Gene Symbol: F2rl3
Description: coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3
Alias: PAR4, proteinase-activated receptor 4, PAR-4, coagulation factor II receptor-like 3, thrombin receptor-like 3
Species: mouse
Products:     F2rl3

Top Publications

  1. Mao Y, Jin J, Daniel J, Kunapuli S. Regulation of plasmin-induced protease-activated receptor 4 activation in platelets. Platelets. 2009;20:191-8 pubmed publisher
    Plasmin, a major extracellular protease, activates platelets through PAR4 receptors. Plasmin-induced full aggregation is achieved at lower concentrations (0.1 U/mL) in murine platelets as compared to human platelets (1 U/mL)...
  2. Sambrano G, Weiss E, Zheng Y, Huang W, Coughlin S. Role of thrombin signalling in platelets in haemostasis and thrombosis. Nature. 2001;413:74-8 pubmed
    ..Mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4 (ref. 9)...
  3. Kahn M, Zheng Y, Huang W, Bigornia V, Zeng D, Moff S, et al. A dual thrombin receptor system for platelet activation. Nature. 1998;394:690-4 pubmed
    ..We have also identified PAR4, a new thrombin-activated receptor...
  4. Pavic G, Grandoch M, Dangwal S, Jobi K, Rauch B, Doller A, et al. Thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor 4 is a key regulator of exaggerated intimal thickening in diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2014;130:1700-11 pubmed publisher
  5. Mao Y, Kunapuli S. Trypsin causes platelet activation independently of known protease-activated receptors. Thromb Haemost. 2013;110:1241-9 pubmed publisher
    To identify a physiological agonist of PAR3, we used PAR4 null murine platelets, which were known to express only PAR3...
  6. Henrich Noack P, Riek Burchardt M, Reymann K, Reiser G. Cellular expression pattern of the protease-activated receptor 4 in the hippocampus in naïve rats and after global ischaemia. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:850-7 pubmed publisher
    A pronounced hippocampal expression of the Protease-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4) has recently been shown...
  7. Yoshida S, Shiosaka S. Plasticity-related serine proteases in the brain (review). Int J Mol Med. 1999;3:405-9 pubmed
    ..Kindling induced neuropsin mRNA and protein expression and anti-neuropsin antibody ameliorates kindling epilepsy. The possible roles of these proteases in neural plasticity are reviewed here. ..
  8. Bynagari Settipalli Y, Cornelissen I, Palmer D, Duong D, Concengco C, Ware J, et al. Redundancy and interaction of thrombin- and collagen-mediated platelet activation in tail bleeding and carotid thrombosis in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:2563-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelets from mice deficient for the thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor-4 (Par4) and the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI protein (GPVI) lack responses to thrombin and collagen, respectively...
  9. Mumaw M, de la Fuente M, Noble D, Nieman M. Targeting the anionic region of human protease-activated receptor 4 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombosis without interfering with hemostasis. J Thromb Haemost. 2014;12:1331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) anionic cluster as a viable antiplatelet target by using a polyclonal antibody (CAN12)...

More Information


  1. Borensztajn K, Duitman J, Brüggemann L, Spek C. Protease-activated receptor-4 deficiency does not protect against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Eur Respir J. 2012;40:1056-7 pubmed
  2. Offermanns S. Activation of platelet function through G protein-coupled receptors. Circ Res. 2006;99:1293-304 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying platelet activation and thrombus extension via G protein-mediated signaling pathways. ..
  3. Auge C, Balz Hara D, Steinhoff M, Vergnolle N, Cenac N. Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR 4): a role as inhibitor of visceral pain and hypersensitivity. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009;21:1189-e107 pubmed publisher
    ..Endogenous activation of PAR(4) also plays a major role in controlling visceral pain. These results identify PAR(4) as a previously unknown modulator of visceral nociception. ..
  4. Smith T, Coronel L, Li J, Dores M, Nieman M, Trejo J. Protease-activated Receptor-4 Signaling and Trafficking Is Regulated by the Clathrin Adaptor Protein Complex-2 Independent of ?-Arrestins. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:18453-64 pubmed publisher
    Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin and is proteolytically activated, similar to the prototypical PAR1...
  5. Kaplan Z, Zarpellon A, Alwis I, Yuan Y, McFadyen J, Ghasemzadeh M, et al. Thrombin-dependent intravascular leukocyte trafficking regulated by fibrin and the platelet receptors GPIb and PAR4. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7835 pubmed publisher
    ..of a distinct leukocyte-trafficking mechanism regulated by components of the haemostatic system, including platelet PAR4, GPIbα and fibrin...
