pubmed
    ..To address the role of FGFs in lens development, we inactivated FGF receptor-2 (Fgfr2) using a Cre transgene that is expressed in all prospective lens cells from embryonic day 9.0...
  17. Fox M, Sanes J, Borza D, Eswarakumar V, Fassler R, Hudson B, et al. Distinct target-derived signals organize formation, maturation, and maintenance of motor nerve terminals. Cell. 2007;129:179-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, multiple target-derived signals permit discrete control of the formation, maturation, and maintenance of presynaptic specializations. ..
  18. Xian W, Schwertfeger K, Rosen J. Distinct roles of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and 2 in regulating cell survival and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:987-1000 pubmed
    Two related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (FGFR1 and FGFR2), exert distinct effects during carcinogenesis...
  19. Hains D, Sims Lucas S, Kish K, Saha M, McHugh K, Bates C. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in kidney mesenchyme. Pediatr Res. 2008;64:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our goal was to determine whether conditional deletion of Fgfr1 or Fgfr2 alone resulted in multiple ureteric bud induction sites...
  20. Morita J, Nakamura M, Kobayashi Y, Deng C, Funato N, Moriyama K. Soluble form of FGFR2 with S252W partially prevents craniosynostosis of the apert mouse model. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These mutations cause activation of FGFR2 depending on ligand binding...
  21. Lin Y, Chen L, Lin C, Luo Y, Tsai R, Wang F. Neuron-derived FGF9 is essential for scaffold formation of Bergmann radial fibers and migration of granule neurons in the cerebellum. Dev Biol. 2009;329:44-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates that granule neurons secrete FGF9 to control formation of the Bergmann fiber scaffold, which in turn, guides their own inward migration and maturation of Purkinje cells. ..
  22. Hokuto I, Perl A, Whitsett J. Prenatal, but not postnatal, inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling causes emphysema. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:415-21 pubmed
    ..5 but did not alter alveolarization when expressed after birth. Although FGF signaling was required for branching morphogenesis early in lung development, postnatal alveolarization was not influenced by FGFR-HFc. ..
  23. Wang Y, Xiao R, Yang F, Karim B, Iacovelli A, Cai J, et al. Abnormalities in cartilage and bone development in the Apert syndrome FGFR2(+/S252W) mouse. Development. 2005;132:3537-48 pubmed
    ..Two-thirds of affected individuals have a S252W mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)...
  24. Shimokawa K, Kimura Yoshida C, Nagai N, Mukai K, Matsubara K, Watanabe H, et al. Cell surface heparan sulfate chains regulate local reception of FGF signaling in the mouse embryo. Dev Cell. 2011;21:257-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results show that spatiotemporal expression of cell surface-tethered HS chains regulate the local reception of FGF-signaling activity during mammalian embryogenesis. ..
  25. Yin Y, White A, Huh S, Hilton M, Kanazawa H, Long F, et al. An FGF-WNT gene regulatory network controls lung mesenchyme development. Dev Biol. 2008;319:426-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, both FGF and WNT signaling pathways function to sustain mesenchymal growth and coordinate epithelial morphogenesis during the pseudoglandular stage of lung development. ..
  26. Hajihosseini M, Wilson S, De Moerlooze L, Dickson C. A splicing switch and gain-of-function mutation in FgfR2-IIIc hemizygotes causes Apert/Pfeiffer-syndrome-like phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3855-60 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a heterozygotic abrogation of FgfR2-exon 9 (IIIc) in mice causes a splicing switch, resulting in a gain-of-function mutation...
  27. Hayashi T, Ray C, Younkins C, Bermingham McDonogh O. Expression patterns of FGF receptors in the developing mammalian cochlea. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1019-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We compare the receptor expression pattern to markers of the sensory domain (p27kip1) and the early hair cells (math1). ..
  28. Sims Lucas S, Cusack B, Eswarakumar V, Zhang J, Wang F, Bates C. Independent roles of Fgfr2 and Frs2alpha in ureteric epithelium. Development. 2011;138:1275-80 pubmed publisher
    Mice with conditional deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) in the ureteric bud using a Hoxb7cre line (Fgfr2(UB-/-)) develop severe ureteric branching defects; however, ureteric deletion of fibroblast growth factor ..
