Gene Symbol: Fgf18
Description: fibroblast growth factor 18
Alias: D130055P09Rik, FGF-18, fibroblast growth factor 18, zFGF5
Species: mouse
Products:     Fgf18

Top Publications

  1. Kawauchi S, Shou J, Santos R, Hebert J, McConnell S, Mason I, et al. Fgf8 expression defines a morphogenetic center required for olfactory neurogenesis and nasal cavity development in the mouse. Development. 2005;132:5211-23 pubmed
  2. Elluru R, Thompson F, Reece A. Fibroblast growth factor 18 gives growth and directional cues to airway cartilage. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our hypothesis for this study was that fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) provides proliferative and directional cues to the developing laryngeal and tracheal cartilage ..
  3. Vermot J, Gallego Llamas J, Fraulob V, Niederreither K, Chambon P, Dolle P. Retinoic acid controls the bilateral symmetry of somite formation in the mouse embryo. Science. 2005;308:563-6 pubmed
    ..These data implicate retinoic acid as an endogenous signal that maintains the bilateral synchrony of mesoderm segmentation, and therefore controls bilateral symmetry, in vertebrate embryos. ..
  4. Reinhold M, Abe M, Kapadia R, Liao Z, Naski M. FGF18 represses noggin expression and is induced by calcineurin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38209-19 pubmed
    ..Here we show that calcium-dependent signals induce expression of FGF18, an essential regulator of bone and cartilage differentiation...
  5. Gori F, Zhu E, Demay M. Perichondrial expression of Wdr5 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Dev Biol. 2009;329:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>FGF18 mRNA levels were decreased in Col I-Wdr5 humeri...
  6. Reinhold M, Naski M. Direct interactions of Runx2 and canonical Wnt signaling induce FGF18. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3653-63 pubmed
    ..Here we show that an essential regulator of bone development, FGF18, is a direct target of canonical Wnt signaling...
  7. Rockel J, Yu C, Whetstone H, Craft A, Reilly K, Ma H, et al. Hedgehog inhibits ?-catenin activity in synovial joint development and osteoarthritis. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:1649-63 pubmed publisher
    ..within interzone cells induces joint morphological changes by selectively inhibiting ?-catenin-induced Fgf18 expression. Stabilization of ?-catenin or treatment with FGF18 rescued hedgehog-induced phenotypes...
  8. Xu J, Liu H, Lan Y, Aronow B, Kalinichenko V, Jiang R. A Shh-Foxf-Fgf18-Shh Molecular Circuit Regulating Palate Development. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005769 pubmed publisher
    ..hybridization analysis revealed that the Foxf2 mutant embryos exhibit strikingly corresponding patterns of ectopic Fgf18 expression in the palatal mesenchyme and concomitant loss of Shh expression in the palatal epithelium in specific ..
  9. Maruoka Y, Ohbayashi N, Hoshikawa M, Itoh N, Hogan B, Furuta Y. Comparison of the expression of three highly related genes, Fgf8, Fgf17 and Fgf18, in the mouse embryo. Mech Dev. 1998;74:175-7 pubmed
    ..we report the expression from early streak stage to midgestation of two newly-identified murine genes, Fgf17 and Fgf18, that are most closely related to Fgf8 (63.7% and 56.8% identical, respectively, at the amino acid level)...

More Information


  1. Arnaud Dabernat S, Yadav D, Sarvetnick N. FGFR3 contributes to intestinal crypt cell growth arrest. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, injection of FGF18, a ligand of FGFR3, in wild type mice resulted in decreased cell proliferation within the intestinal crypts...
  2. Behr B, Sorkin M, Manu A, Lehnhardt M, Longaker M, Quarto N. Fgf-18 is required for osteogenesis but not angiogenesis during long bone repair. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011;17:2061-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides hints on how to engineering efficiently programmed bony tissue for long bone repair. ..
  3. Sahara S, O Leary D. Fgf10 regulates transition period of cortical stem cell differentiation to radial glia controlling generation of neurons and basal progenitors. Neuron. 2009;63:48-62 pubmed publisher
  4. Hinoi E, Bialek P, Chen Y, Rached M, Groner Y, Behringer R, et al. Runx2 inhibits chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy through its expression in the perichondrium. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2937-42 pubmed
    ..Runx2, in turn, enhances perichondrial expression of Fgf18, a regulator of chondrocyte maturation...
