Fgf21

Summary

Gene Symbol: Fgf21
Description: fibroblast growth factor 21
Alias: fibroblast growth factor 21, FGF-21
Species: mouse
Products:     Fgf21

Top Publications

  1. Teillon S, Calderon G, Rios M. Diminished diet-induced hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia and enhanced expression of PPARalpha and FGF21 in mice with hepatic ablation of brain-derived neurotropic factor. J Endocrinol. 2010;205:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Pparalpha or Ppara as listed in the MGI Database) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) transcripts compared with WTs...
  2. Hondares E, Iglesias R, Giralt A, Gonzalez F, Giralt M, Mampel T, et al. Thermogenic activation induces FGF21 expression and release in brown adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12983-90 pubmed publisher
    b>FGF21 is a novel metabolic regulator involved in the control of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and ketogenesis. The liver has been considered the main site of production and release of FGF21 into the blood...
  3. Oishi K, Konishi M, Murata Y, Itoh N. Time-imposed daily restricted feeding induces rhythmic expression of Fgf21 in white adipose tissue of mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:396-400 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key metabolic regulator that is induced by fasting and starvation, and its expression is thought to be regulated by the circadian clock in the liver...
  4. Suzuki M, Uehara Y, Motomura Matsuzaka K, Oki J, Koyama Y, Kimura M, et al. betaKlotho is required for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 signaling through FGF receptor (FGFR) 1c and FGFR3c. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1006-14 pubmed publisher
    ..BaF3 cells, which do not endogenously express any type of FGF receptor (FGFR) or heparan sulfate proteoglycan, FGF21 alone does not activate FGFRs and that betaKlotho is required for FGF21 to activate two specific FGFR subtypes: ..
  5. Inagaki T, Lin V, Goetz R, Mohammadi M, Mangelsdorf D, Kliewer S. Inhibition of growth hormone signaling by the fasting-induced hormone FGF21. Cell Metab. 2008;8:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone induced by fasting, causes GH resistance...
  6. Kharitonenkov A, Shiyanova T, Koester A, Ford A, Micanovic R, Galbreath E, et al. FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1627-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that FGF-21, which we have identified as a novel metabolic factor, exhibits the therapeutic characteristics necessary for an effective treatment of diabetes. ..
  7. Hondares E, Rosell M, Gonzalez F, Giralt M, Iglesias R, Villarroya F. Hepatic FGF21 expression is induced at birth via PPARalpha in response to milk intake and contributes to thermogenic activation of neonatal brown fat. Cell Metab. 2010;11:206-12 pubmed publisher
    Plasma FGF21 levels and hepatic FGF21 gene expression increase dramatically after birth in mice...
  8. Potthoff M, Inagaki T, Satapati S, Ding X, He T, Goetz R, et al. FGF21 induces PGC-1alpha and regulates carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during the adaptive starvation response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10853-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone that is induced in liver by fasting, induces hepatic expression of peroxisome ..
  9. Uebanso T, Taketani Y, Yamamoto H, Amo K, Tanaka S, Arai H, et al. Liver X receptor negatively regulates fibroblast growth factor 21 in the fatty liver induced by cholesterol-enriched diet. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence has demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) regulates hepatic lipolysis and fatty acid utilization...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Dutchak P, Katafuchi T, Bookout A, Choi J, Yu R, Mangelsdorf D, et al. Fibroblast growth factor-21 regulates PPAR? activity and the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones. Cell. 2012;148:556-67 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a circulating hepatokine that beneficially affects carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
  2. Wang H, Qiang L, Farmer S. Identification of a domain within peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulating expression of a group of genes containing fibroblast growth factor 21 that are selectively repressed by SIRT1 in adipocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:188-200 pubmed
    ..amino acid is also required for expression of a novel subset of adipocyte genes (group 2), including fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and that the FGF21 gene is a direct target of PPARgamma...
  3. Holland W, Adams A, Brozinick J, Bui H, Miyauchi Y, Kusminski C, et al. An FGF21-adiponectin-ceramide axis controls energy expenditure and insulin action in mice. Cell Metab. 2013;17:790-7 pubmed publisher
    b>FGF21, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily, has recently emerged as a regulator of metabolism and energy utilization. However, the exact mechanism(s) whereby FGF21 mediates its actions have not been elucidated...
