Gene Symbol: Fbxo32
Description: F-box protein 32
Alias: 4833442G10Rik, AI430017, ATROGIN1, Gm20361, MAFbx, F-box only protein 32, atrogin 1, muscle atrophy F-box protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Fbxo32

Top Publications

  1. Gomes M, Lecker S, Jagoe R, Navon A, Goldberg A. Atrogin-1, a muscle-specific F-box protein highly expressed during muscle atrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14440-5 pubmed
    ..Atrogin-1 is one of the few examples of an F-box protein or Ub-protein ligase (E3) expressed in a tissue-specific manner and appears to be a critical component in the enhanced proteolysis leading to muscle atrophy in diverse diseases. ..
  2. Bodine S, Latres E, Baumhueter S, Lai V, Nunez L, Clarke B, et al. Identification of ubiquitin ligases required for skeletal muscle atrophy. Science. 2001;294:1704-8 pubmed
    ..these genes encode ubiquitin ligases: Muscle RING Finger 1 (MuRF1), and a gene we designate Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFbx), the latter being a member of the SCF family of E3 ubiquitin ligases...
  3. Li H, Kedar V, Zhang C, McDonough H, Arya R, Wang D, et al. Atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box inhibits calcineurin-dependent cardiac hypertrophy by participating in an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1058-71 pubmed
  4. Tintignac L, Lagirand J, Batonnet S, Sirri V, Leibovitch M, Leibovitch S. Degradation of MyoD mediated by the SCF (MAFbx) ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2847-56 pubmed
    ..Here we report that MyoD interacts with Atrogin-1/MAFbx (MAFbx), a striated muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase dramatically up-regulated in atrophying muscle...
  5. Li Y, Chen Y, John J, Moylan J, Jin B, Mann D, et al. TNF-alpha acts via p38 MAPK to stimulate expression of the ubiquitin ligase atrogin1/MAFbx in skeletal muscle. FASEB J. 2005;19:362-70 pubmed
    b>Atrogin1/MAFbx is an ubiquitin ligase that mediates muscle atrophy in a variety of catabolic states. We recently found that H2O2 stimulates atrogin1/MAFbx gene expression...
  6. Lagirand Cantaloube J, Offner N, Csibi A, Leibovitch M, Batonnet Pichon S, Tintignac L, et al. The initiation factor eIF3-f is a major target for atrogin1/MAFbx function in skeletal muscle atrophy. EMBO J. 2008;27:1266-76 pubmed publisher
    In response to cancer, AIDS, sepsis and other systemic diseases inducing muscle atrophy, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Atrogin1/MAFbx (MAFbx) is dramatically upregulated and this response is necessary for rapid atrophy...
  7. Sandri M, Sandri C, Gilbert A, Skurk C, Calabria E, Picard A, et al. Foxo transcription factors induce the atrophy-related ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1 and cause skeletal muscle atrophy. Cell. 2004;117:399-412 pubmed
    ..In atrophying muscles, the ubiquitin ligase, atrogin-1 (MAFbx), is dramatically induced, and this response is necessary for rapid atrophy...
  8. Hanai J, Cao P, Tanksale P, Imamura S, Koshimizu E, Zhao J, et al. The muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx mediates statin-induced muscle toxicity. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3940-51 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our human, animal, and in vitro findings shed light on the molecular mechanism of statin-induced myopathy and suggest that atrogin-1 may be a critical mediator of the muscle damage induced by statins. ..
  9. Li H, Willis M, Lockyer P, Miller N, McDonough H, Glass D, et al. Atrogin-1 inhibits Akt-dependent cardiac hypertrophy in mice via ubiquitin-dependent coactivation of Forkhead proteins. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3211-23 pubmed

More Information


  1. Usui S, Maejima Y, Pain J, Hong C, Cho J, Park J, et al. Endogenous muscle atrophy F-box mediates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy through regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Circ Res. 2011;109:161-71 pubmed publisher
    Overexpression of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx/atrogin-1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, induces proteasomal degradation in cardiomyocytes. The role of endogenous MAFbx in regulating cardiac hypertrophy and failure remains unclear...
  2. Okada A, Ono Y, Nagatomi R, Kishimoto K, Itoi E. Decreased muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) expression in regenerating muscle after muscle-damaging exercise. Muscle Nerve. 2008;38:1246-53 pubmed publisher
    A muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase, Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFbx), is known to mediate the degradation of muscle-specific transcription factor MyoD in vitro. Its regulation in regenerating skeletal muscle, however, has not been clarified...
