Ffar1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ffar1
Description: free fatty acid receptor 1
Alias: Gpr40, free fatty acid receptor 1, G protein-coupled receptor 40, G protein-coupled receptor GPR40
Species: mouse
Products:     Ffar1

Top Publications

  1. Salehi A, Flodgren E, Nilsson N, Jimenez Feltstrom J, Miyazaki J, Owman C, et al. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA(1)R/GPR40) and its involvement in fatty-acid-stimulated insulin secretion. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;322:207-15 pubmed
    ..The recently de-orphanized G-protein coupled receptor, FFA(1)R/GPR40, has been shown to be essential for fatty-acid-stimulated insulin release in MIN6 mouse insulinoma cells...
  2. Briscoe C, Tadayyon M, Andrews J, Benson W, Chambers J, Eilert M, et al. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is activated by medium and long chain fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11303-11 pubmed
    b>GPR40 is a member of a subfamily of homologous G protein-coupled receptors that include GPR41 and GPR43 and that have no current function or ligand ascribed...
  3. Latour M, Alquier T, Oseid E, Tremblay C, Jetton T, Luo J, et al. GPR40 is necessary but not sufficient for fatty acid stimulation of insulin secretion in vivo. Diabetes. 2007;56:1087-94 pubmed
    Long-chain fatty acids amplify insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cell. The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is specifically expressed in beta-cells and is activated by fatty acids; however, its role in acute regulation of ..
  4. Alquier T, Peyot M, Latour M, Kebede M, Sorensen C, Gesta S, et al. Deletion of GPR40 impairs glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo in mice without affecting intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. Diabetes. 2009;58:2607-15 pubmed publisher
    The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain...
  5. Edfalk S, Steneberg P, Edlund H. Gpr40 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells and mediates free fatty acid stimulation of incretin secretion. Diabetes. 2008;57:2280-7 pubmed publisher
    The G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr40 is expressed in beta-cells where it contributes to free fatty acid (FFA) enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion...
  6. Steneberg P, Rubins N, Bartoov Shifman R, Walker M, Edlund H. The FFA receptor GPR40 links hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and impaired glucose homeostasis in mouse. Cell Metab. 2005;1:245-58 pubmed
    ..The G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is selectively expressed in beta cells and is activated by FFAs...
  7. Nakamoto K, Nishinaka T, Matsumoto K, Kasuya F, Mankura M, Koyama Y, et al. Involvement of the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR40 as a novel pain regulatory system. Brain Res. 2012;1432:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..However, reports studying the role and functions (including pain regulation) of GPR40 in the brain are lacking...
  8. Itoh Y, Kawamata Y, Harada M, Kobayashi M, Fujii R, Fukusumi S, et al. Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells through GPR40. Nature. 2003;422:173-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR40, which is abundantly expressed in the pancreas, functions as a receptor for long-chain FFAs...
  9. Xiong Y, Swaminath G, Cao Q, Yang L, Guo Q, Salomonis H, et al. Activation of FFA1 mediates GLP-1 secretion in mice. Evidence for allosterism at FFA1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;369:119-29 pubmed publisher
    FFA1 (GPR40) and GPR120 are G-protein-coupled receptors activated by long-chain fatty acids...

More Information

Publications59

  1. Matsuda Nagasumi K, Takami Esaki R, Iwachidow K, Yasuhara Y, Tanaka H, Ogi K, et al. Lack of GPR40/FFAR1 does not induce diabetes even under insulin resistance condition. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013;15:538-45 pubmed publisher
    G protein-coupled receptor/free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 ) regulates free fatty acid-induced insulin secretion...
  2. Kebede M, Alquier T, Latour M, Semache M, Tremblay C, Poitout V. The fatty acid receptor GPR40 plays a role in insulin secretion in vivo after high-fat feeding. Diabetes. 2008;57:2432-7 pubmed publisher
    The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and is activated by long-chain fatty acids...
  3. Flodgren E, Olde B, Meidute Abaraviciene S, Winzell M, Ahren B, Salehi A. GPR40 is expressed in glucagon producing cells and affects glucagon secretion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;354:240-5 pubmed
    The free fatty acid receptor, GPR40, has been coupled with insulin secretion via its expression in pancreatic beta-cells...