  4. Izumiya Y, Bina H, Ouchi N, Akasaki Y, Kharitonenkov A, Walsh K. FGF21 is an Akt-regulated myokine. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3805-10 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) functions as a metabolic regulator. The FGF21 transcript is reported to be abundantly expressed in liver, but little is known about the regulation of FGF21 expression in other tissues...
  5. Feingold K, Grunfeld C, Heuer J, Gupta A, Cramer M, Zhang T, et al. FGF21 is increased by inflammatory stimuli and protects leptin-deficient ob/ob mice from the toxicity of sepsis. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2689-700 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a recently discovered hormone that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism and stimulates ..
  6. Wu S, Levenson A, Kharitonenkov A, De Luca F. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) inhibits chondrocyte function and growth hormone action directly at the growth plate. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:26060-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) modulates glucose and lipid metabolism during fasting...
  7. Hotta Y, Nakamura H, Konishi M, Murata Y, Takagi H, Matsumura S, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 regulates lipolysis in white adipose tissue but is not required for ketogenesis and triglyceride clearance in liver. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4625-33 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) are polypeptide growth factors with diverse functions. Fgf21, a unique member of the Fgf family, is expected to function as a metabolic regulator in an endocrine manner...
  8. Estall J, Ruas J, Choi C, Laznik D, Badman M, Maratos Flier E, et al. PGC-1alpha negatively regulates hepatic FGF21 expression by modulating the heme/Rev-Erb(alpha) axis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22510-5 pubmed publisher
    b>FGF21 is a hormone produced in liver and fat that dramatically improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism...
  9. Ohta H, Konishi M, Itoh N. FGF10 and FGF21 as regulators in adipocyte development and metabolism. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2011;11:302-9 pubmed
    ..FGF10 and FGF21 play unique roles in adipocyte development and metabolism, respectively...
  10. Owen B, Bookout A, Ding X, Lin V, Atkin S, Gautron L, et al. FGF21 contributes to neuroendocrine control of female reproduction. Nat Med. 2013;19:1153-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that exposure of female mice to fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a fasting-induced hepatokine, mimics infertility secondary to starvation...
  11. Kim K, Jeong Y, Oh H, Kim S, Cho J, Kim Y, et al. Autophagy deficiency leads to protection from obesity and insulin resistance by inducing Fgf21 as a mitokine. Nat Med. 2013;19:83-92 pubmed publisher
    ..by increased fatty acid oxidation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) owing to induction of fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21)...
  12. Kharitonenkov A, Dunbar J, Bina H, Bright S, Moyers J, Zhang C, et al. FGF-21/FGF-21 receptor interaction and activation is determined by betaKlotho. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:1-7 pubmed
    ..All together, these results indicate that betaKlotho and FGFRs form the cognate FGF-21 receptor complex, mediating FGF-21 cellular specificity and physiological effects. ..
  13. Kurosu H, Kuro O M. The Klotho gene family as a regulator of endocrine fibroblast growth factors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;299:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..studies has shown that betaKlotho, a Klotho family protein, also functions as a cofactor required for FGF19 and FGF21 signaling and determines the tissue-specific metabolic activities of FGF19 and FGF21...
  14. Habegger K, Stemmer K, Cheng C, Müller T, Heppner K, Ottaway N, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 mediates specific glucagon actions. Diabetes. 2013;62:1453-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, GcgR activation also raised hepatic expression and circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
  15. Jiang X, Zhang C, Xin Y, Huang Z, Tan Y, Huang Y, et al. Protective effect of FGF21 on type 1 diabetes-induced testicular apoptotic cell death probably via both mitochondrial- and endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent pathways in the mouse model. Toxicol Lett. 2013;219:65-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel member identified and was reported to express predominantly in pancreas, liver and adipose tissue, and relatively less in other organs, such as the testis...
  16. Fisher F, Estall J, Adams A, Antonellis P, Bina H, Flier J, et al. Integrated regulation of hepatic metabolism by fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in vivo. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2996-3004 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) plays an important role in regulating hepatic oxidation of fatty acids and gluconeogenesis in response to fasting and during consumption of a ketogenic diet...