  3. Wang H, Liu D, Cao P, Lecker S, Hu Z. Atrogin-1 affects muscle protein synthesis and degradation when energy metabolism is impaired by the antidiabetes drug berberine. Diabetes. 2010;59:1879-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in atrogin-1 not only stimulated protein degradation but also suppressed protein synthesis, causing muscle atrophy. ..
  4. Csibi A, Leibovitch M, Cornille K, Tintignac L, Leibovitch S. MAFbx/Atrogin-1 controls the activity of the initiation factor eIF3-f in skeletal muscle atrophy by targeting multiple C-terminal lysines. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..eukaryotic initiation translation factor eIF3 that interacts with the E3-ligase Atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) for polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation is a key target that accounts for MAFbx function ..
  5. Ceccarelli G, Benedetti L, Galli D, Prè D, Silvani G, Crosetto N, et al. Low-amplitude high frequency vibration down-regulates myostatin and atrogin-1 expression, two components of the atrophy pathway in muscle cells. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2014;8:396-406 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that vibration treatment at 30 Hz is effective in suppressing the atrophy pathway both in vivo and in vitro and enhances fusion of satellite muscle cells. ..
  6. Proserpio V, Fittipaldi R, Ryall J, Sartorelli V, Caretti G. The methyltransferase SMYD3 mediates the recruitment of transcriptional cofactors at the myostatin and c-Met genes and regulates skeletal muscle atrophy. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1299-312 pubmed publisher
  7. Sun R, Zhang S, Hu W, Lu X, Lou N, Yang Z, et al. Valproic acid attenuates skeletal muscle wasting by inhibiting C/EBP?-regulated atrogin1 expression in cancer cachexia. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;311:C101-15 pubmed publisher
    ..myotubes treated with VPA exhibited reduced levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP?), resulting in atrogin1 downregulation and the eventual alleviation of muscle wasting and myotube atrophy...
  8. Kawabata T, Yamaguchi S, Buske T, Luebben S, Wallace M, Matise I, et al. A reduction of licensed origins reveals strain-specific replication dynamics in mice. Mamm Genome. 2011;22:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, p53 is required for the development of mice that suffer from intrinsic replication stress. ..
  9. Zhang G, Jin B, Li Y. C/EBP? mediates tumour-induced ubiquitin ligase atrogin1/MAFbx upregulation and muscle wasting. EMBO J. 2011;30:4323-35 pubmed publisher
    Upregulation of ubiquitin ligase atrogin1/MAFbx and muscle wasting are hallmarks of cancer cachexia; however, the underlying mechanism is undefined...
  10. Okamoto T, Torii S, Machida S. Differential gene expression of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase MAFbx/Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in response to immobilization-induced atrophy of slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscles. J Physiol Sci. 2011;61:537-46 pubmed publisher
    We examined muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases MAFbx/Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression resulting from immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy of slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles...
  11. Herningtyas E, Okimura Y, Handayaningsih A, Yamamoto D, Maki T, Iida K, et al. Branched-chain amino acids and arginine suppress MaFbx/atrogin-1 mRNA expression via mTOR pathway in C2C12 cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:1115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicated that leucine, isoleucine and arginine decreased atrogin-1 mRNA levels via mTOR and that different pathways were involved in the effect of those amino acids on MuRF1 mRNA levels. ..
  12. Tang H, Inoki K, Lee M, Wright E, Khuong A, Khuong A, et al. mTORC1 promotes denervation-induced muscle atrophy through a mechanism involving the activation of FoxO and E3 ubiquitin ligases. Sci Signal. 2014;7:ra18 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription factors and increasing the expression of genes encoding E3 ubiquitin ligases atrogin [also known as MAFbx (muscle atrophy F-box protein)] and MuRF1 (muscle-specific ring finger 1)...
  13. Lokireddy S, Wijesoma I, Sze S, McFarlane C, Kambadur R, Sharma M. Identification of atrogin-1-targeted proteins during the myostatin-induced skeletal muscle wasting. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C512-29 pubmed publisher
  14. Jogo M, Shiraishi S, Tamura T. Identification of MAFbx as a myogenin-engaged F-box protein in SCF ubiquitin ligase. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2715-9 pubmed publisher
    ..found that myogenin in differentiated myoblasts is destabilized by muscle atrophy-inducing dexamethasone and that MAFbx (muscle atrophy F-box protein) is increased in atrophying myotubes...
