Gene Symbol: Fes
Description: feline sarcoma oncogene
Alias: AI586313, BB137047, FPS, c-fes, tyrosine-protein kinase Fes/Fps, proto-oncogene c-Fes, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fes/Fps, tyrosine kinase Fps/Fes
Species: mouse
Products:     Fes

Top Publications

  1. Takahashi S, Inatome R, Hotta A, Qin Q, Hackenmiller R, Simon M, et al. Role for Fes/Fps tyrosine kinase in microtubule nucleation through is Fes/CIP4 homology domain. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49129-33 pubmed
    We have previously demonstrated that Fes/Fps (Fes) tyrosine kinase is involved in Semaphorin3A-mediated signaling. Here we report a role for Fes tyrosine kinase in microtubule dynamics...
  2. Udell C, Samayawardhena L, Kawakami Y, Kawakami T, Craig A. Fer and Fps/Fes participate in a Lyn-dependent pathway from FcepsilonRI to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 to limit mast cell activation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20949-57 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that FcepsilonRI aggregation caused a rapid increase in phosphorylation of both Fer and Fps/Fes kinases in bone marrow-derived mast cells...
  3. Zirngibl R, Senis Y, Greer P. Enhanced endotoxin sensitivity in fps/fes-null mice with minimal defects in hematopoietic homeostasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2472-86 pubmed
    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase implicated in growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling and thought to be essential for the survival and terminal differentiation of myeloid progenitors...
  4. Mitsui N, Inatome R, Takahashi S, Goshima Y, Yamamura H, Yanagi S. Involvement of Fes/Fps tyrosine kinase in semaphorin3A signaling. EMBO J. 2002;21:3274-85 pubmed
    ..In this study we identified Fes/Fps (Fes) tyrosine kinase in the CRMP-CRAM complex and investigated whether Fes was involved in semaphorin3A (Sema3A) ..
  5. Senis Y, Zirngibl R, McVeigh J, Haman A, Hoang T, Greer P. Targeted disruption of the murine fps/fes proto-oncogene reveals that Fps/Fes kinase activity is dispensable for hematopoiesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7436-46 pubmed
    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase that is functionally implicated in the survival and terminal differentiation of myeloid progenitors and in signaling from several members of the cytokine receptor ..
  6. Senis Y, Craig A, Greer P. Fps/Fes and Fer protein-tyrosinekinases play redundant roles in regulating hematopoiesis. Exp Hematol. 2003;31:673-81 pubmed
    The highly related protein-tyrosine kinases Fps (also called Fes) and Fer are sole members of a subfamily of kinases...
  7. Haigh J, McVeigh J, Greer P. The fps/fes tyrosine kinase is expressed in myeloid, vascular endothelial, epithelial, and neuronal cells and is localized in the trans-golgi network. Cell Growth Differ. 1996;7:931-44 pubmed
    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase that is thought to participate in signaling pathways involving members of the cytokine receptor superfamily, including those for erythropoietin, granulocyte-..
  8. Potter M, Klebig M, Carpenter D, Rinchik E. Genetic and physical mapping of the fitness 1 (fit1) locus within the Fes-Hbb region of mouse chromosome 7. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:70-5 pubmed
  9. Truesdell P, Zirngibl R, Francis S, Sangrar W, Greer P. fps/fes knockout mice display a lactation defect and the fps/fes tyrosine kinase is a component of E-cadherin-based adherens junctions in breast epithelial cells during lactation. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2929-40 pubmed publisher
    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase implicated in vesicular trafficking and cytokine and growth factor signaling in hematopoietic, neuronal, vascular endothelial and epithelial lineages...

More Information


  1. Xu S, Liu X, Bao Y, Zhu X, Han C, Zhang P, et al. Constitutive MHC class I molecules negatively regulate TLR-triggered inflammatory responses via the Fps-SHP-2 pathway. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:551-9 pubmed publisher
    ..domain of MHC class I molecules was phosphorylated by the kinase Src after TLR activation, then the tyrosine kinase Fps was recruited via its Src homology 2 domain to phosphorylated MHC class I molecules...