  17. Ge X, Chen C, Hui X, Wang Y, Lam K, Xu A. Fibroblast growth factor 21 induces glucose transporter-1 expression through activation of the serum response factor/Ets-like protein-1 in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34533-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a liver-secreted endocrine factor with multiple beneficial effects on obesity-related disorders. It enhances glucose uptake by inducing the expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) in adipocytes...
  18. Fisher F, Kleiner S, Douris N, Fox E, Mepani R, Verdeguer F, et al. FGF21 regulates PGC-1? and browning of white adipose tissues in adaptive thermogenesis. Genes Dev. 2012;26:271-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays a physiologic role in this thermogenic recruitment of WATs...
  19. Hale C, Chen M, Stanislaus S, Chinookoswong N, Hager T, Wang M, et al. Lack of overt FGF21 resistance in two mouse models of obesity and insulin resistance. Endocrinology. 2012;153:69-80 pubmed publisher
    Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a metabolic regulator of glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, are elevated in obese diabetic subjects, raising questions about potential FGF21 resistance...
  20. Micanovic R, Raches D, Dunbar J, Driver D, Bina H, Dickinson C, et al. Different roles of N- and C- termini in the functional activity of FGF21. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:227-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a member of endocrine FGFs subfamily, along with FGF19 and FGF23. It is emerging as a novel regulator with beneficial effects on a variety of metabolic parameters, including glucose and lipid control...
  21. Badman M, Pissios P, Kennedy A, Koukos G, Flier J, Maratos Flier E. Hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by PPARalpha and is a key mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism in ketotic states. Cell Metab. 2007;5:426-37 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as an endocrine regulator of the ketotic state...
  22. Kubicky R, Wu S, Kharitonenkov A, De Luca F. Role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in undernutrition-related attenuation of growth in mice. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether the increased activity of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) during chronic undernutrition in mice causes GH insensitivity and growth failure...
  23. Yang C, Jin C, Li X, Wang F, McKeehan W, Luo Y. Differential specificity of endocrine FGF19 and FGF21 to FGFR1 and FGFR4 in complex with KLB. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33870 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest that betaKlotho (KLB) and endocrine FGF19 and FGF21 redirect FGFR signaling to regulation of metabolic homeostasis and suppression of obesity and diabetes...
  24. Lundåsen T, Hunt M, Nilsson L, Sanyal S, Angelin B, Alexson S, et al. PPARalpha is a key regulator of hepatic FGF21. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;360:437-40 pubmed
    The metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has antidiabetic properties in animal models of diabetes and obesity...
  25. Badman M, Koester A, Flier J, Kharitonenkov A, Maratos Flier E. Fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice demonstrate impaired adaptation to ketosis. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4931-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key metabolic regulator...
  26. Chen W, Hoo R, Konishi M, Itoh N, Lee P, Ye H, et al. Growth hormone induces hepatic production of fibroblast growth factor 21 through a mechanism dependent on lipolysis in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate the existence of a feedback loop between GH and FGF21 on the regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes...
  27. Berglund E, Li C, Bina H, Lynes S, Michael M, Shanafelt A, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 controls glycemia via regulation of hepatic glucose flux and insulin sensitivity. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4084-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic regulator shown to improve glycemic control...
  28. Cyphert H, Ge X, Kohan A, Salati L, Zhang Y, Hillgartner F. Activation of the farnesoid X receptor induces hepatic expression and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25123-38 pubmed publisher
    ..that starvation or consumption of a high fat, low carbohydrate (HF-LC) ketogenic diet induces hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression in part by activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?)...
  29. Zhang Y, Xie Y, Berglund E, Coate K, He T, Katafuchi T, et al. The starvation hormone, fibroblast growth factor-21, extends lifespan in mice. elife. 2012;1:e00065 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted by the liver during fasting that elicits diverse aspects of the adaptive starvation response...