  4. Lan H, Hoos L, Liu L, Tetzloff G, Hu W, Abbondanzo S, et al. Lack of FFAR1/GPR40 does not protect mice from high-fat diet-induced metabolic disease. Diabetes. 2008;57:2999-3006 pubmed publisher
    FFAR1/GPR40 is a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed predominantly in pancreatic islets mediating free fatty acid-induced insulin secretion. However, the physiological role of FFAR1 remains controversial...
  5. Bartoov Shifman R, Ridner G, Bahar K, Rubins N, Walker M. Regulation of the gene encoding GPR40, a fatty acid receptor expressed selectively in pancreatic beta cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23561-71 pubmed
    b>GPR40 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed preferentially in pancreatic beta cells...
  6. Joyal J, Sun Y, Gantner M, Shao Z, Evans L, Saba N, et al. Retinal lipid and glucose metabolism dictates angiogenesis through the lipid sensor Ffar1. Nat Med. 2016;22:439-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we identify a lipid sensor, free fatty acid receptor 1 (Ffar1), that curbs glucose uptake when fatty acids are available...
  7. Freigang S, Ampenberger F, Weiss A, Kanneganti T, Iwakura Y, Hersberger M, et al. Fatty acid-induced mitochondrial uncoupling elicits inflammasome-independent IL-1α and sterile vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:1045-53 pubmed publisher
  8. Mancini A, Bertrand G, Vivot K, Carpentier Ã, Tremblay C, Ghislain J, et al. β-Arrestin Recruitment and Biased Agonism at Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:21131-40 pubmed publisher
    FFAR1/GPR40 is a seven-transmembrane domain receptor (7TMR) expressed in pancreatic β cells and activated by FFAs. Pharmacological activation of GPR40 is a strategy under consideration to increase insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes...
  9. Tang X, Wang C, Zhu X, Ni X. Rosiglitazone inhibition of calvaria-derived osteoblast differentiation is through both of PPARγ and GPR40 and GSK3β-dependent pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;413:78-89 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GPR40 siRNA significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of RSG on osteogenesis...
  10. Sartorius T, Drescher A, Panse M, Lastovicka P, Peter A, Weigert C, et al. Mice Lacking Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) are Protected Against Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Fatty Liver but Develop Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in the Brain. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;35:2272-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter effect is mediated through the free fatty acid receptor-1 (GPR40/FFAR1). This study examines whether GPR40/FFAR1 interacts with tissue specific metabolic changes induced by CLAs...
  11. Bahar Halpern K, Veprik A, Rubins N, Naaman O, Walker M. GPR41 gene expression is mediated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation of bicistronic mRNA encoding GPR40 and GPR41 proteins. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene encoding GPR41 is located immediately downstream of a related gene encoding GPR40, a receptor for long chain fatty acids...
  12. Dragano N, Solon C, Ramalho A, de Moura R, Razolli D, Christiansen E, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors, GPR40 and GPR120, are expressed in the hypothalamus and control energy homeostasis and inflammation. J Neuroinflammation. 2017;14:91 pubmed publisher
    ..GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial for metabolic ..
  13. Sclafani A, Zukerman S, Ackroff K. GPR40 and GPR120 fatty acid sensors are critical for postoral but not oral mediation of fat preferences in the mouse. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;305:R1490-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the role of the fatty acid sensors GPR40 and GPR120 in postoral and oral preferences for a soybean oil emulsion (Intralipid)...
  14. Nakamoto K, Nishinaka T, Sato N, Mankura M, Koyama Y, Kasuya F, et al. Hypothalamic GPR40 signaling activated by free long chain fatty acids suppresses CFA-induced inflammatory chronic pain. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81563 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR40 has been reported to be activated by long-chain fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, reports studying functional role of GPR40 in the brain are lacking...
  15. Aizawa F, Ogaki Y, Kyoya N, Nishinaka T, Nakamoto K, Kurihara T, et al. The Deletion of GPR40/FFAR1 Signaling Damages Maternal Care and Emotional Function in Female Mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40:1255-1259 pubmed publisher
    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acids (DHA)...