  2. Blatt C, Harper M, Franchini G, Nesbitt M, Simon M. Chromosomal mapping of murine c-fes and c-src genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1984;4:978-81 pubmed
    ..The segregation of restriction site polymorphisms, as detected by probes that are specific for endogenous c-fes and c-src sequences, was followed in the DNA of recombinant inbred strains...
  3. Hackenmiller R, Simon M. Truncation of c-fes via gene targeting results in embryonic lethality and hyperproliferation of hematopoietic cells. Dev Biol. 2002;245:255-69 pubmed
    The c-fes protooncogene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (Fes) implicated in cytokine receptor signal transduction, granulocyte survival, and myeloid differentiation...
  4. Haigh J, Ema M, Haigh K, Gertsenstein M, Greer P, Rossant J, et al. Activated Fps/Fes partially rescues the in vivo developmental potential of Flk1-deficient vascular progenitor cells. Blood. 2004;103:912-20 pubmed
    ..VEGF-A-mediated Flk1 activation resulted in increased translocation of the endogenous Fps/Fes cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase to the plasma membrane and increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting a role for ..
  5. Wang S, Greer P, Auerbach R. Isolation and propagation of yolk-sac-derived endothelial cells from a hypervascular transgenic mouse expressing a gain-of-function fps/fes proto-oncogene. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1996;32:292-9 pubmed
    ..These transgenic mice express multiple copies of an activated allele of the human fps/fes proto-oncogene and display hypervascularity progressing to multifocal hemangiomas...
  6. Izuhara K, Feldman R, Greer P, Harada N. Interleukin-4 induces association of the c-fes proto-oncogene product with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Blood. 1996;88:3910-8 pubmed
    ..that interleukin-4 (IL-4) induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein closely related or identical to the c-fes proto-oncogene product (FES) and association of this protein with the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4R alpha)...
  7. Aponte J, Sega G, Hauser L, Dhar M, Withrow C, Carpenter D, et al. Point mutations in the murine fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase gene: Animal models for the human genetic disorder hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:641-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the neonatal phenotype present in both mutants is due to a deficiency in Fah caused by a point mutation, and we propose Fah(5961SB) and Fah(6287SB) as mouse models for acute and chronic forms of human HT1, respectively. ..
  8. Foroni L, Boehm T, White L, Forster A, Sherrington P, Liao X, et al. The rhombotin gene family encode related LIM-domain proteins whose differing expression suggests multiple roles in mouse development. J Mol Biol. 1992;226:747-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest multiple cellular targets for the action of these proteins during development. ..
  9. Watanabe H, Kimata K, Line S, Strong D, Gao L, Kozak C, et al. Mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) caused by a 7 bp deletion in the aggrecan gene. Nat Genet. 1994;7:154-7 pubmed
    ..DNA sequencing of the aggrecan gene identified a 7 bp deletion in exon 5 resulting in a severely truncated molecule. The finding of an aggrecan mutation in the cmd mouse confirms the critical role of aggrecan in cartilage formation. ..
  10. Martin J, Miano J, Hustad C, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Olson E. A Mef2 gene that generates a muscle-specific isoform via alternative mRNA splicing. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:1647-56 pubmed
    ..The complexity of the MEF2 family of regulatory proteins provides the potential for fine-tuning of transcriptional responses as a consequence of combinatorial interactions among multiple MEF2 isoforms encoded by the four Mef2 genes. ..
  11. Kwok E, Everingham S, Zhang S, Greer P, Allingham J, Craig A. FES kinase promotes mast cell recruitment to mammary tumors via the stem cell factor/KIT receptor signaling axis. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:881-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate whether FES protein-tyrosine kinase, a downstream effector of KIT signaling in mast cells, is required for migration of mast ..