  30. Inagaki T, Dutchak P, Zhao G, Ding X, Gautron L, Parameswara V, et al. Endocrine regulation of the fasting response by PPARalpha-mediated induction of fibroblast growth factor 21. Cell Metab. 2007;5:415-25 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify the endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as a mediator of the pleiotropic actions of PPARalpha...
  31. Wu S, Grunwald T, Kharitonenkov A, Dam J, Jockers R, De Luca F. Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) during chronic undernutrition causes growth hormone insensitivity in chondrocytes by inducing leptin receptor overlapping transcript (LEPROT) and leptin receptor overlapping transcript-like . J Biol Chem. 2013;288:27375-83 pubmed publisher
    During calorie restriction in mice, increased expression of FGF21 causes growth attenuation and growth hormone (GH) insensitivity...
  32. Lin Z, Tian H, Lam K, Lin S, Hoo R, Konishi M, et al. Adiponectin mediates the metabolic effects of FGF21 on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in mice. Cell Metab. 2013;17:779-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic actions of FGF21 remain unknown...
  33. Adams A, Cheng C, Coskun T, Kharitonenkov A. FGF21 requires ?klotho to act in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49977 pubmed publisher
    b>FGF21 has gradually become a focal point in metabolic research given its intriguing and complex biology and relevance to drug discovery...
  34. Nishimura T, Nakatake Y, Konishi M, Itoh N. Identification of a novel FGF, FGF-21, preferentially expressed in the liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1492:203-6 pubmed
    ..Human FGF-21 is highly identical ( approximately 75% amino acid identity) to mouse FGF-21. Among human FGF family members, FGF-21 is most similar ( approximately 35% amino acid identity) to FGF-19. ..
  35. Wei W, Dutchak P, Wang X, Ding X, Wang X, Bookout A, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 promotes bone loss by potentiating the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3143-8 pubmed publisher
    The endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a powerful modulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and a promising drug for type 2 diabetes. Here we identify FGF21 as a potent regulator of skeletal homeostasis...
  36. Oishi K, Uchida D, Ishida N. Circadian expression of FGF21 is induced by PPARalpha activation in the mouse liver. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3639-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have suggested that the expression of PPARalpha-dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays important roles in adaptation to fasting, such as lipolysis and ketogenesis...
  37. Yan X, Chen J, Zhang C, Zeng J, Zhou S, Zhang Z, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 deletion aggravates diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta in type 1 diabetic mice. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015;14:77 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism, and has been considered as a potential therapy for diabetes...
  38. Solon Biet S, Cogger V, Pulpitel T, Heblinski M, Wahl D, McMahon A, et al. Defining the Nutritional and Metabolic Context of FGF21 Using the Geometric Framework. Cell Metab. 2016;24:555-565 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is the first known endocrine signal activated by protein restriction...
  39. Woolsey S, Beaton M, Mansell S, Leon Ponte M, Yu J, Pin C, et al. A Fibroblast Growth Factor 21-Pregnane X Receptor Pathway Downregulates Hepatic CYP3A4 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Mol Pharmacol. 2016;90:437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the role of the lipid- and glucose-modulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the molecular mechanism regulating CYP3A4 expression in NAFLD...
  40. Coppage A, Heard K, Dimare M, Liu Y, Wu W, Lai J, et al. Human FGF-21 Is a Substrate of Fibroblast Activation Protein. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151269 pubmed publisher
  41. Ryan K, Packard A, Larson K, Stout J, Fourman S, Thompson A, et al. Dietary Manipulations That Induce Ketosis Activate the HPA Axis in Male Rats and Mice: A Potential Role for Fibroblast Growth Factor-21. Endocrinology. 2018;159:400-413 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, and consistent with a growing literature that characterizes the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) as both a marker of the ketotic state and as a key metabolic stress hormone, the HPA response to both KD and MCTs ..
  42. Antonellis P, Kharitonenkov A, Adams A. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: FGF21: Insights into mechanism of action from preclinical studies. J Anim Sci. 2014;92:407-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a multifaceted metabolic regulator which has several potential applications in the treatment of metabolic disease...