  29. Yang F, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Hsu B, Jabs E, Elisseeff J. The study of abnormal bone development in the Apert syndrome Fgfr2+/S252W mouse using a 3D hydrogel culture model. Bone. 2008;43:55-63 pubmed publisher
    Apert syndrome is caused by mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) and is characterized by craniosynostosis and other skeletal abnormalities. The Apert syndrome Fgfr2+/S252W mouse model exhibits perinatal lethality...
  30. Jameson S, Lin Y, Capel B. Testis development requires the repression of Wnt4 by Fgf signaling. Dev Biol. 2012;370:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of either Fgf9 or Fgfr2 in an XY gonad resulted in up-regulation of Wnt4 and male-to-female sex reversal...
  31. Xu X, Weinstein M, Li C, Deng C. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and their roles in limb development. Cell Tissue Res. 1999;296:33-43 pubmed
    ..In this review we discuss recent work with FGF receptors to illustrate mechanisms, through which the FGF/FGFR signals specify vertebrate limb initiation, outgrowth and patterning. ..
  32. Nagata M, Nuckolls G, Wang X, Shum L, Seki Y, Kawase T, et al. The primary site of the acrocephalic feature in Apert Syndrome is a dwarf cranial base with accelerated chondrocytic differentiation due to aberrant activation of the FGFR2 signaling. Bone. 2011;48:847-56 pubmed publisher
    ..bone anabolism in the calvarial sutures is considered to be the essential pathologic condition underlying mutant FGFR2-related craniofacial dysostosis...
  33. Mailleux A, Spencer Dene B, Dillon C, Ndiaye D, Savona Baron C, Itoh N, et al. Role of FGF10/FGFR2b signaling during mammary gland development in the mouse embryo. Development. 2002;129:53-60 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that FGF signaling is involved in the maintenance of mammary bud 4, and that Fgf10 deficient epithelium can undergo branching morphogenesis into the mammary fat pad precursor. ..
  34. Zhou X, Pu D, Liu R, Li X, Wen X, Zhang L, et al. The Fgfr2(S252W/+) mutation in mice retards mandible formation and reduces bone mass as in human Apert syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2013;161A:983-92 pubmed publisher
    Apert syndrome is a common craniosynostosis caused by gain-of-function missense mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)...
  35. Holmes G, Rothschild G, Roy U, Deng C, Mansukhani A, Basilico C. Early onset of craniosynostosis in an Apert mouse model reveals critical features of this pathology. Dev Biol. 2009;328:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We have reassessed coronal suture fusion in an Apert Fgfr2 (S252W) mouse model...
  36. Celli G, LaRochelle W, Mackem S, Sharp R, Merlino G. Soluble dominant-negative receptor uncovers essential roles for fibroblast growth factors in multi-organ induction and patterning. EMBO J. 1998;17:1642-55 pubmed
  37. Parsa S, Kuremoto K, Seidel K, Tabatabai R, MacKenzie B, Yamaza T, et al. Signaling by FGFR2b controls the regenerative capacity of adult mouse incisors. Development. 2010;137:3743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that FGFR2b signaling regulates both the establishment of the incisor stem cell niches in the embryo and the regenerative capacity of incisors in the adult. ..
  38. Miraoui H, Oudina K, Petite H, Tanimoto Y, Moriyama K, Marie P. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 promotes osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal cells via ERK1/2 and protein kinase C signaling. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in osteoblast committment and differentiation of murine mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells stably ..
  39. Lavine K, Yu K, White A, Zhang X, Smith C, Partanen J, et al. Endocardial and epicardial derived FGF signals regulate myocardial proliferation and differentiation in vivo. Dev Cell. 2005;8:85-95 pubmed
    ..FGFs thus constitute all or part of the epicardial signal regulating myocardial growth and differentiation. ..
  40. Coumoul X, Shukla V, Li C, Wang R, Deng C. Conditional knockdown of Fgfr2 in mice using Cre-LoxP induced RNA interference. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:e102 pubmed
    ..we validate this system in mouse and show that it can be used to suppress the expression of an endogenous gene (Fgfr2) with high efficiency...
  41. Perlyn C, Deleon V, Babbs C, Govier D, Burell L, Darvann T, et al. The craniofacial phenotype of the Crouzon mouse: analysis of a model for syndromic craniosynostosis using three-dimensional MicroCT. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:740-8 pubmed
    ..MicroCT scans and skeletal preparations were obtained on previously described Fgfr2(C342Y/+) Crouzon mutant mice and wild-type mice at 6 weeks of age...