  12. Stoll J, Kozak C, Goldman D. Characterization and chromosomal mapping of a cDNA encoding tryptophan hydroxylase from a mouse mastocytoma cell line. Genomics. 1990;7:88-96 pubmed
    ..Because TPH has been mapped to human chromosome 11, this assignment further defines regions of homology between these mouse and human chromosomes...
  13. Wilks A, Kurban R. Isolation and structural analysis of murine c-fes cDNA clones. Oncogene. 1988;3:289-94 pubmed
    The murine c-fes protein is encoded by an mRNA of 2.8 kb which is expressed predominantly in haemopoietic cell lines of the myeloid lineage. We have isolated over-lapping cDNA clones encompassing the entire coding region of murine c-fes...
  14. Copeland N, Gilbert D, Chretien M, Seidah N, Jenkins N. Regional localization of three convertases, PC1 (Nec-1), PC2 (Nec-2), and furin (Fur), on mouse chromosomes. Genomics. 1992;13:1356-8 pubmed
    ..These results refine previous localizations by in situ hybridization as well as confirm and extend known regions of homology between mouse and human chromosomes. ..
  15. Macdonald I, Levy J, Pawson T. Expression of the mammalian c-fes protein in hematopoietic cells and identification of a distinct fes-related protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1985;5:2543-51 pubmed
    The avian c-fps and mammalian c-fes proto-oncogenes are cognate cellular sequences...
  16. Smith J, Samayawardhena L, Craig A. Fps/Fes protein-tyrosine kinase regulates mast cell adhesion and migration downstream of Kit and beta1 integrin receptors. Cell Signal. 2010;22:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have implicated the non-receptor PTK Fps/Fes (hereafter referred to as Fes) in signaling downstream of oncogenic Kit, however, the potential role of Fes in ..
  17. Potter M, Rinchik E. Deletion mapping of the chocolate (cht) locus within the Fes-Hbb region of mouse chromosome 7. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:46-8 pubmed
  18. Kanda S, Mochizuki Y, Nakamura T, Miyata Y, Matsuyama T, Kanetake H. Pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits fibroblast-growth-factor-2-induced capillary morphogenesis of endothelial cells through Fyn. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:961-70 pubmed
    ..and found that PEDF downregulated FGF-2-promoted Fyn activity by tyrosine phosphorylation at the C-terminus in a Fes-dependent manner...
  19. Kozak C, Sears J, Hoggan M. Genetic mapping of the mouse oncogenes c-Ha-ras-1 and c-fes to chromosome 7. J Virol. 1983;47:217-20 pubmed
    The mouse homologs of the cellular oncogenes c-Ha-ras-1 of Harvey sarcoma virus and c-fes of feline sarcoma virus were both mapped to chromosome 7 by Southern blot analysis of hamster-mouse somatic cell hybrid DNAs.
  20. Huynh H, Bottini N, Williams S, Cherepanov V, Musumeci L, Saito K, et al. Control of vesicle fusion by a tyrosine phosphatase. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:831-9 pubmed
    ..This represents a novel mechanism for localized regulation of NSF and the first demonstrated role for a protein tyrosine phosphatase in the regulated secretory pathway. ..
  21. Khajah M, Andonegui G, Chan R, Craig A, Greer P, McCafferty D. Fer kinase limits neutrophil chemotaxis toward end target chemoattractants. J Immunol. 2013;190:2208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data identify Fer as a novel inhibitory kinase for neutrophil chemotaxis toward end target chemoattractants through modulation of PI3K activity. ..
  22. Lu X, Gruia Gray J, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Londos C, et al. The murine perilipin gene: the lipid droplet-associated perilipins derive from tissue-specific, mRNA splice variants and define a gene family of ancient origin. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:741-9 pubmed
    ..Comparative genomics suggest the presence of related LSD genes in species as diverse as Drosophila and Dictyostelium. ..