  6. Arachiche A, de la Fuente M, Nieman M. Platelet specific promoters are insufficient to express protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) transgene in mouse platelets. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97724 pubmed publisher
    ..Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4 whereas mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4...
  7. Shao B, Wahrenbrock M, Yao L, David T, Coughlin S, Xia L, et al. Carcinoma mucins trigger reciprocal activation of platelets and neutrophils in a murine model of Trousseau syndrome. Blood. 2011;118:4015-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Mucins did not activate platelets in blood from mice lacking cathepsin G or protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4), indicating that cathepsin G activates platelets through PAR4...
  8. Camerer E, Duong D, Hamilton J, Coughlin S. Combined deficiency of protease-activated receptor-4 and fibrinogen recapitulates the hemostatic defect but not the embryonic lethality of prothrombin deficiency. Blood. 2004;103:152-4 pubmed
    ..By contrast, protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4)-deficient mice, which have platelets that fail to respond to thrombin, survive to adulthood with only a mild ..
  9. Camerer E, Qazi A, Duong D, Cornelissen I, Advincula R, Coughlin S. Platelets, protease-activated receptors, and fibrinogen in hematogenous metastasis. Blood. 2004;104:397-401 pubmed
    ..after intravenous injection of melanoma cells in Nf-E2(-/-) mice, which have virtually no circulating platelets; Par4(-/-) mice, which have platelets that fail to respond to thrombin; Par1 and Par2(-/-) mice, which have markedly ..
  10. Camerer E, Cornelissen I, Kataoka H, Duong D, Zheng Y, Coughlin S. Roles of protease-activated receptors in a mouse model of endotoxemia. Blood. 2006;107:3912-21 pubmed
    ..as measured by thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) production and antithrombin III (ATIII) depletion, Par1(-/-), Par2(-/-), Par4(-/-), Par2(-/-):Par4(-/-), and Par1(-/-):Par2(-/-) mice all failed to show improved survival or decreased cytokine ..
  11. Vandendries E, Hamilton J, Coughlin S, Furie B, Furie B. Par4 is required for platelet thrombus propagation but not fibrin generation in a mouse model of thrombosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:288-92 pubmed
    ..formation by using real-time digital fluorescence microscopy in mice lacking protease-activated receptor-4 (Par4), which is necessary for thrombin responsiveness in mouse platelets...
  12. Camerer E, Kataoka H, Kahn M, Lease K, Coughlin S. Genetic evidence that protease-activated receptors mediate factor Xa signaling in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16081-7 pubmed
    ..Protease-activated receptors (PAR1, PAR2, and PAR4) can mediate Xa signaling in heterologous expression systems...
  13. Cornelissen I, Palmer D, David T, WILSBACHER L, Concengco C, Conley P, et al. Roles and interactions among protease-activated receptors and P2ry12 in hemostasis and thrombosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Par3(-/-) and Par4(+/-) mouse platelets showed partially decreased responses to thrombin, resembling those in PAR1 antagonist-treated ..
  14. Busso N, Chobaz Péclat V, Hamilton J, Spee P, Wagtmann N, So A. Essential role of platelet activation via protease activated receptor 4 in tissue factor-initiated inflammation. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:R42 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of PAR-4 on platelets is crucial and the other PARs do not play a major role in soluble TF-induced inflammation. ..
  15. Gandhi P, Page M, Chen Z, Bush Pelc L, Di Cera E. Mechanism of the anticoagulant activity of thrombin mutant W215A/E217A. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24098-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The E* --> E transition requires the combined binding of thrombomodulin and protein C and restores activity of the mutant WE in the anticoagulant pathway. ..
  16. Kahner B, Dorsam R, Kim S, Shankar H, Kitamura D, Kunapuli S. Hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein-1 (HS1) regulates PAR-mediated ERK activation and thromboxane generation in platelets. Platelets. 2008;19:614-23 pubmed publisher
    ..HS1 phosphorylation is a Gq mediated response regulated by Src kinases. Thus, HS1 may mediate PAR-induced thromboxane generation through regulation of Erk phosphorylation. ..
  17. Miyakawa K, Joshi N, Sullivan B, Albee R, Brandenberger C, Jaeschke H, et al. Platelets and protease-activated receptor-4 contribute to acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. Blood. 2015;126:1835-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the results highlight a potential contribution of nonhematopoietic cell PAR-4 signaling to APAP hepatotoxicity. ..
  18. Chen D, Abrahams J, Smith L, McVey J, Lechler R, Dorling A. Regenerative repair after endoluminal injury in mice with specific antagonism of protease activated receptors on CD34+ vascular progenitors. Blood. 2008;111:4155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that IH after vascular injury is due to the direct actions of thrombin on mobilized VPs. ..
