Gene Symbol: Fgf3
Description: fibroblast growth factor 3
Alias: Fgf-3, Int-2, Int-P, fibroblast growth factor 3, HBGF-3, INT-2 proto-oncogene protein, heparin-binding growth factor 3, proto-oncogene Int-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Fgf3

Top Publications

  1. Kratochwil K, Galceran J, Tontsch S, Roth W, Grosschedl R. FGF4, a direct target of LEF1 and Wnt signaling, can rescue the arrest of tooth organogenesis in Lef1(-/-) mice. Genes Dev. 2002;16:3173-85 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that FGF4 beads induce rapidly the expression of Fgf3 in dental mesenchyme and that both epithelial and mesenchymal FGF proteins induce the delayed expression of Shh in ..
  2. Riccomagno M, Martinu L, Mulheisen M, Wu D, Epstein D. Specification of the mammalian cochlea is dependent on Sonic hedgehog. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2365-78 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data support a model whereby auditory cell fates in the otic vesicle are established by the direct action of Shh. ..
  3. Harada H, Toyono T, Toyoshima K, Yamasaki M, Itoh N, Kato S, et al. FGF10 maintains stem cell compartment in developing mouse incisors. Development. 2002;129:1533-41 pubmed
    ..We found that the absence of the cervical loop was due to a divergence in Fgf10 and Fgf3 expression patterns at E16...
  4. Chen J, Lan Y, Baek J, Gao Y, Jiang R. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in activation of odontogenic mesenchyme during early tooth development. Dev Biol. 2009;334:174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that mesenchymal beta-catenin function is required for expression of Lef1 and Fgf3 in the developing tooth mesenchyme and for induction of primary enamel knot in the developing tooth epithelium...
  5. Alvarez Y, Alonso M, Vendrell V, Zelarayan L, Chamero P, Theil T, et al. Requirements for FGF3 and FGF10 during inner ear formation. Development. 2003;130:6329-38 pubmed
    ..b>FGF3 is expressed in the developing hindbrain and has been shown to be involved in inner ear development of different ..
  6. Klein O, Lyons D, Balooch G, Marshall G, Basson M, Peterka M, et al. An FGF signaling loop sustains the generation of differentiated progeny from stem cells in mouse incisors. Development. 2008;135:377-85 pubmed
    ..These data reveal that the generation of differentiated progeny from a particular stem cell population can be differently regulated in the embryo and adult. ..
  7. Pirvola U, Spencer Dene B, Xing Qun L, Kettunen P, Thesleff I, Fritzsch B, et al. FGF/FGFR-2(IIIb) signaling is essential for inner ear morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2000;20:6125-34 pubmed
    ..Expression of FGF10 mRNA partly overlapped with FGF3 mRNA in the sensory regions, suggesting that they may form parallel signaling pathways within the otic epithelium...
  8. Arnold J, Werling U, Braunstein E, Liao J, Nowotschin S, Edelmann W, et al. Inactivation of Tbx1 in the pharyngeal endoderm results in 22q11DS malformations. Development. 2006;133:977-87 pubmed
    ..These results show that Tbx1 in the PE is required for the patterning and development of the pharyngeal apparatus, thereby disrupting the formation of its derivative structures. ..
  9. Järvinen E, Salazar Ciudad I, Birchmeier W, Taketo M, Jernvall J, Thesleff I. Continuous tooth generation in mouse is induced by activated epithelial Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18627-32 pubmed
    ..These results may implicate Wnt signaling in tooth renewal, a capacity that was all but lost when mammals evolved progressively more complicated tooth shapes. ..

More Information


  1. Raft S, Nowotschin S, Liao J, Morrow B. Suppression of neural fate and control of inner ear morphogenesis by Tbx1. Development. 2004;131:1801-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that Tbx1 acts in the manner of a selector gene to control neural and sensory organ fate specification in the otocyst. ..
  2. Klein O, Minowada G, Peterkova R, Kangas A, Yu B, Lesot H, et al. Sprouty genes control diastema tooth development via bidirectional antagonism of epithelial-mesenchymal FGF signaling. Dev Cell. 2006;11:181-90 pubmed
  3. Miyagawa S, Moon A, Haraguchi R, Inoue C, Harada M, Nakahara C, et al. Dosage-dependent hedgehog signals integrated with Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulate external genitalia formation as an appendicular program. Development. 2009;136:3969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the integration of growth factor signaling in the appendicular developmental programs that regulate external genitalia development...