  43. Domouzoglou E, Fisher F, Astapova I, Fox E, Kharitonenkov A, Flier J, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 and thyroid hormone show mutual regulatory dependency but have independent actions in vivo. Endocrinology. 2014;155:2031-40 pubmed publisher
    Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels in the liver and in the adipose tissue. In contrast, peripheral FGF21 administration leads to decreased circulating levels of TH...
  44. Wan X, Lu X, Xiao Y, Lin Y, Zhu H, Ding T, et al. ATF4- and CHOP-dependent induction of FGF21 through endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:807874 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important endogenous regulator involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism...
  45. Kuroda M, Muramatsu R, Maedera N, Koyama Y, Hamaguchi M, Fujimura H, et al. Peripherally derived FGF21 promotes remyelination in the central nervous system. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3496-3509 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, leakage of circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which is predominantly expressed by the pancreas, drives proliferation of oligodendrocyte ..
  46. Fletcher J, Linden M, Sheldon R, Meers G, Morris E, Butterfield A, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 and exercise-induced hepatic mitochondrial adaptations. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G832-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we tested whether FGF21 plays an obligatory role in exercise induced hepatic mitochondrial adaptations by testing exercise responses in ..
  47. Furusawa Y, Uruno A, Yagishita Y, Higashi C, Yamamoto M. Nrf2 induces fibroblast growth factor 21 in diabetic mice. Genes Cells. 2014;19:864-78 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21) is known as a key mediator of glucose and lipid metabolism...
  48. Goto T, Hirata M, Aoki Y, Iwase M, Takahashi H, Kim M, et al. The hepatokine FGF21 is crucial for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist-induced amelioration of metabolic disorders in obese mice. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9175-9190 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we investigated the role of the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which regulates energy metabolism in adipose tissue...
  49. Vernia S, Cavanagh Kyros J, Barrett T, Tournier C, Davis R. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mediates Glycemic Regulation by Hepatic JNK. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a target of the hepatic JNK-signaling pathway and may contribute to the regulation of ..
  50. Jiang X, Chen J, Zhang C, Zhang Z, Tan Y, Feng W, et al. The protective effect of FGF21 on diabetes-induced male germ cell apoptosis is associated with up-regulated testicular AKT and AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α signaling. Endocrinology. 2015;156:1156-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator that is required for normal spermatogenesis and protects against diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis...
  51. Planavila A, Redondo Angulo I, Ribas F, Garrabou G, Casademont J, Giralt M, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 protects the heart from oxidative stress. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;106:19-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently showed that fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is produced by the heart and exerts protective effects, preventing cardiac hypertrophy ..
  52. Pereira R, Tadinada S, Zasadny F, Oliveira K, Pires K, Olvera A, et al. OPA1 deficiency promotes secretion of FGF21 from muscle that prevents obesity and insulin resistance. EMBO J. 2017;36:2126-2145 pubmed publisher
    ..weight gain and insulin resistance, by mechanisms that involve activation of ER stress and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from skeletal muscle, resulting in increased metabolic rates and improved whole-body insulin ..
  53. Bae K, Min A, Kim J, Lee I, Park K. Alpha lipoic acid induces hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 expression via up-regulation of CREBH. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;455:212-7 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), one of the most promising therapeutic candidates for metabolic syndrome, is induced by multiple factors associated with fasting, including cyclic AMP response element-binding ..
  54. Wang X, Wei W, Krzeszinski J, Wang Y, Wan Y. A Liver-Bone Endocrine Relay by IGFBP1 Promotes Osteoclastogenesis and Mediates FGF21-Induced Bone Resorption. Cell Metab. 2015;22:811-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) promotes insulin sensitivity but causes bone loss. It elevates bone resorption by an undefined non-osteoclast-autonomous mechanism...
  55. Fu T, Seok S, Choi S, Huang Z, Suino Powell K, Xu H, et al. MicroRNA 34a inhibits beige and brown fat formation in obesity in part by suppressing adipocyte fibroblast growth factor 21 signaling and SIRT1 function. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:4130-42 pubmed publisher
    ..microRNA 34a (miR-34a) in obesity inhibits fat browning in part by suppressing the browning activators fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and SIRT1...