  23. Kanda S, Miyata Y, Kanetake H, Smithgall T. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induces the activation of Src through Fes, which regulates focal adhesion disassembly. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3015-22 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that activation of Src and Fes by FGF-2 was involved in chemotaxis of IBE cells. In this study, we examined the interplay between Src and Fes...
  24. Masuhara M, Nagao K, Nishikawa M, Sasaki M, Yoshimura A, Osawa M. Molecular cloning of murine STAP-1, the stem-cell-specific adaptor protein containing PH and SH2 domains. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;268:697-703 pubmed
    ..These suggest that STAP-1 functions as an adaptor molecule downstream of c-kit in hematopoietic stem cells. ..
  25. Hackenmiller R, Kim J, Feldman R, Simon M. Abnormal Stat activation, hematopoietic homeostasis, and innate immunity in c-fes-/- mice. Immunity. 2000;13:397-407 pubmed
    The c-fes protooncogene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (Fes) implicated in cytokine receptor signal transduction, neutrophil survival, and myeloid differentiation...
  26. Brouillette J, Andrew J, Venta P. Estimate of nucleotide diversity in dogs with a pool-and-sequence method. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:1079-86 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that these species may have similar amounts of nucleotide diversity...
  27. Senis Y, Sangrar W, Zirngibl R, Craig A, Lee D, Greer P. Fps/Fes and Fer non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases regulate collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:1062-70 pubmed
    b>Fps/Fes and Fer proto-oncoproteins are structurally related non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases implicated in signaling downstream from cytokines, growth factors and immune receptors...
  28. Leff S, Brannan C, Reed M, Ozcelik T, Francke U, Copeland N, et al. Maternal imprinting of the mouse Snrpn gene and conserved linkage homology with the human Prader-Willi syndrome region. Nat Genet. 1992;2:259-64 pubmed
  29. Olvedy M, Tisserand J, Luciani F, Boeckx B, Wouters J, Lopez S, et al. Comparative oncogenomics identifies tyrosine kinase FES as a tumor suppressor in melanoma. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2310-2325 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, one of these genes encodes the tyrosine kinase FES. Whereas FES is highly expressed in normal human melanocytes, FES expression is strongly decreased in over 30% of ..
  30. Couldrey C, Bradley H, Bunting K. A STAT5 modifier locus on murine chromosome 7 modulates engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells during steady-state hematopoiesis. Blood. 2005;105:1476-83 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that STAT5 plays a critical role during steady-state HSC engraftment and a chromosome 7 modifier locus regulates this activity. ..
  31. Saunders A, Seldin M. The syntenic relationship of proximal mouse chromosome 7 and the myotonic dystrophy gene region on human chromosome 19q. Genomics. 1990;6:324-32 pubmed
    ..Homologs for five human chromosome 11 and 15 loci (Calc, Fes, Hras-1, Igflr, Tyr) were localized within an 18-cM span telomeric to Lhb...
  32. Rinke De Wit T, Izon D, Revilla C, Oosterwegel M, Bakker A, van Ewijk W, et al. Expression of tyrosine kinase gene in mouse thymic stromal cells. Int Immunol. 1996;8:1787-95 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first example of a receptor PTK in TSC and open new approaches to study the regulation of TSC differentiation. ..
  33. Franchini G, Gelmann E, Dalla Favera R, Gallo R, Wong Staal F. Human gene (c-fes) related to the onc sequences of Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus. Mol Cell Biol. 1982;2:1014-9 pubmed
    The onc gene (v-fes) of the acutely transforming feline sarcoma virus (Snyder-Theilen strain) has homologous cellular sequences (c-fes) in all vertebrate species, including humans...
  34. Alcalay M, Antolini F, Van de Ven W, Lanfrancone L, Grignani F, Pelicci P. Characterization of human and mouse c-fes cDNA clones and identification of the 5' end of the gene. Oncogene. 1990;5:267-75 pubmed
    cDNA clones of the human c-fes mRNA were isolated. Nucleotide analysis showed that c-fes mRNA contains a 2514 nucleotide open reading frame, which could encode for a 93 kDa protein, and both 5' and 3' v-fes nonhomologous sequences...