  4. Mailleux A, Spencer Dene B, Dillon C, Ndiaye D, Savona Baron C, Itoh N, et al. Role of FGF10/FGFR2b signaling during mammary gland development in the mouse embryo. Development. 2002;129:53-60 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that FGF signaling is involved in the maintenance of mammary bud 4, and that Fgf10 deficient epithelium can undergo branching morphogenesis into the mammary fat pad precursor. ..
  5. Vainio S, Karavanova I, Jowett A, Thesleff I. Identification of BMP-4 as a signal mediating secondary induction between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during early tooth development. Cell. 1993;75:45-58 pubmed
    ..In addition, BMP-4 induced its own mesenchymal expression. These findings support the hypothesis that BMP-4 mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during early tooth development. ..
  6. Kettunen P, Laurikkala J, Itäranta P, Vainio S, Itoh N, Thesleff I. Associations of FGF-3 and FGF-10 with signaling networks regulating tooth morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:322-32 pubmed
    ..The dynamic expression patterns of different Fgfs in dental epithelium and mesenchyme and their interactions suggest existence of regulatory signaling cascades between epithelial and mesenchymal FGFs during tooth development. ..
  7. Chen B, Kim E, Xu P. Initiation of olfactory placode development and neurogenesis is blocked in mice lacking both Six1 and Six4. Dev Biol. 2009;326:75-85 pubmed publisher
  8. Theil T, Ariza McNaughton L, Manzanares M, Brodie J, Krumlauf R, Wilkinson D. Requirement for downregulation of kreisler during late patterning of the hindbrain. Development. 2002;129:1477-85 pubmed
    ..In these transgenic mice, the Fgf3, Krox20, Hoxa3 and Hoxb3 genes have ectopic or prolonged expression domains in r3, indicating that it acquires ..
  9. Elson A, Kozak C, Morton C, Weremowicz S, Leder P. The protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon gene maps to mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 10q26. Genomics. 1996;31:373-5 pubmed
    ..Both isoforms have been suggested to arise from a single gene through the use of alternative promoters and 5' exons. The identification of a single PTP epsilon locus in both organisms is consistent with this suggestion. ..
  10. Robinson M, Ohtaka Maruyama C, Chan C, Jamieson S, Dickson C, Overbeek P, et al. Disregulation of ocular morphogenesis by lens-specific expression of FGF-3/int-2 in transgenic mice. Dev Biol. 1998;198:13-31 pubmed
    ..Expression of FGF-3 in the lens also resulted in developmental alterations of the eyelids, cornea, and retina, and in the most severely affected transgenic lines, the postnatal appearance of intraocular glandular structures. ..
  11. Fekete D. Development of the vertebrate ear: insights from knockouts and mutants. Trends Neurosci. 1999;22:263-9 pubmed
    ..Genes that are regionally expressed in the inner ear can, when absent or mutated, yield selective ablation of specific inner-ear structures or cell types. ..
  12. Ozawa K, Uruno T, Miyakawa K, Seo M, Imamura T. Expression of the fibroblast growth factor family and their receptor family genes during mouse brain development. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;41:279-88 pubmed
    ..e., proliferation and migration of neuronal progenitor cells, neuron and glia differentiation, neurite extensions, and synapse formations. ..
  13. Bianchi A, Rinchik E, Conti C. Reassignment of the H-ras-1 gene to the Hbb-terminus region of mouse chromosome 7. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:220-2 pubmed
  14. Zhao B, Chua S, Burcin M, Reynolds S, Stripp B, Edwards R, et al. Phenotypic consequences of lung-specific inducible expression of FGF-3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:5898-903 pubmed
    ..Both phenotypes were reversible after the withdrawal of RU486. This system will be a valuable means of investigating the diverse roles of FGFs in the adult lung. ..