  16. Sclafani A, Touzani K, Ackroff K. Intragastric fat self-administration is impaired in GPR40/120 double knockout mice. Physiol Behav. 2015;147:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This IG fat conditioning is attenuated in double knockout (DoKO) mice missing GPR40 and GPR120 fatty acid receptors...
  17. Graciano M, Valle M, Curi R, Carpinelli A. Evidence for the involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in palmitic acid-induced superoxide production and insulin secretion. Islets. 2013;5:139-48 pubmed publisher
    b>G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex have been shown to be involved in the fatty acid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
  18. Li A, Wiater M, Wang Q, WANK S, Ritter S. Deletion of GPR40 fatty acid receptor gene in mice blocks mercaptoacetate-induced feeding. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;310:R968-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, however, we demonstrated that MA antagonizes G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), a membrane receptor for long and medium chain FA...
  19. Zhang Y, Xu M, Zhang S, Yan L, Yang C, Lu W, et al. The role of G protein-coupled receptor 40 in lipoapoptosis in mouse beta-cell line NIT-1. J Mol Endocrinol. 2007;38:651-61 pubmed
    ..The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is preferentially expressed in beta-cells and is activated by a wide range of FFAs...
  20. Nakamoto K, Aizawa F, Nishinaka T, Tokuyama S. Regulation of prohormone convertase 2 protein expression via GPR40/FFA1 in the hypothalamus. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;762:459-63 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown that the administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or GW9508, a GPR40/FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor) agonist, facilitates β-endorphin release in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice...
  21. Gorski J, Pachanski M, Mane J, Plummer C, Souza S, Thomas Fowlkes B, et al. GPR40 reduces food intake and body weight through GLP-1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;313:E37-E47 pubmed publisher
    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) partial agonists lower glucose through the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which is believed to provide significant glucose lowering without the weight gain or hypoglycemic risk ..
  22. Ferdaoussi M, Bergeron V, Zarrouki B, Kolic J, Cantley J, Fielitz J, et al. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by protein kinase D1. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2682-2692 pubmed publisher
    ..by long-chain fatty acids potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta cells, and GPR40 agonists are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes therapy...
  23. Nakamoto K, Aizawa F, Miyagi K, Yamashita T, Mankura M, Koyama Y, et al. Dysfunctional GPR40/FFAR1 signaling exacerbates pain behavior in mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180610 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that activation of G protein-coupled receptor 40/free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) signaling modulates descending inhibition of pain...
  24. Karki P, Kurihara T, Nakamachi T, Watanabe J, Asada T, Oyoshi T, et al. Attenuation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain behaviors in mice through activation of free fatty acid receptor GPR40. Mol Pain. 2015;11:6 pubmed publisher
    The G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is suggested to function as a transmembrane receptor for medium- to long-chain free fatty acids and is implicated to play a role in free fatty acids-mediated enhancement of glucose-stimulated ..
  25. Takahashi K, Fukushima K, Onishi Y, Node Y, Inui K, Fukushima N, et al. Different effects of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 on cell motile activity of highly migratory osteosarcoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;484:675-680 pubmed publisher
    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 are members of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors and mediate a variety of biological responses through binding of medium- and long-chain FFAs...
  26. Shen X, Yang L, Yan S, Wei W, Liang L, Zheng H, et al. The effect of FFAR1 on pioglitazone-mediated attenuation of palmitic acid-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in ?TC6 cells. Metabolism. 2014;63:335-51 pubmed publisher
    We sought to determine whether free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), a receptor for free fatty acids on the ?-cell membrane, can mediate the pioglitazone (PIO)-attenuating effect on lipoapoptosis in ? cells and its relationship to oxidative ..
  27. Satapati S, Qian Y, Wu M, Petrov A, Dai G, Wang S, et al. GPR120 suppresses adipose tissue lipolysis and synergizes with GPR40 in antidiabetic efficacy. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:1561-1578 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR40 and GPR120 are fatty acid sensors that play important roles in glucose and energy homeostasis. GPR40 potentiates glucose-dependent insulin secretion and demonstrated in clinical studies robust glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes...