  5. Hamidouche Z, Fromigue O, Nuber U, Vaudin P, Pages J, Ebert R, et al. Autocrine fibroblast growth factor 18 mediates dexamethasone-induced osteogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:509-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Using microarray analysis combined with biochemical and molecular approach, we found that FGF18, a member of the FGF family, is upregulated during osteoblast differentiation induced by dexamethasone in murine ..
  6. Du W, Prochazka J, Prochazkova M, Klein O. Expression of FGFs during early mouse tongue development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;20:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and E14.5. During this period, Fgf5, Fgf6, Fgf7, Fgf9, Fgf10, Fgf13, Fgf15, Fgf16 and Fgf18 could all be detected with various intensities in the mesenchyme, whereas Fgf1 and Fgf2 were expressed in both the ..
  7. Zhao X, Brade T, Cunningham T, Duester G. Retinoic acid controls expression of tissue remodeling genes Hmgn1 and Fgf18 at the digit-interdigit junction. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:665-71 pubmed publisher
    ..and matrix metalloproteinase-11 (Mmp11) throughout the interdigital mesenchyme, while expression of RARb, Fgf18, and high mobility group N1 (Hmgn1) is lost at the digit-interdigit junction...
  8. Zhao T, Gan Q, Stokes A, Lassiter R, Wang Y, Chan J, et al. ?-catenin regulates Pax3 and Cdx2 for caudal neural tube closure and elongation. Development. 2014;141:148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?-catenin signaling is required for caudal neural tube closure and elongation, acting through the transcriptional regulation of key target genes in the PNP. ..
  9. Cinque L, Forrester A, Bartolomeo R, Svelto M, Venditti R, Montefusco S, et al. FGF signalling regulates bone growth through autophagy. Nature. 2015;528:272-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, post-natal induction of chondrocyte autophagy is mediated by the growth factor FGF18 through FGFR4 and JNK-dependent activation of the autophagy initiation complex VPS34-beclin-1...
  10. Davidson D, Blanc A, Filion D, Wang H, Plut P, Pfeffer G, et al. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 18 signals through FGF receptor 3 to promote chondrogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20509-15 pubmed
    ..Notably, the congenital absence of either FGF18 or FGFR3 resulted in similar expansion of the growth plates of fetal mice and the addition of FGF18 to human ..
  11. Liu Z, Lavine K, Hung I, Ornitz D. FGF18 is required for early chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and vascular invasion of the growth plate. Dev Biol. 2007;302:80-91 pubmed
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) has been shown to regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by signaling through FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) and to regulate osteogenesis by signaling through other FGFRs...
  12. Reid B, Yang H, Melvin V, Taketo M, Williams T. Ectodermal Wnt/?-catenin signaling shapes the mouse face. Dev Biol. 2011;349:261-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Ohbayashi N, Hoshikawa M, Kimura S, Yamasaki M, Fukui S, Itoh N. Structure and expression of the mRNA encoding a novel fibroblast growth factor, FGF-18. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18161-4 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that FGF-18 is a unique secreted signaling molecule in the adult lung and developing tissues. ..
  14. Garcia C, Huang J, Madakashira B, Liu Y, Rajagopal R, Dattilo L, et al. The function of FGF signaling in the lens placode. Dev Biol. 2011;351:176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the expression of proteins required for lens formation was not altered in the knockout placode cells, we can conclude that FGF signaling from the optic vesicle is not required for lens induction. ..
  15. Leishman E, Howard J, Garcia G, Miao Q, Ku A, Dekker J, et al. Foxp1 maintains hair follicle stem cell quiescence through regulation of Fgf18. Development. 2013;140:3809-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, through both gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identify fibroblast growth factor 18 (Fgf18) as the key downstream target of Foxp1...
  16. Kataoka A, Shimogori T. Fgf8 controls regional identity in the developing thalamus. Development. 2008;135:2873-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest conserved roles of FGF signaling in patterning along the A/P axis in CNS, and reveal mechanisms of nucleogenesis in the developing thalamus. ..