  15. Lee F, Lane T, Kuo A, Shackleford G, Leder P. Insertional mutagenesis identifies a member of the Wnt gene family as a candidate oncogene in the mammary epithelium of int-2/Fgf-3 transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2268-72 pubmed
    ..This newly discovered Wnt family member was expressed in the embryo and mammary gland of virgin but not pregnant mice and represents a candidate collaborating oncogene of int-2/Fgf-3 in the mammary epithelium. ..
  16. Wang Y, Song L, Zhou C. The canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway regulates Fgf signaling for early facial development. Dev Biol. 2011;349:250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression of several cell-survival and patterning factors, including Fgf8, Fgf3, and Fgf17, is dramatically diminished in the anterior neural ridge (ANR, a rostral signaling center) and/or the ..
  17. Wilkinson D, Bhatt S, McMahon A. Expression pattern of the FGF-related proto-oncogene int-2 suggests multiple roles in fetal development. Development. 1989;105:131-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, int-2 RNA is detected in the mesenchyme of the developing teeth and in sensory regions of the inner ear. This complex and dynamic pattern suggests multiple roles of this proto-oncogene during fetal development of the mouse. ..
  18. Ahn Y, Sims C, Murray M, Kuhlmann P, Fuentes Antrás J, Weatherbee S, et al. Multiple modes of Lrp4 function in modulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling during tooth development. Development. 2017;144:2824-2836 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a model whereby Lrp4 modulates Wnt/?-catenin signaling via interaction with Wnt ligands and antagonists in a context-dependent manner. ..
  19. Theil T, Dominguez Frutos E, Schimmang T. Differential requirements for Fgf3 and Fgf8 during mouse forebrain development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Next to Fgf8, Fgf3 also influences telencephalic gene expression in the zebrafish...
  20. Revest J, Suniara R, Kerr K, Owen J, Dickson C. Development of the thymus requires signaling through the fibroblast growth factor receptor R2-IIIb. J Immunol. 2001;167:1954-61 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, sufficient epithelial cell differentiation occurs in the severely hypoplastic thymus to allow the development of CD4/CD8-double-positive thymocytes and a very small number of single-positive thymocytes expressing TCRs. ..
  21. Köhl R, Antoine M, Reimers K, Kiefer P. FGF3 attached to a phosholipid membrane anchor gains a high transforming capacity. Implications of microdomains for FGF3 cell transformation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32760-7 pubmed
    NIH3T3 cells transformed by mouse FGF3-cDNA (DMI cells) selected for their ability to grow as anchorage-independent colonies in soft agar and in defined medium lacking growth factors exhibit a highly transformed phenotype...
  22. Al Alam D, Danopoulos S, Schall K, Sala F, Almohazey D, Fernandez G, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 10 alters the balance between goblet and Paneth cells in the adult mouse small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;308:G678-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism by which Fgf10 alters cell differentiation in the small intestine. ..
  23. Acland P, Dixon M, Peters G, Dickson C. Subcellular fate of the int-2 oncoprotein is determined by choice of initiation codon. Nature. 1990;343:662-5 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the Int-2 oncoprotein could influence cellular behaviour by two distinct mechanisms. ..
  24. Bei M, Maas R. FGFs and BMP4 induce both Msx1-independent and Msx1-dependent signaling pathways in early tooth development. Development. 1998;125:4325-33 pubmed
    ..epithelial and mesenchymal Fgfs in wild-type and Msx1 mutant tooth germs and tested the ability of FGFs to induce Fgf3 and Bmp4 expression in wild-type and Msx1 mutant dental mesenchymal explants...
  25. Peters G, Brookes S, Smith R, Placzek M, Dickson C. The mouse homolog of the hst/k-FGF gene is adjacent to int-2 and is activated by proviral insertion in some virally induced mammary tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:5678-82 pubmed
  26. Zelarayan L, Vendrell V, Alvarez Y, Dominguez Frutos E, Theil T, Alonso M, et al. Differential requirements for FGF3, FGF8 and FGF10 during inner ear development. Dev Biol. 2007;308:379-91 pubmed
    ..In this study we have looked to define the redundant and conserved roles of FGF3, FGF8 and FGF10 during the development of the murine and avian inner ear...