  28. Godinot N, Yasumatsu K, Barcos M, Pineau N, Ledda M, Viton F, et al. Activation of tongue-expressed GPR40 and GPR120 by non caloric agonists is not sufficient to drive preference in mice. Neuroscience. 2013;250:20-30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GPR40 and GPR120, two fatty acid responsive G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are expressed in taste bud cells, and ..
  29. Honoré J, Kooli A, Hamel D, Alquier T, Rivera J, Quiniou C, et al. Fatty acid receptor Gpr40 mediates neuromicrovascular degeneration induced by transarachidonic acids in rodents. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:954-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary molecular target of TAAs remains unidentified. GPR40 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by long chain fatty acids, including ?-6; it is highly expressed in ..
  30. Wauquier F, Philippe C, Leotoing L, Mercier S, Davicco M, Lebecque P, et al. The free fatty acid receptor G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) protects from bone loss through inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:6542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..By demonstrating the expression of the free fatty acid receptor G-coupled protein receptor 40 (GPR40) in bone cells, we hypothesized that this receptor may play a role in mediating the effects of fatty acids on bone ..
  31. Mieczkowska A, Basle M, Chappard D, Mabilleau G. Thiazolidinediones induce osteocyte apoptosis by a G protein-coupled receptor 40-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23517-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These activations were mediated through Ras proteins and GPR40, a receptor expressed on the surface of osteocytes...
  32. Urban C, Hamacher A, Partke H, Roden M, Schinner S, Christiansen E, et al. In vitro and mouse in vivo characterization of the potent free fatty acid 1 receptor agonist TUG-469. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2013;386:1021-30 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the G protein-coupled free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1; formerly known as GPR40) leads to an enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells...
  33. Aizawa F, Nishinaka T, Yamashita T, Nakamoto K, Kurihara T, Hirasawa A, et al. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior. J Pharmacol Sci. 2016;132:249-254 pubmed publisher
    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids...
  34. Nishinaka T, Yamashita T, Nakamoto K, Kasuya F, Tokuyama S. Involvement of the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR40 in depression-related behavior. J Pharmacol Sci. 2014;125:112-5 pubmed
    The functional role of brain G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) remains unclear. We investigated GPR40 signaling in depression-related behavior in mice via the forced swim test...
  35. Philippe C, Wauquier F, Lyan B, Coxam V, Wittrant Y. GPR40, a free fatty acid receptor, differentially impacts osteoblast behavior depending on differentiation stage and environment. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;412:197-208 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR40 is a free fatty acid receptor that has been recently shown to impact bone remodeling. This receptor protects skeleton by inhibiting bone resorbing osteoclast differentiation...
  36. Ekberg J, Hauge M, Kristensen L, Madsen A, Engelstoft M, Husted A, et al. GPR119, a Major Enteroendocrine Sensor of Dietary Triglyceride Metabolites Coacting in Synergy With FFA1 (GPR40). Endocrinology. 2016;157:4561-4569 pubmed
  37. Tunaru S, Bonnavion R, Brandenburger I, Preussner J, Thomas D, Scholich K, et al. 20-HETE promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in an autocrine manner through FFAR1. Nat Commun. 2018;9:177 pubmed publisher
    The long-chain fatty acid receptor FFAR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Synthetic FFAR1 agonists can be used as antidiabetic drugs to promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
  38. Kristinsson H, Bergsten P, Sargsyan E. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) signaling affects insulin secretion by enhancing mitochondrial respiration during palmitate exposure. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1853:3248-57 pubmed publisher
    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion via metabolism and FFAR1-mediated signaling. Recent reports indicate that these two pathways act synergistically. Still it remains unclear how they interrelate...
  39. Yore M, Syed I, Moraes Vieira P, Zhang T, Herman M, Homan E, et al. Discovery of a class of endogenous mammalian lipids with anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Cell. 2014;159:318-32 pubmed publisher
    ..PAHSAs also reduce adipose tissue inflammation. In adipocytes, PAHSAs signal through GPR120 to enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Thus, FAHFAs are endogenous lipids with the potential to treat type 2 diabetes. ..