  42. Shu W, Guttentag S, Wang Z, Andl T, Ballard P, Lu M, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts upstream of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling to regulate proximal-distal patterning in the lung. Dev Biol. 2005;283:226-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a critical upstream regulator of proximal-distal patterning in the lung, in part, through regulation of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling. ..
  43. Agarwal P, Wylie J, Galceran J, Arkhitko O, Li C, Deng C, et al. Tbx5 is essential for forelimb bud initiation following patterning of the limb field in the mouse embryo. Development. 2003;130:623-33 pubmed
    ..These data suggest common pathways for the differentiation and growth of embryonic structures downstream of T-box genes. ..
  44. Jang J, Shin K, Park J. Mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 genes associated with human gastric and colorectal cancers. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3541-3 pubmed
    ..Here we report two identical mutations in FGFR2 that cause craniosynostosis syndromes, Crouzon, Apert, and Pfeiffer in gastric carcinoma...
  45. Kettunen P, Karavanova I, Thesleff I. Responsiveness of developing dental tissues to fibroblast growth factors: expression of splicing alternatives of FGFR1, -2, -3, and of FGFR4; and stimulation of cell proliferation by FGF-2, -4, -8, and -9. Dev Genet. 1998;22:374-85 pubmed
    ..The IIIc splice form of FGFR1 was expressed both in epithelium and mesenchyme whereas FGFR2 IIIc was confined to the mesenchymal cells of the dental follicle...
  46. Petiot A, Perriton C, Dickson C, Cohn M. Development of the mammalian urethra is controlled by Fgfr2-IIIb. Development. 2005;132:2441-50 pubmed
    ..We report that mice lacking the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) exhibit severe hypospadias...
  47. Suzuki H, Suda N, Shiga M, Kobayashi Y, Nakamura M, Iseki S, et al. Apert syndrome mutant FGFR2 and its soluble form reciprocally alter osteogenesis of primary calvarial osteoblasts. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:3267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..primary calvarial osteoblasts derived from transgenic mice, Ap-Tg and sAp-Tg, that expressed an Apert-type mutant FGFR2 (FGFR2IIIc-S252W; FGFR2IIIc-Ap), and the soluble form (extracellular domain only) of the mutant FGFR2 (sFGFR2IIIc-..
  48. Kitagaki J, Ueda Y, Chi X, Sharma N, Elder C, Truffer E, et al. FGF8 is essential for formation of the ductal system in the male reproductive tract. Development. 2011;138:5369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a multifocal requirement for FGF8 in establishing the male reproductive tract ducts and implicate Lhx1 signaling in tubule elongation. ..
  49. Müller Smith K, Williamson T, Schwartz M, Vaccarino F. Impaired motor coordination and disrupted cerebellar architecture in Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 double knockout mice. Brain Res. 2012;1460:12-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 double knockouts (FGFR DKO) generated by Cre-mediated recombination driven by the human GFAP promoter (hGFAP) have ..
  50. Sims Lucas S, Cullen McEwen L, Eswarakumar V, Hains D, Kish K, Becknell B, et al. Deletion of Frs2alpha from the ureteric epithelium causes renal hypoplasia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F1208-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) signaling is critical in maintaining ureteric branching architecture and mesenchymal stromal morphogenesis in the kidney...
  51. Abler L, Mansour S, Sun X. Conditional gene inactivation reveals roles for Fgf10 and Fgfr2 in establishing a normal pattern of epithelial branching in the mouse lung. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1999-2013 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) signaling through FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) is required for lung initiation...
  52. Yin Y, Wang F, Ornitz D. Mesothelial- and epithelial-derived FGF9 have distinct functions in the regulation of lung development. Development. 2011;138:3169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that FGF signaling is primarily responsible for regulating mesenchymal proliferation, whereas ?-catenin signaling is a required permissive factor for mesenchymal FGF signaling. ..
  53. Johnson D, Iseki S, Wilkie A, Morriss Kay G. Expression patterns of Twist and Fgfr1, -2 and -3 in the developing mouse coronal suture suggest a key role for twist in suture initiation and biogenesis. Mech Dev. 2000;91:341-5 pubmed
    ..Twist expression domains show some overlap with those of Fgfr2, which is expressed in the most immature (proliferating) osteogenic tissue.