  27. Niswander L, Martin G. Fgf-4 expression during gastrulation, myogenesis, limb and tooth development in the mouse. Development. 1992;114:755-68 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that individual members of the gene family are expressed sequentially in developmental pathways such as mesoderm formation and myogenesis, and play a role in specific epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. ..
  28. Zhao H, Li S, Han D, Kaartinen V, Chai Y. Alk5-mediated transforming growth factor ? signaling acts upstream of fibroblast growth factor 10 to regulate the proliferation and maintenance of dental epithelial stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2079-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of BrdU label-retaining cells (LRCs) was dramatically reduced in Alk5 mutant mice. Fgf10, Fgf3, and Fgf9 signals in the dental mesenchyme were downregulated in Wnt1-Cre; Alk5(fl/fl) incisors...
  29. Navone N, Bianchi A, Angel J, Conti C. A novel polymorphism near the mouse Int-2 locus. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:296-7 pubmed
  30. Urness L, Paxton C, Wang X, Schoenwolf G, Mansour S. FGF signaling regulates otic placode induction and refinement by controlling both ectodermal target genes and hindbrain Wnt8a. Dev Biol. 2010;340:595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse embryos lacking both Fgf3 and Fgf10 fail to initiate inner ear development because appropriate patterns of gene expression fail to be ..
  31. Mansour S, Goddard J, Capecchi M. Mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of the proto-oncogene int-2 have developmental defects in the tail and inner ear. Development. 1993;117:13-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that even in a uniform genetic background, stochastic variation in the expression of a developmental circuit can result in dramatic differences in phenotypic consequences. ..
  32. Liu W, Levi G, Shanske A, Frenz D. Retinoic acid-induced inner ear teratogenesis caused by defective Fgf3/Fgf10-dependent Dlx5 signaling. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2008;83:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Control of Dlx5 by Fgf3 and Fgf10 under excess RA conditions is investigated by examining the developmental window during which Fgf3 and ..
  33. Anderson M, Southon E, Tessarollo L, Lewandoski M. Fgf3-Fgf4-cis: A new mouse line for studying Fgf functions during mouse development. Genesis. 2016;54:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Such analysis has revealed that multiple Fgfs sometimes function redundantly. Exploring such redundancy between Fgf3 and Fgf4 is currently impossible because both genes are located on chromosome 7, about 18...
  34. Rossant J, Ciruna B, Partanen J. FGF signaling in mouse gastrulation and anteroposterior patterning. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:127-33 pubmed
  35. Rataj Baniowska M, Niewiadomska Cimicka A, Paschaki M, Szyszka Niagolov M, Carramolino L, Torres M, et al. Retinoic Acid Receptor β Controls Development of Striatonigral Projection Neurons through FGF-Dependent and Meis1-Dependent Mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2015;35:14467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced expression of Fgf3 in the subventricular zone of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at embryonic day 13...
  36. Ozaki H, Nakamura K, Funahashi J, Ikeda K, Yamada G, Tokano H, et al. Six1 controls patterning of the mouse otic vesicle. Development. 2004;131:551-62 pubmed
    ..In the otic vesicle of Six1-deficient embryos, expressions of Otx1, Otx2, Lfng and Fgf3, which were expressed ventrally in the wild-type otic vesicles, were abolished, while the expression domains of ..
  37. Zhang Y, Li S, Yuan L, Tian Y, Weidenfeld J, Yang J, et al. Foxp1 coordinates cardiomyocyte proliferation through both cell-autonomous and nonautonomous mechanisms. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocardial loss of Foxp1 results in decreased Fgf3/Fgf16/Fgf17/Fgf20 expression in the heart, leading to reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation...
  38. Hajihosseini M, Heath J. Expression patterns of fibroblast growth factors-18 and -20 in mouse embryos is suggestive of novel roles in calvarial and limb development. Mech Dev. 2002;113:79-83 pubmed
  39. Asada M, Shinomiya M, Suzuki M, Honda E, Sugimoto R, Ikekita M, et al. Glycosaminoglycan affinity of the complete fibroblast growth factor family. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0-1.5 M NaCl. We also found that FGF3, 6, 8 and 22 had strong affinities for CS-E, while FGF5 had a moderate affinity for CS-D...