  40. Harada S, Haruna Y, Aizawa F, Matsuura W, Nakamoto K, Yamashita T, et al. Involvement of GPR40, a long-chain free fatty acid receptor, in the production of central post-stroke pain after global cerebral ischemia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014;744:115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we assessed the role of GPR40, a long-chain fatty acid receptor, showing anti-nociceptive effects, in CPSP...
  41. Yabuki C, Komatsu H, Tsujihata Y, Maeda R, Ito R, Matsuda Nagasumi K, et al. A novel antidiabetic drug, fasiglifam/TAK-875, acts as an ago-allosteric modulator of FFAR1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76280 pubmed publisher
    Selective free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1)/GPR40 agonist fasiglifam (TAK-875), an antidiabetic drug under phase 3 development, potentiates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner by activating FFAR1 expressed in pancreatic ? ..
  42. Wu P, Yang L, Shen X. The relationship between GPR40 and lipotoxicity of the pancreatic ?-cells as well as the effect of pioglitazone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;403:36-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GPR40, a FFAs receptor, has been demonstrated to be activated by both medium and long chain FFAs and played an important ..
  43. Cartoni C, Yasumatsu K, Ohkuri T, Shigemura N, Yoshida R, Godinot N, et al. Taste preference for fatty acids is mediated by GPR40 and GPR120. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8376-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The two G-protein coupled receptors GPR40 (Ffar1) and GPR120 are activated by medium and long chain fatty acids...
  44. Pang Z, Wu N, Zhang X, Avallone R, Croci T, Dressler H, et al. GPR40 is partially required for insulin secretion following activation of beta3-adrenergic receptors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;325:18-25 pubmed publisher
    The free fatty acid (FFA) receptor GPR40, expressed by pancreatic beta-cells, may be responsible for insulin release following beta(3) adrenoceptor (Adrb3) activation...
  45. Suckow A, Polidori D, Yan W, Chon S, Ma J, Leonard J, et al. Alteration of the glucagon axis in GPR120 (FFAR4) knockout mice: a role for GPR120 in glucagon secretion. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:15751-63 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR40 (FFAR1) and GPR120 (FFAR4) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by long chain fatty acids (LCFAs)...
  46. Liou A, Lu X, Sei Y, Zhao X, Pechhold S, Carrero R, et al. The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 directly mediates long-chain fatty acid-induced secretion of cholecystokinin. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:903-12 pubmed publisher
    Long-chain fatty acid receptors G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) (FFAR1) and GPR120 have been implicated in the chemosensation of dietary fats...
  47. Monfoulet L, Philippe C, Mercier S, Coxam V, Wittrant Y. Deficiency of G-protein coupled receptor 40, a lipid-activated receptor, heightens in vitro- and in vivo-induced murine osteoarthritis. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2015;240:854-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) such as G-protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) are proposed as attractive therapeutic targets to counteract inflammation and cartilage degradation observed in ..
  48. Philippe C, Wauquier F, Landrier J, Bonnet L, Miot Noirault E, Rochefort G, et al. GPR40 mediates potential positive effects of a saturated fatty acid enriched diet on bone. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we questioned whether the stimulation of the GPR40 receptor by dietary fatty acids may lead to the same beneficial effect on bone...
  49. Zamarbide M, Etayo Labiano I, Ricobaraza A, Martínez Pinilla E, Aymerich M, Luis Lanciego J, et al. GPR40 activation leads to CREB and ERK phosphorylation in primary cultures of neurons from the mouse CNS and in human neuroblastoma cells. Hippocampus. 2014;24:733-9 pubmed publisher
    GPR40, the free fatty acid receptor 1, is expressed strongly in the primate pancreas and brain...
  50. Stewart G, Hira T, Higgins A, Smith C, McLaughlin J. Mouse GPR40 heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes is activated by short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C785-92 pubmed
    Several orphan G protein-coupled receptors, including GPR40, have recently been shown to be responsive to fatty acids...