  17. Hasenpusch Theil K, Watson J, Theil T. Direct Interactions Between Gli3, Wnt8b, and Fgfs Underlie Patterning of the Dorsal Telencephalon. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:1137-1148 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our study provides a framework for understanding the genetic circuitry underlying telencephalic patterning and how defects in this process can affect the formation of cortical areas. ..
  18. Nik A, Johansson J, Ghiami M, Reyahi A, Carlsson P. Foxf2 is required for secondary palate development and Tgf? signaling in palatal shelf mesenchyme. Dev Biol. 2016;415:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that gene expression changes in palatal shelf mesenchyme that lead to reduced Tgf? signaling contribute to cleft palate in Foxf2(-)(/)(-) mice. ..
  19. Liu A, Li J, Bromleigh C, Lao Z, Niswander L, Joyner A. FGF17b and FGF18 have different midbrain regulatory properties from FGF8b or activated FGF receptors. Development. 2003;130:6175-85 pubmed
    ..is regulated by a mid/hindbrain organizer that produces three fibroblast growth factors (FGF8, FGF17 and FGF18)...
  20. Wright T, Hatch E, Karabagli H, Karabagli P, Schoenwolf G, Mansour S. Expression of mouse fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptor genes during early inner ear development. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:267-72 pubmed
    ..Fgf16 was expressed in the posterior otic cup and vesicle, suggesting roles in otic cell fate decisions and/or axis formation. ..
  21. Hasegawa H, Ashigaki S, Takamatsu M, Suzuki Migishima R, Ohbayashi N, Itoh N, et al. Laminar patterning in the developing neocortex by temporally coordinated fibroblast growth factor signaling. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8711-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, using FGF18 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that FGF18 expressed by early-generated cortical neurons in the cortical plate is ..
  22. Kyrylkova K, Iwaniec U, Philbrick K, Leid M. BCL11B regulates sutural patency in the mouse craniofacial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2016;415:251-260 pubmed publisher
  23. Ohbayashi N, Shibayama M, Kurotaki Y, Imanishi M, Fujimori T, Itoh N, et al. FGF18 is required for normal cell proliferation and differentiation during osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Genes Dev. 2002;16:870-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Fgf18 is expressed in and required for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in the mouse embryo...
  24. Quarto N, Behr B, Li S, Longaker M. Differential FGF ligands and FGF receptors expression pattern in frontal and parietal calvarial bones. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;190:158-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Frontal bone also elaborated higher levels of Fgf receptor 1, 2 and 3 transcripts versus parietal bone. Taken together, these data suggest that the frontal bone is a domain with higher FGF-signaling competence than parietal bone...
  25. Arteaga Solis E, Settembre C, Ballabio A, Karsenty G. Sulfatases are determinants of alveolar formation. Matrix Biol. 2012;31:253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, absence of sulfatase activity increases sulfated GAG deposition in the lungs causing deregulation of TGF? signaling and arrest of alveolarization. ..
  26. Zhou S, Degan S, Potts E, Foster W, Sunday M. NPAS3 is a trachealess homolog critical for lung development and homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, absence of a developmentally expressed transcription factor can alter downstream gene expression and multiple signaling pathways in organogenesis. NPAS3 haploinsufficiency may also lead to emphysema and asthma. ..
  27. Treier M, O Connell S, Gleiberman A, Price J, Szeto D, Burgess R, et al. Hedgehog signaling is required for pituitary gland development. Development. 2001;128:377-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, SHH appears to exert effects on both proliferation and cell-type determination in pituitary gland development. ..
  28. Nagayama T, Okuhara S, Ota M, Tachikawa N, Kasugai S, Iseki S. FGF18 accelerates osteoblast differentiation by upregulating Bmp2 expression. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2013;53:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Among total 22 FGFs, it is suggested that FGF18 functions in promotion of osteoblast differentiation...
  29. Itoh N, Ornitz D. Functional evolutionary history of the mouse Fgf gene family. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:18-27 pubmed
    ..During the evolution of early vertebrates, the Fgf subfamilies further expanded to contain three or four members in each subfamily. ..
  30. Zhang H, Kamiya N, Tsuji T, Takeda H, Scott G, Rajderkar S, et al. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of the Dwarfism in Evc2/Limbin Mutant Mice. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006510 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevation of FGF signaling, mainly due to increased Fgf18 expression upon inactivation of Evc2 in the perichondrium, critically contributes to the pathogenesis of limb ..