  40. Silver J, Buckler C. A preferred region for integration of Friend murine leukemia virus in hematopoietic neoplasms is closely linked to the Int-2 oncogene. J Virol. 1986;60:1156-8 pubmed
    ..Studies at the RNA and DNA level prove that these loci are distinct. ..
  41. Frohman M, Martin G, Cordes S, Halamek L, Barsh G. Altered rhombomere-specific gene expression and hyoid bone differentiation in the mouse segmentation mutant, kreisler (kr). Development. 1993;117:925-36 pubmed
  42. Perea Gomez A, Vella F, Shawlot W, Oulad Abdelghani M, Chazaud C, Meno C, et al. Nodal antagonists in the anterior visceral endoderm prevent the formation of multiple primitive streaks. Dev Cell. 2002;3:745-56 pubmed
    ..Both antagonists are also required for proper patterning of the primitive streak. ..
  43. Mansour S, Thomas K, Capecchi M. Disruption of the proto-oncogene int-2 in mouse embryo-derived stem cells: a general strategy for targeting mutations to non-selectable genes. Nature. 1988;336:348-52 pubmed
    ..The procedure was applied to the isolation of hprt- and int-2- mutants, but it should be applicable to any gene. ..
  44. Rochester J, Chung W, Hayes T, Tsai P. Opposite-sex housing reactivates the declining GnRH system in aged transgenic male mice with FGF signaling deficiency. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E1428-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests the postnatal GnRH system is highly plastic and capable of responding to environmental stimuli throughout adult life. ..
  45. Dickson C, Acland P, Smith R, Dixon M, Deed R, Macallan D, et al. Characterization of int-2: a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1990;13:87-96 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest the potential for a dual role of int-2; an autocrine function acting at the cell nucleus, and a possible paracrine action through a secreted product. ..
  46. Vidrich A, Buzan J, Ilo C, Bradley L, Skaar K, Cohn S. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 is expressed in undifferentiated intestinal epithelial cells during murine crypt morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:114-23 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that signaling through FGFR-3 plays a role in regulating morphogenic events involved in formation of intestinal crypts and/or the fate of epithelial stem cells. ..
  47. Gardiner J, Jackson A, Gordon J, Lickert H, Manley N, Basson M. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis. Development. 2012;139:3456-66 pubmed publisher
  48. Kyrylkova K, Kyryachenko S, Biehs B, Klein O, Kioussi C, Leid M. BCL11B regulates epithelial proliferation and asymmetric development of the mouse mandibular incisor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37670 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data integrate BCL11B into these pathways during incisor development and reveal the molecular mechanisms that underlie phenotypes of both Bcl11b(-/-) and Sprouty mutant mice. ..
  49. Ord D, Edelhoff S, Dushkin H, Zhou L, Beier D, Disteche C, et al. CD19 maps to a region of conservation between human chromosome 16 and mouse chromosome 7. Immunogenetics. 1994;39:322-8 pubmed
    ..Multiple genes with a lymphocyte-related function also map to this conserved region including genes encoding the IL-4 receptor, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD43 (leukosialin), and protein kinase C beta polypeptide. ..
  50. Barrionuevo F, Naumann A, Bagheri Fam S, Speth V, Taketo M, Scherer G, et al. Sox9 is required for invagination of the otic placode in mice. Dev Biol. 2008;317:213-24 pubmed publisher
  51. Watson M, Rao J, Gilkeson G, Ruiz P, Eicher E, Pisetsky D, et al. Genetic analysis of MRL-lpr mice: relationship of the Fas apoptosis gene to disease manifestations and renal disease-modifying loci. J Exp Med. 1992;176:1645-56 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this study provides a model for dissecting the complex genetic interactions that result in manifestations of autoimmune disease. ..
  52. Jaskoll T, Zhou Y, Chai Y, Makarenkova H, Collinson J, West J, et al. Embryonic submandibular gland morphogenesis: stage-specific protein localization of FGFs, BMPs, Pax6 and Pax9 in normal mice and abnormal SMG phenotypes in FgfR2-IIIc(+/Delta), BMP7(-/-) and Pax6(-/-) mice. Cells Tissues Organs. 2002;170:83-98 pubmed
    ..Finally, our observations of abnormal SMGs in BMP7(-/-) and Pax6(-/-) indicate that both BMP7 and Pax6 play important roles during embryonic SMG branching morphogenesis. ..