  35. Bremner R, Balmain A. Genetic changes in skin tumor progression: correlation between presence of a mutant ras gene and loss of heterozygosity on mouse chromosome 7. Cell. 1990;61:407-17 pubmed
    ..We conclude that gross chromosomal alterations that elevate the copy number of mutant H-ras and/or lead to loss of normal H-ras are a consistent feature of mouse skin tumor development. ..
  36. Wilks A, Kurban R, Hovens C, Ralph S. The application of the polymerase chain reaction to cloning members of the protein tyrosine kinase family. Gene. 1989;85:67-74 pubmed
    ..In addition to a number of previously described PTK sequences, a novel mammalian PTK-related sequence was uncovered. ..
  37. Rohm B, Rahim B, Kleiber B, Hovatta I, Puschel A. The semaphorin 3A receptor may directly regulate the activity of small GTPases. FEBS Lett. 2000;486:68-72 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that plexins may be integral membrane proteins with an intrinsic GAP activity that is essential for their ability to induce growth cone collapse. ..
  38. Craig A, Greer P. Fer kinase is required for sustained p38 kinase activation and maximal chemotaxis of activated mast cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6363-74 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the highly related Fps/Fes kinase is also activated upon Fc epsilon RI aggregation...
  39. Tessarollo L, Tsoulfas P, Martin Zanca D, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Copeland N, et al. trkC, a receptor for neurotrophin-3, is widely expressed in the developing nervous system and in non-neuronal tissues. Development. 1993;118:463-75 pubmed
    ..Alignment with available chromosomal maps identify possible linkage between the Trk genes and known neurological mutations. ..
  40. Zhang C, Ibrahim P, Zhang J, Burton E, Habets G, Zhang Y, et al. Design and pharmacology of a highly specific dual FMS and KIT kinase inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5689-94 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, the dual FMS and KIT inhibition profile has translated into a combination of benefits in preclinical disease models of inflammation and cancer. ..
  41. Parganas E, Wang D, Stravopodis D, Topham D, Marine J, Teglund S, et al. Jak2 is essential for signaling through a variety of cytokine receptors. Cell. 1998;93:385-95 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Jak2 plays a critical, nonredundant role in the function of a specific group of cytokines receptors. ..
  42. Voisset E, Lopez S, Chaix A, Vita M, George C, Dubreuil P, et al. FES kinase participates in KIT-ligand induced chemotaxis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:174-8 pubmed publisher
    b>FES is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase activated by several membrane receptors, originally identified as a viral oncogene product. We have recently identified FES as a crucial effector of oncogenic KIT mutant receptor...
  43. Sangrar W, Senis Y, Samis J, Gao Y, Richardson M, Lee D, et al. Hemostatic and hematological abnormalities in gain-of-function fps/fes transgenic mice are associated with the angiogenic phenotype. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:2009-19 pubmed
    The Fps/Fes tyrosine kinase has been implicated in the regulation of hematopoiesis and inflammation...
  44. Sangrar W, Zirgnibl R, Gao Y, Muller W, Jia Z, Greer P. An identity crisis for fps/fes: oncogene or tumor suppressor?. Cancer Res. 2005;65:3518-22 pubmed
    Fps/Fes proteins were among the first members of the protein tyrosine kinase family to be characterized as dominant-acting oncoproteins...
  45. Barbacid M, Beemon K, Devare S. Origin and functional properties of the major gene product of the Snyder-Theilen strain of feline sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:5158-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, independent transforming virus isolates from birds, mice, and cats may utilize common pathways in exerting their oncogenic potential...