  15. Bonifacio A, Mullen P, Mityko I, Navegantes L, Bouitbir J, Krähenbühl S. Simvastatin induces mitochondrial dysfunction and increased atrogin-1 expression in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and mice in vivo. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrial damage and increased atrogin-1 expression are associated with apoptosis and increased protein breakdown, which may cause myocardial atrophy. ..
  16. Skurk C, Izumiya Y, Maatz H, Razeghi P, Shiojima I, Sandri M, et al. The FOXO3a transcription factor regulates cardiac myocyte size downstream of AKT signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20814-23 pubmed
    ..the expression of multiple atrophy-related genes "atrogenes," including the ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1 (MAFbx)...
  17. Murdoch J, Rostosky C, Gowrisankaran S, Arora A, Soukup S, Vidal R, et al. Endophilin-A Deficiency Induces the Foxo3a-Fbxo32 Network in the Brain and Causes Dysregulation of Autophagy and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System. Cell Rep. 2016;17:1071-1086 pubmed publisher
    ..highlighted ataxia- and protein-homeostasis-related genes and revealed upregulation of the E3-ubiquitin ligase FBXO32/atrogin-1 and its transcription factor FOXO3A...
  18. Bédard N, Jammoul S, Moore T, Wykes L, Hallauer P, Hastings K, et al. Inactivation of the ubiquitin-specific protease 19 deubiquitinating enzyme protects against muscle wasting. FASEB J. 2015;29:3889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, expression of the ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1 as well as several autophagy genes was decreased in the muscles of catabolic KO mice...
  19. Lagirand Cantaloube J, Cornille K, Csibi A, Batonnet Pichon S, Leibovitch M, Leibovitch S. Inhibition of atrogin-1/MAFbx mediated MyoD proteolysis prevents skeletal muscle atrophy in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4973 pubmed publisher
    Ubiquitin ligase Atrogin1/Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFbx) up-regulation is required for skeletal muscle atrophy but substrates and function during the atrophic process are poorly known...
  20. Ratti F, Ramond F, Moncollin V, Simonet T, Milan G, Méjat A, et al. Histone deacetylase 6 is a FoxO transcription factor-dependent effector in skeletal muscle atrophy. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:4215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Up-regulation of specific genes, such as the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase MAFbx, by FoxO transcription factors is essential to initiate muscle protein ubiquitination and degradation during ..
  21. Xu H, Crawford D, Hutchinson K, Youtz D, Lucchesi P, Velten M, et al. Myocardial dysfunction in an animal model of cancer cachexia. Life Sci. 2011;88:406-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that heart muscle is directly affected by tumor growth, with myocardial function more severely compromised at the cellular level than what is observed using echocardiography. ..
  22. Yuan L, Han J, Meng Q, Xi Q, Zhuang Q, Jiang Y, et al. Muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases are involved in muscle atrophy of cancer cachexia: an in vitro and in vivo study. Oncol Rep. 2015;33:2261-8 pubmed publisher
    Muscle atrophy F-Box (MAFbx)/atrogin-1 and muscle ring-finger-1 (MuRF-1) have been identified as two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases that are highly expressed in skeletal muscle during muscle atrophy...
  23. Gomes A, Waddell D, Siu R, Stein M, Dewey S, Furlow J, et al. Upregulation of proteasome activity in muscle RING finger 1-null mice following denervation. FASEB J. 2012;26:2986-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, mRNA expression of MAFbx was elevated after 14 d of denervation in KO, but not WT, mice...
  24. Cenik B, Garg A, McAnally J, Shelton J, Richardson J, Bassel Duby R, et al. Severe myopathy in mice lacking the MEF2/SRF-dependent gene leiomodin-3. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1569-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of the sarcomere assembly and muscle dysfunction associated with nemaline myopathy. ..
  25. Cortez Toledo O, Schnair C, Sangngern P, Metzger D, Chao L. Nur77 deletion impairs muscle growth during developmental myogenesis and muscle regeneration in mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171268 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the findings presented here demonstrate Nur77 as an important regulator of muscle growth both during prenatal and postnatal myogenesis. ..
  26. Wang X, Gargalovic P, Wong J, Gu J, Wu X, Qi H, et al. Hyplip2, a new gene for combined hyperlipidemia and increased atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1928-34 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that the Hyplip2 gene significantly contributes to combined hyperlipidemia and increased atherosclerosis in mice. ..
  27. Moylan J, Smith J, Chambers M, McLoughlin T, Reid M. TNF induction of atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA depends on Foxo4 expression but not AKT-Foxo1/3 signaling. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C986-93 pubmed publisher
    ..atrophy demonstrate that reduced protein kinase B (AKT) function upregulates the atrophy-related gene atrogin-1/MAFbx (atrogin). The mechanism involves release of inhibition of Forkhead transcription factors, namely Foxo1 and Foxo3...