  31. Robins S, Stewart I, McNay D, Taylor V, Giachino C, Goetz M, et al. ?-Tanycytes of the adult hypothalamic third ventricle include distinct populations of FGF-responsive neural progenitors. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2049 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that ?-tanycytes form the critical component of a hypothalamic stem cell niche, and that local fibroblast growth factor signalling governs their proliferation. ..
  32. Franco Montoya M, Boucherat O, Thibault C, Chailley Heu B, Incitti R, Delacourt C, et al. Profiling target genes of FGF18 in the postnatal mouse lung: possible relevance for alveolar development. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:1226-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>FGF18, the expression of which peaks coincidentally with alveolar septation, is likely to be involved...
  33. Paek H, Hwang J, Zukin R, Hebert J. ?-Catenin-dependent FGF signaling sustains cell survival in the anterior embryonic head by countering Smad4. Dev Cell. 2011;20:689-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these antagonistic pathways converge on the transcriptional regulation of apoptosis, and genes such as Cdkn1a, suggesting a mechanism for how signaling centers in the embryonic head regulate cell survival...
  34. Naiche L, Holder N, Lewandoski M. FGF4 and FGF8 comprise the wavefront activity that controls somitogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4018-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these data show that FGF action maintains WNT signaling, and that both signaling pathways are required in parallel to maintain PSM progenitor tissue. ..
  35. Folgueras A, Guo X, Pasolli H, Stokes N, Polak L, Zheng D, et al. Architectural niche organization by LHX2 is linked to hair follicle stem cell function. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:314-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that niche organization underlies the requirement for LHX2 in hair follicle structure and function. ..
  36. Yun E, Lorizio W, Seedorf G, Abman S, Vu T. VEGF and endothelium-derived retinoic acid regulate lung vascular and alveolar development. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;310:L287-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we identified RA as a lung angiocrine that regulates alveolarization through autocrine regulation of endothelial development and paracrine regulation of elastin synthesis via induction of FGF-18 in mesenchymal cells. ..
  37. Xie W, Jen H, Seymour M, Yeh S, Pereira F, Groves A, et al. An Atoh1-S193A Phospho-Mutant Allele Causes Hearing Deficits and Motor Impairment. J Neurosci. 2017;37:8583-8594 pubmed publisher
    ..This opens up the possibility that missense mutations in ATOH1 could increase human vulnerability to loss of hair cells because of aging or trauma. ..
  38. Asada M, Shinomiya M, Suzuki M, Honda E, Sugimoto R, Ikekita M, et al. Glycosaminoglycan affinity of the complete fibroblast growth factor family. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is noteworthy, as the differential interactions of these growth factors with GAGs may be key determinants of their specific biological activities. ..
  39. Usui H, Shibayama M, Ohbayashi N, Konishi M, Takada S, Itoh N. Fgf18 is required for embryonic lung alveolar development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:887-92 pubmed
    b>Fgf18 is abundantly expressed in mouse embryonic lungs. To elucidate the roles of Fgf18 in mouse embryonic lung development, we examined the Fgf18-/- embryonic lungs...
  40. Koizumi K, Nakajima M, Yuasa S, Saga Y, Sakai T, Kuriyama T, et al. The role of presenilin 1 during somite segmentation. Development. 2001;128:1391-402 pubmed
    ..In summary, we propose that Ps1 is involved in the functional manifestation of the segmentation clock in the presomitic mesoderm. ..
  41. Takase H, Itoh T, Ino S, Wang T, Koji T, Akira S, et al. FGF7 is a functional niche signal required for stimulation of adult liver progenitor cells that support liver regeneration. Genes Dev. 2013;27:169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into the cellular and molecular basis for LPC regulation and identify FGF7 as a potential therapeutic target for liver diseases. ..
  42. Lin C, Kioussi C, O Connell S, Briata P, Szeto D, Liu F, et al. Pitx2 regulates lung asymmetry, cardiac positioning and pituitary and tooth morphogenesis. Nature. 1999;401:279-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, Pitx2 is a transcription factor that encodes 'leftness' of the lung. ..