  56. Brahma M, Adam R, Pollak N, Jaeger D, Zierler K, Pöcher N, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is induced upon cardiac stress and alters cardiac lipid homeostasis. J Lipid Res. 2014;55:2229-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a PPARα-regulated gene elucidated in the liver of PPARα-deficient mice or PPARα agonist-treated mice...
  57. Chau M, Gao J, Yang Q, Wu Z, Gromada J. Fibroblast growth factor 21 regulates energy metabolism by activating the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1alpha pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12553-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been identified as a potent metabolic regulator...
  58. Fujita Y, Makishima M, Bhawal U. Differentiated embryo chondrocyte 1 (DEC1) is a novel negative regulator of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in aging mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:477-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a novel endocrine-like member of the FGF superfamily, is highly expressed in the liver, and ..
  59. Ye M, Lu W, Wang X, Wang C, Abbruzzese J, Liang G, et al. FGF21-FGFR1 Coordinates Phospholipid Homeostasis, Lipid Droplet Function, and ER Stress in Obesity. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4754-4769 pubmed
    The antiobese and antidiabetic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) regulates lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis by targeting the ?Klotho-FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) binary complex in adipose tissue adipocytes...
  60. Wu X, Ge H, Lemon B, Vonderfecht S, Baribault H, Weiszmann J, et al. Separating mitogenic and metabolic activities of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14158-63 pubmed publisher
    FGF19 and FGF21 are distinctive members of the FGF family that function as endocrine hormones...
  61. Casteras S, Abdul Wahed A, Soty M, Vulin F, Guillou H, Campana M, et al. The suppression of hepatic glucose production improves metabolism and insulin sensitivity in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice. Diabetologia. 2016;59:2645-2653 pubmed
    ..obesity and diabetes despite severe steatosis, thanks to the secretion of specific hepatokines such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and angiopoietin-related growth factor...
  62. Zhao C, Liu Y, Xiao J, Liu L, Chen S, Mohammadi M, et al. FGF21 mediates alcohol-induced adipose tissue lipolysis by activation of systemic release of catecholamine in mice. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:1481-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>FGF21 KO mice were subjected to chronic-binge alcohol exposure, and epididymal white adipose tissue lipolysis and liver ..
  63. Bookout A, de Groot M, Owen B, Lee S, Gautron L, Lawrence H, et al. FGF21 regulates metabolism and circadian behavior by acting on the nervous system. Nat Med. 2013;19:1147-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hepatokine that acts as a global starvation signal to modulate fuel partitioning and metabolism and repress growth; however, the site of action of these diverse effects remains unclear...
  64. Wu G, Liu Y, Liu Y, Zhang L, Zhao H, Liu L, et al. FGF 21 deficiency slows gastric emptying and reduces initial blood alcohol concentration in mice exposed to acute alcohol in fasting state. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:46-50 pubmed publisher
    Excess alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholic liver disease. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple physiologic functions...
  65. Harris L, Skinner J, Shew T, Pietka T, Abumrad N, Wolins N. Perilipin 5-Driven Lipid Droplet Accumulation in Skeletal Muscle Stimulates the Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21. Diabetes. 2015;64:2757-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This muscle-driven phenotype is, at least in part, mediated by myokines; the MCK-Plin5 mice have 80-fold higher FGF21 gene expression in muscle and increased serum FGF21 concentration...
  66. Tanaka N, Takahashi S, Zhang Y, Krausz K, Smith P, Patterson A, et al. Role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the early stage of NASH induced by methionine- and choline-deficient diet. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1852:1242-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a modulator of energy homeostasis and is increased in human nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) and after feeding of methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD), a conventional inducer of murine ..
  67. Laeger T, Henagan T, Albarado D, Redman L, Bray G, Noland R, et al. FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:3913-22 pubmed publisher
    Enhanced fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and circulation has been linked to the metabolic adaptation to starvation...
  68. Miyake M, Nomura A, Ogura A, Takehana K, Kitahara Y, Takahara K, et al. Skeletal muscle-specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation controls amino acid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21-mediated non-cell-autonomous energy metabolism. FASEB J. 2016;30:798-812 pubmed publisher
    ..acid biosynthesis and transport but also uncovered the induced expression and secretion of a myokine, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), that stimulates energy consumption and prevents obesity...
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