  28. Yu Z, Li P, Zhang M, Hannink M, Stamler J, Yan Z. Fiber type-specific nitric oxide protects oxidative myofibers against cachectic stimuli. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2086 pubmed publisher
    ..in higher level of ROS and greater expression of muscle-specific E3 ubiqitin ligases, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx)/atrogin-1 and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1), in glycolytic white vastus lateralis muscle than in oxidative soleus ..
  29. Baskin K, Rodriguez M, Kansara S, Chen W, Carranza S, Frazier O, et al. MAFbx/Atrogin-1 is required for atrophic remodeling of the unloaded heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014;72:168-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Over-expressing the ubiquitin ligase MAFbx/Atrogin-1 in the heart inhibits the development of cardiac hypertrophy, but the role of MAFbx/Atrogin-1 in the ..
  30. Gonçalves D, Lira E, Baviera A, Cao P, Zanon N, Arany Z, et al. Mechanisms involved in 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5395-404 pubmed publisher
  31. Riaz M, Raz Y, van Putten M, Paniagua Soriano G, Krom Y, Florea B, et al. PABPN1-Dependent mRNA Processing Induces Muscle Wasting. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006031 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that PABPN1-mediated alternative PAS utilization plays a central role in aging-associated muscle wasting. ..
  32. Moresi V, Williams A, Meadows E, Flynn J, Potthoff M, McAnally J, et al. Myogenin and class II HDACs control neurogenic muscle atrophy by inducing E3 ubiquitin ligases. Cell. 2010;143:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, myogenin plays a dual role as both a regulator of muscle development and an inducer of neurogenic atrophy. These findings reveal a specific pathway for muscle wasting and potential therapeutic targets for this disorder. ..
  33. Goodman C, McNally R, Hoffmann F, Hornberger T. Smad3 induces atrogin-1, inhibits mTOR and protein synthesis, and promotes muscle atrophy in vivo. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:1946-57 pubmed publisher
  34. Wagatsuma A, Shiozuka M, Takayama Y, Hoshino T, Mabuchi K, Matsuda R. Effects of ageing on expression of the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases and Akt-dependent regulation of Foxo transcription factors in skeletal muscle. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;412:59-72 pubmed publisher
    Controversy exists as to whether the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFbx and MuRF1 are transcriptionally upregulated in the process of sarcopenia...
  35. Baehr L, Furlow J, Bodine S. Muscle sparing in muscle RING finger 1 null mice: response to synthetic glucocorticoids. J Physiol. 2011;589:4759-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and MAFbx, are excellent markers of muscle atrophy and increase under divergent atrophy-inducing conditions such as ..
  36. Mammucari C, Milan G, Romanello V, Masiero E, Rudolf R, Del Piccolo P, et al. FoxO3 controls autophagy in skeletal muscle in vivo. Cell Metab. 2007;6:458-71 pubmed
    ..These findings point to FoxO3 and Bnip3 as potential therapeutic targets in muscle wasting disorders and other degenerative and neoplastic diseases in which autophagy is involved. ..
  37. Cushing L, Costinean S, Xu W, Jiang Z, Madden L, Kuang P, et al. Disruption of miR-29 Leads to Aberrant Differentiation of Smooth Muscle Cells Selectively Associated with Distal Lung Vasculature. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005238 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found that expression of FBXO32 in vSMCs is significantly upregulated in the distal vasculature of miR-29 null lungs...
  38. Sheriff S, Joshi R, Friend L, James J, Balasubramaniam A. Ghrelin receptor agonist, GHRP-2, attenuates burn injury-induced MuRF-1 and MAFbx expression and muscle proteolysis in rats. Peptides. 2009;30:1909-13 pubmed publisher
    ..the thermal injury-induced increase in mRNA expression of IL-6 and of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, MuRF-1 and MAFbx, in rat skeletal muscle...
  39. Jo C, Cho S, Jo S. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) stabilizes MyoD through direct phosphorylation at tyrosine 156 during myogenic differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18903-13 pubmed publisher
    ..was recovered over that of wild type by an additional mutation at Leu-164, a critical binding residue of MAFbx/AT-1, a Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) E3-ubiquitin ligase...
  40. Ikeda Y, Imao M, Satoh A, Watanabe H, Hamano H, Horinouchi Y, et al. Iron-induced skeletal muscle atrophy involves an Akt-forkhead box O3-E3 ubiquitin ligase-dependent pathway. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016;35:66-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Iron-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is suggested to involve the E3 ubiquitin ligase mediated by the reduction of Akt-FOXO3a signaling by oxidative stress. ..