  46. Walcz E, Deak F, Erhardt P, Coulter S, Fulop C, Horvath P, et al. Complete coding sequence, deduced primary structure, chromosomal localization, and structural analysis of murine aggrecan. Genomics. 1994;22:364-71 pubmed
    ..Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like module was detected in only a minor fraction of aggrecan clones, while the complement regulatory protein (CRP)-like domain was regularly expressed in all samples. ..
  47. Sundaresan S, Francke U. Insulin-like growth factor I receptor gene is concordant with c-Fes protooncogene and mouse chromosome 7 in somatic cell hybrids. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1989;15:373-6 pubmed
    ..In humans, the IGF1R gene has been mapped near FES, the cellular counterpart of the feline sarcoma virus transforming gene v-fes, at the q25-q26 region of human ..
  48. Shapovalova Z, Tabunshchyk K, Greer P. The Fer tyrosine kinase regulates an axon retraction response to Semaphorin 3A in dorsal root ganglion neurons. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:133 pubmed
    b>Fps/Fes and Fer are the only two members of a distinct subclass of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases...
  49. Parsons S, Greer P. The Fps/Fes kinase regulates the inflammatory response to endotoxin through down-regulation of TLR4, NF-kappaB activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80:1522-8 pubmed
    Fps/Fes and Fer are members of a distinct subfamily of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases that have recently been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity...
  50. Sangrar W, Gao Y, Bates B, Zirngibl R, Greer P. Activated Fps/Fes tyrosine kinase regulates erythroid differentiation and survival. Exp Hematol. 2004;32:935-45 pubmed
    A substantial body of evidence implicates the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase Fps/Fes in regulation of myeloid differentiation and survival...
  51. Zhang S, Chitu V, Stanley E, Elliott B, Greer P. Fes tyrosine kinase expression in the tumor niche correlates with enhanced tumor growth, angiogenesis, circulating tumor cells, metastasis, and infiltrating macrophages. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1465-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Fes is a protein tyrosine kinase with cell autonomous oncogenic activities that are well established in cell culture and animal models, but its involvement in human cancer has been unclear...
  52. Matsunaga T, Nomoto M, Kozak C, Gonzalez F. Structure and in vitro transcription of the rat CYP2A1 and CYP2A2 genes and regional localization of the CYP2A gene subfamily on mouse chromosome 7. Biochemistry. 1990;29:1329-41 pubmed
  53. Volpi L, Beghini A, Rossi D, Larizza L. Microsatellite instability in IVS3 of murine c-fes gene: tumor-associated rearrangement and mammalian divergence. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:682-5 pubmed
    The murine lymphomacrophage hybrids ESb, EbF1, EbF2-c4, which express c-fes constitutively, were found by Southern analysis to bear a c-fes deletion of almost 100 bp...
  54. Kim J, Ogata Y, Feldman R. Fes tyrosine kinase promotes survival and terminal granulocyte differentiation of factor-dependent myeloid progenitors (32D) and activates lineage-specific transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14978-84 pubmed
    The c-fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a 92-kDa protein-tyrosine kinase that is involved in myeloid cell development and function...
  55. Slamon D, Cline M. Expression of cellular oncogenes during embryonic and fetal development of the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:7141-5 pubmed
    ..Five of these genes (c-myc, c-erb, c-Ha-ras, c-src, and c-sis) were expressed at appreciable levels, and four were modulated in a consistent manner during the course of prenatal development. ..
  56. Parsons S, Mewburn J, Truesdell P, Greer P. The Fps/Fes kinase regulates leucocyte recruitment and extravasation during inflammation. Immunology. 2007;122:542-50 pubmed
    b>Fps/Fes and Fer comprise a distinct subfamily of cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases, and have both been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity...
  57. Saga Y, Hata N, Kobayashi S, Magnuson T, Seldin M, Taketo M. MesP1: a novel basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in the nascent mesodermal cells during mouse gastrulation. Development. 1996;122:2769-78 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence and its expression pattern suggest that MesP1 plays an important role in the development of the nascent mesoderm including PGC. ..