  43. Hirata H, Tomita K, Bessho Y, Kageyama R. Hes1 and Hes3 regulate maintenance of the isthmic organizer and development of the mid/hindbrain. EMBO J. 2001;20:4454-66 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Hes1 and Hes3 prevent premature differentiation and maintain the organizer activity of the isthmic cells, thereby regulating the development of the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. ..
  44. Behr B, Panetta N, Longaker M, Quarto N. Different endogenous threshold levels of Fibroblast Growth Factor-ligands determine the healing potential of frontal and parietal bones. Bone. 2010;47:281-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study thereby opens new avenues for translational medicine. ..
  45. Wang W, Lian N, Li L, Moss H, Wang W, Perrien D, et al. Atf4 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during endochondral ossification by activating Ihh transcription. Development. 2009;136:4143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus identifies Atf4 as a novel transcriptional activator of Ihh in chondrocytes that paces longitudinal bone growth by controlling growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. ..
  46. Zhao X, Duester G. Effect of retinoic acid signaling on Wnt/beta-catenin and FGF signaling during body axis extension. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:430-5 pubmed publisher
    ..into the trunk, but no change is observed in caudal expression of Fgf4 or Fgf17 plus caudal expression of Fgf18 and Cdx1 is reduced...
  47. Zhong W, Wang Q, Sun T, Wang F, Liu J, Leach R, et al. FGF ligand family mRNA expression profile for mouse preimplantation embryos, early gestation human placenta, and mouse trophoblast stem cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:540-50 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR was done for developmentally important FGF subfamilies, FGF10/FGF22 and FGF8/FGF17/FGF18 as well as FGF11. FGF4 and FGF18 are detected at highest levels by RT-PCR and microarrays...
  48. Beak J, Kang H, Kim Y, Jetten A. Krüppel-like zinc finger protein Glis3 promotes osteoblast differentiation by regulating FGF18 expression. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1234-44 pubmed
    ..Reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed to analyze the regulation of fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) by Glis3...
  49. Deckelbaum R, Majithia A, Booker T, Henderson J, Loomis C. The homeoprotein engrailed 1 has pleiotropic functions in calvarial intramembranous bone formation and remodeling. Development. 2006;133:63-74 pubmed
    ..In summary, this study identifies EN1 as a novel modulator of calvarial osteoblast differentiation and proliferation, processes that must be exquisitely balanced to ensure proper skull vault formation. ..
  50. Whitsett J, Clark J, Picard L, Tichelaar J, Wert S, Itoh N, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 18 influences proximal programming during lung morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22743-9 pubmed
    ..Effects were unique to FGF-18 because expression of other members of the FGF family had different consequences. These data show that FGF-18 is capable of enhancing proximal and inhibiting peripheral programs during lung morphogenesis. ..
  51. Miyaoka Y, Tanaka M, Imamura T, Takada S, Miyajima A. A novel regulatory mechanism for Fgf18 signaling involving cysteine-rich FGF receptor (Cfr) and delta-like protein (Dlk). Development. 2010;137:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those of Fgf18-deficient mice, and we revealed interaction between Cfr and Fgf18 both genetically and physically, suggesting ..
  52. Settembre C, Arteaga Solis E, McKee M, de Pablo R, Al Awqati Q, Ballabio A, et al. Proteoglycan desulfation determines the efficiency of chondrocyte autophagy and the extent of FGF signaling during endochondral ossification. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2645-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, in chondrocytes it favors ECM production and autophagy and promotes proliferation and differentiation by limiting FGF signaling. Thus, proteoglycan desulfation is a critical regulator of chondrogenesis. ..
  53. Ohuchi H, Kimura S, Watamoto M, Itoh N. Involvement of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)18-FGF8 signaling in specification of left-right asymmetry and brain and limb development of the chick embryo. Mech Dev. 2000;95:55-66 pubmed
    ..roles of fibroblast growth factors (FGF)18 during vertebrate development, we examined expression patterns of Fgf18 in chick embryos and observed effects of FGF18 protein on the Hensen's node, isthmus, and limb buds...
  54. Sato T, Joyner A. The duration of Fgf8 isthmic organizer expression is key to patterning different tectal-isthmo-cerebellum structures. Development. 2009;136:3617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the duration as well as the strength of Fgf8 signaling is key to patterning of the mid/hindbrain region. By extrapolation, the length of Fgf8 expression could be crucial to Fgf8 function in other embryonic organizers. ..