  53. Lin C, Yin Y, Bell S, Veith G, Chen H, Huh S, et al. Delineating a conserved genetic cassette promoting outgrowth of body appendages. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003231 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that a conserved WNT-SP8-FGF8 genetic cassette is employed by both appendages for promoting outgrowth, and suggest a deep homology shared by the limb and external genitalia. ..
  54. Yoshida T, Muramatsu H, Muramatsu T, Sakamoto H, Katoh O, Sugimura T, et al. Differential expression of two homologous and clustered oncogenes, Hst1 and Int-2, during differentiation of F9 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;157:618-25 pubmed
    ..Hst1 was expressed in an undifferentiated mouse teratocarcinoma cell line, F9. Upon induction of differentiation of F9 cells, the amount of Hst1 transcript was markedly decreased, while that of Int-2 transcripts increased concomitantly. ..
  55. Ollendorff V, Szepetowski P, Mattei M, Gaudray P, Birnbaum D. New gene in the homologous human 11q13-q14 and mouse 7F chromosomal regions. Mamm Genome. 1992;2:195-200 pubmed
    ..The human and mouse genes belong to a conserved group of synteny. This, together with the similar conservation of the FGF and TYR genes, indicates that the human 11q13-q14 and mouse 7E-7F regions share homology. ..
  56. Meng T, Huang Y, Wang S, Zhang H, Dechow P, Wang X, et al. Twist1 Is Essential for Tooth Morphogenesis and Odontoblast Differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:29593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggest that Twist1 plays crucial roles in regulating tooth development and that it may exert its functions through the FGF signaling pathway. ..
  57. Vickers P, O Neill G, Mancini J, Charleson S, Abramovitz M. Cross-species comparison of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein. Mol Pharmacol. 1992;42:1014-9 pubmed
    ..Two regions of the protein are almost totally conserved among all of the species analyzed. This suggests that these regions have functional significance and may be involved in inhibitor binding...
  58. Trokovic N, Trokovic R, Mai P, Partanen J. Fgfr1 regulates patterning of the pharyngeal region. Genes Dev. 2003;17:141-53 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Fgfr1 patterns the pharyngeal region to create a permissive environment for neural crest cell migration. ..
  59. Robledo R, Lufkin T. Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are required for specification of the mammalian vestibular apparatus. Genesis. 2006;44:425-37 pubmed
    ..Given their proximity to the disease locus and the observed phenotype in Dlx5/6 null mice, Dlx5/6 are likely candidates to mediate the inner ear defects observed in patients with split hand/split foot malformation. ..
  60. Liu C, Gu S, Sun C, Ye W, Song Z, Zhang Y, et al. FGF signaling sustains the odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme by suppressing ?-catenin signaling. Development. 2013;140:4375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of FGF3 to incisor reaggregates inhibits ?-catenin signaling activity and rescues tooth formation...
  61. Pritchard M, Baker E, Whitmore S, Sutherland G, Idzerda R, Park L, et al. The interleukin-4 receptor gene (IL4R) maps to 16p11.2-16p12.1 in human and to the distal region of mouse chromosome 7. Genomics. 1991;10:801-6 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the position on human chromosome 16 suggests that the IL4R may be a candidate for rearrangements, as 12;16 translocations are often associated with myxoid liposarcomas. ..
  62. Tremblay K, Dunn N, Robertson E. Mouse embryos lacking Smad1 signals display defects in extra-embryonic tissues and germ cell formation. Development. 2001;128:3609-21 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data have uncovered a unique function for Smad1 signaling in coordinating the growth of extra-embryonic structures necessary to support development within the uterine environment. ..
  63. Morris D, Dutra J. Identification of a MMTV insertion mutation within the coding region of the Fgf-3 protooncogene. Virology. 1997;238:161-5 pubmed
    ..These data document the first exception to the generalization that the Fgf-3 coding region is not disrupted by MMTV insertion mutation. ..