  41. Macpherson P, Wang X, Goldman D. Myogenin regulates denervation-dependent muscle atrophy in mouse soleus muscle. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Myog and the signaling cascades regulating its induction following muscle denervation may represent novel targets for therapies aimed at reducing denervation-induced muscle atrophy. ..
  42. Kamaludin A, Smolarchuk C, Bischof J, Eggert R, Greer J, Ren J, et al. Muscle dysfunction caused by loss of Magel2 in a mouse model of Prader-Willi and Schaaf-Yang syndromes. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:3798-3809 pubmed publisher
    ..Magel2-null mice serve as a preclinical model for therapies targeting muscle structure and function in children lacking MAGEL2 diagnosed with Prader-Willi or Schaaf-Yang syndrome. ..
  43. Terami H, Hidaka K, Shirai M, Narumiya H, Kuroyanagi T, Arai Y, et al. Efficient capture of cardiogenesis-associated genes expressed in ES cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:47-53 pubmed
    ..5-10.5. Based on our results, we consider that the present profiling method may be useful to identify novel genes important for cardiac development. ..
  44. Yoon H, Lee D, Kim M, Bok J. Identification of genes concordantly expressed with Atoh1 during inner ear development. Anat Cell Biol. 2011;44:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, by reanalyzing archived genetic profiling data, we identified a list of novel genes possibly involved in hair cell differentiation. ..
  45. Maragno A, Baqui M, Gomes M. FBXO25, an F-box protein homologue of atrogin-1, is not induced in atrophying muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:966-72 pubmed
    Atrogin-1/MAFbx/FBXO32 is a muscle-specific ubiquitin-ligase (E3) that is dramatically increased in atrophying muscle...
  46. Shin J, Méndez López I, Hong M, Wang Y, Tanji K, Wu W, et al. Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 is dispensable for embryonic myogenesis but required for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that early embryonic depletion of LAP1 does not impair myogenesis but that it is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. ..
  47. Mearini G, Gedicke C, Schlossarek S, Witt C, Kramer E, Cao P, et al. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 regulate cardiac MyBP-C levels via different mechanisms. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that atrogin-1 specifically targets truncated M7t-cMyBP-C, but not WT-cMyBP-C, for proteasomal degradation and that MuRF1 indirectly reduces cMyBP-C levels by regulating the transcription of MHC. ..
  48. Bdolah Y, Segal A, Tanksale P, Karumanchi S, Lecker S. Atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 are associated with uterine smooth muscle involution in the postpartum period. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R971-6 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that activation of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 may be a common general adaptation in cells undergoing a rapid reduction in size. ..
  49. Nagandla H, Lopez S, Yu W, Rasmussen T, Tucker H, Schwartz R, et al. Defective myogenesis in the absence of the muscle-specific lysine methyltransferase SMYD1. Dev Biol. 2016;410:86-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to the previously described functions for Smyd1 in heart development and skeletal muscle sarcomerogenesis, these results point to a novel role for Smyd1 in myoblast differentiation. ..
  50. Leger B, Senese R, Al Khodairy A, Deriaz O, Gobelet C, Giacobino J, et al. Atrogin-1, MuRF1, and FoXO, as well as phosphorylated GSK-3beta and 4E-BP1 are reduced in skeletal muscle of chronic spinal cord-injured patients. Muscle Nerve. 2009;40:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The downregulation of signaling proteins that regulate anabolism, such as IGF, GSK-3beta, and 4E-BP1, would reduce the ability to increase protein synthesis rates. ..
  51. Zaglia T, Milan G, Ruhs A, Franzoso M, Bertaggia E, Pianca N, et al. Atrogin-1 deficiency promotes cardiomyopathy and premature death via impaired autophagy. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:2410-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that atrogin-1 promotes cardiomyocyte health through mediating the interplay between UPS and autophagy/lysosome system and its alteration promotes development of cardiomyopathies. ..
  52. Nakamura K, Nakano S, Miyoshi T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Loss of SPARC in mouse skeletal muscle causes myofiber atrophy. Muscle Nerve. 2013;48:791-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Myofiber diameter, atrogin1, and muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MuRF1) expression, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) and transforming growth ..
  53. Singh P, Li D, Gui Y, Zheng X. Atrogin-1 Increases Smooth Muscle Contractility Through Myocardin Degradation. J Cell Physiol. 2017;232:806-817 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 806-817, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..