  55. Hung I, Schoenwolf G, Lewandoski M, Ornitz D. A combined series of Fgf9 and Fgf18 mutant alleles identifies unique and redundant roles in skeletal development. Dev Biol. 2016;411:72-84 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is a critical regulator of skeletal development. Fgf9 and Fgf18 are the only FGF ligands with identified functions in embryonic bone growth...
  56. Bradley E, Carpio L, Newton A, Westendorf J. Deletion of the PH-domain and Leucine-rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 1 (Phlpp1) Increases Fibroblast Growth Factor (Fgf) 18 Expression and Promotes Chondrocyte Proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:16272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Phlpp1 deficiency diminished FoxO1 levels leading to increased expression of Fgf18, Mek/Erk activity, and chondrocyte metabolic activity...
  57. Hu M, Qiu W, Wang Y, Hill D, Ring B, Scully S, et al. FGF-18, a novel member of the fibroblast growth factor family, stimulates hepatic and intestinal proliferation. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:6063-74 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FGF-18 is a pleiotropic growth factor that stimulates proliferation in a number of tissues, most notably the liver and small intestine. ..
  58. Goldman D, Martin G, Tam P. Fate and function of the ventral ectodermal ridge during mouse tail development. Development. 2000;127:2113-23 pubmed
  59. Norlin S, Nordström U, Edlund T. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for the proliferation and patterning of progenitor cells in the developing anterior pituitary. Mech Dev. 2000;96:175-82 pubmed
    ..The infundibulum expresses Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 8 and Fgf 18, and FGFs can mimic some of the activities of the infundibulum...
  60. Liu Z, Xu J, Colvin J, Ornitz D. Coordination of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis by fibroblast growth factor 18. Genes Dev. 2002;16:859-69 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Fgf18 is expressed in the perichondrium and that mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of Fgf18 exhibit a growth ..
  61. Bachler M, Neubüser A. Expression of members of the Fgf family and their receptors during midfacial development. Mech Dev. 2001;100:313-6 pubmed
    ..5. In contrast to the restricted expression patterns of the ligands, FgfR1 and FgfR2 were broadly expressed in facial mesenchyme and ectoderm, respectively, indicating a wide competence of midfacial tissue to respond to FGF signaling. ..
  62. Chan K, Wong H, Jin G, Liu B, Cao R, Cao Y, et al. MT1-MMP inactivates ADAM9 to regulate FGFR2 signaling and calvarial osteogenesis. Dev Cell. 2012;22:1176-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a regulatory paradigm for FGRF2 signaling and identify MT1-MMP as a critical negative modulator of ADAM9 activity to maintain FGFR2 signaling in calvarial osteogenesis. ..
  63. Hajihosseini M, Heath J. Expression patterns of fibroblast growth factors-18 and -20 in mouse embryos is suggestive of novel roles in calvarial and limb development. Mech Dev. 2002;113:79-83 pubmed
  64. Chi C, Martinez S, Wurst W, Martin G. The isthmic organizer signal FGF8 is required for cell survival in the prospective midbrain and cerebellum. Development. 2003;130:2633-44 pubmed
    ..75). This resulted in a failure to maintain expression of Wnt1 as well as Fgf17, Fgf18, and Gbx2 in the mes/met at early somite stages, and in the absence of the midbrain and cerebellum at E17.5...
  65. Zaret K. Liver specification and early morphogenesis. Mech Dev. 2000;92:83-8 pubmed
    ..The initial stages of hepatogenesis are therefore beginning to be understood, and serve as a paradigm for the development of other tissues from the endoderm. ..
  66. Shimoaka T, Ogasawara T, Yonamine A, Chikazu D, Kawano H, Nakamura K, et al. Regulation of osteoblast, chondrocyte, and osteoclast functions by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-18 in comparison with FGF-2 and FGF-10. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7493-500 pubmed
    ..All these effects of FGF-18 bore a close resemblance to those of FGF-2, whereas FGF-10 affects none of these cells. FGF-18 may therefore compensate for the action of FGF-2 on bone and cartilage. ..