  64. Carlton M, Colledge W, Evans M. Crouzon-like craniofacial dysmorphology in the mouse is caused by an insertional mutation at the Fgf3/Fgf4 locus. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:242-9 pubmed
    ..The retroviral vector integration responsible for the Bey mutation is inserted in the intragenic region between Fgf3 and Fgf4...
  65. Lin Z, Cantos R, Patente M, Wu D. Gbx2 is required for the morphogenesis of the mouse inner ear: a downstream candidate of hindbrain signaling. Development. 2005;132:2309-18 pubmed
    ..However, Gbx2 promotes ventral fates such as the saccule and cochlear duct, possibly by restricting Otx2 expression...
  66. Kwan H, Pecenka V, Tsukamoto A, Parslow T, Guzman R, Lin T, et al. Transgenes expressing the Wnt-1 and int-2 proto-oncogenes cooperate during mammary carcinogenesis in doubly transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:147-54 pubmed
  67. Rizzoti K, Lovell Badge R. SOX3 activity during pharyngeal segmentation is required for craniofacial morphogenesis. Development. 2007;134:3437-48 pubmed
    ..They also give insight into the formation of pharyngeal pouches, of which little is known in vertebrates. Finally, this work introduces two new players in craniofacial development - SOX3 and SOX2. ..
  68. Jayasena C, Ohyama T, Segil N, Groves A. Notch signaling augments the canonical Wnt pathway to specify the size of the otic placode. Development. 2008;135:2251-61 pubmed publisher
  69. Xu P, Adams J, Peters H, Brown M, Heaney S, Maas R. Eya1-deficient mice lack ears and kidneys and show abnormal apoptosis of organ primordia. Nat Genet. 1999;23:113-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results suggest that an evolutionarily conserved Pax-Eya-Six regulatory hierarchy is used in mammalian ear and kidney development. ..
  70. Pickles J. The expression of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors in the embryonic and neonatal mouse inner ear. Hear Res. 2001;155:54-62 pubmed
    ..expression of the b and c variants of the FGF receptors, together with the expression of the ligands FGF1, FGF2, FGF3, FGF7, FGF8b and FGF8c, was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in ..
  71. Shekels L, Lyftogt C, Kieliszewski M, Filie J, Kozak C, Ho S. Mouse gastric mucin: cloning and chromosomal localization. Biochem J. 1995;311 ( Pt 3):775-85 pubmed
    ..Due to sequence similarity and predominant expression in the stomach, the MGM gene may be considered a MUC5AC homologue and named Muc5ac. ..
  72. Peters G, Kozak C, Dickson C. Mouse mammary tumor virus integration regions int-1 and int-2 map on different mouse chromosomes. Mol Cell Biol. 1984;4:375-8 pubmed
    ..This constitutes proof that int-1 and int-2 are discrete genetic loci. It is therefore possible that proviral activation of two distinct cellular genes may result in the same neoplastic disease. ..
  73. Chua S, Ma Z, Gong L, Lin S, DeMayo F, Tsai S. Ectopic expression of FGF-3 results in abnormal prostate and Wolffian duct development. Oncogene. 2002;21:1899-908 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we show that ectopic FGF-3 expression severely perturbs normal prostate development and our system should be useful for the analyses of early changes in prostatic hyperplasia. ..
  74. Mansour S, Li C, Urness L. Genetic rescue of Muenke syndrome model hearing loss reveals prolonged FGF-dependent plasticity in cochlear supporting cell fates. Genes Dev. 2013;27:2320-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This property might be exploited for the regulation of sensory cell regeneration from support cells. ..
  75. Wahl M, Deng C, Lewandoski M, Pourquie O. FGF signaling acts upstream of the NOTCH and WNT signaling pathways to control segmentation clock oscillations in mouse somitogenesis. Development. 2007;134:4033-41 pubmed
    ..Together, these experiments provide genetic evidence for the role of FGF signaling in segmentation, and identify a signaling hierarchy controlling clock oscillations downstream of FGF signaling in the mouse. ..
  76. Ngan E, Ma Z, Chua S, DeMayo F, Tsai S. Inducible expression of FGF-3 in mouse mammary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11187-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the mifepristone-inducible regulatory system provides a powerful means for understanding the diverse roles of FGF-3 and its interactions with hormones in mammary gland tumorigenesis. ..
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