  19. Ono A, Westein E, Hsiao S, Nesbitt W, Hamilton J, Schoenwaelder S, et al. Identification of a fibrin-independent platelet contractile mechanism regulating primary hemostasis and thrombus growth. Blood. 2008;112:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they provide new insight into the underlying bleeding diathesis associated with platelet contractility defects. ..
  20. Hirano K. The roles of proteinase-activated receptors in the vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:27-36 pubmed
    ..Elucidating the molecular mechanism regulating the PARs expression is therefore important to develop new strategies for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases. ..
  21. Kataoka H, Hamilton J, McKemy D, Camerer E, Zheng Y, Cheng A, et al. Protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 mediate thrombin signaling in endothelial cells. Blood. 2003;102:3224-31 pubmed
    ..PAR1 and PAR4 agonists triggered responses in wild-type but not in Par1-/- and Par4-/- endothelial cells, respectively...
  22. Braga A, Miranda J, Ferreira G, Bilheiro R, Duarte I, Francischi J, et al. Blockade of proteinase-activated receptor-4 inhibits the eosinophil recruitment induced by eotaxin-1 in the pleural cavity of mice. Pharmacology. 2010;86:224-30 pubmed publisher
  23. Neeves K, Maloney S, Fong K, Schmaier A, Kahn M, Brass L, et al. Microfluidic focal thrombosis model for measuring murine platelet deposition and stability: PAR4 signaling enhances shear-resistance of platelet aggregates. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:2193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PAR4 agonist (AYPGKF) treatment of the thrombus at 5 min enhanced aggregate stability during the shear step-up...
  24. Garcia Cao I, Duran A, Collado M, Carrascosa M, Martin Caballero J, Flores J, et al. Tumour-suppression activity of the proapoptotic regulator Par4. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:577-83 pubmed
    The proapoptotic protein encoded by Par4 (prostate apoptosis response 4) has been implicated in tumour suppression, particularly in the prostate...
  25. Kahn M, Hammes S, Botka C, Coughlin S. Gene and locus structure and chromosomal localization of the protease-activated receptor gene family. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:23290-6 pubmed
    ..We also report the structure of the mouse and human PAR4 genes, which map to distinct chromosomal locations and encode a new thrombin receptor...
  26. Dabek M, Ferrier L, Roka R, Gecse K, Annahazi A, Moreau J, et al. Luminal cathepsin g and protease-activated receptor 4: a duet involved in alterations of the colonic epithelial barrier in ulcerative colitis. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations support that both Cat-G and PAR(4) play key roles in generating and/or amplifying relapses in UC and provide a rationale for the development of new therapeutic agents in the treatment of this disease. ..
  27. Kouzoukas D, Meyer Siegler K, Ma F, Westlund K, Hunt D, Vera P. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates PAR-Induced Bladder Pain. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127628 pubmed publisher
    ..Urothelial PAR1 receptors were shown to mediate bladder inflammation. We showed that PAR1 and PAR4 activator, thrombin, also mediates urothelial MIF release...
  28. Annahazi A, Dabek M, Gecse K, Salvador Cartier C, Polizzi A, Rosztoczy A, et al. Proteinase-activated receptor-4 evoked colorectal analgesia in mice: an endogenously activated feed-back loop in visceral inflammatory pain. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:76-85, e13 pubmed publisher
    ..The antinociceptive effect of PAR-4-AP depends on its penetration to the colonic mucosa. The PAR-4 activation is endogenously involved as a feedback loop to attenuate inflammatory colonic hyperalgesia to CRD. ..
  29. Slofstra S, Bijlsma M, Groot A, Reitsma P, Lindhout T, ten Cate H, et al. Protease-activated receptor-4 inhibition protects from multiorgan failure in a murine model of systemic inflammation. Blood. 2007;110:3176-82 pubmed
    ..These results uncover an important role for PAR-4 in the Shwartzman reaction and suggest that inhibition of PAR-4 signaling in neutrophils could be protective in systemic inflammation and DIC. ..
  30. Kolpakov M, Rafiq K, Guo X, Hooshdaran B, Wang T, Vlasenko L, et al. Protease-activated receptor 4 deficiency offers cardioprotection after acute ischemia reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;90:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PAR4 is involved in platelet activation and hemostasis, but its specific actions on myocyte growth and cardiac function ..
  31. Karanjia R, Spreadbury I, Bautista Cruz F, Tsang M, Vanner S. Activation of protease-activated receptor-4 inhibits the intrinsic excitability of colonic dorsal root ganglia neurons. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009;21:1218-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrated that activation of PAR(4) on colonic DRG neurons suppresses their excitability, suggesting these receptors could provide important targets for modifying pain in colonic GI disorders such as IBS and IBD. ..
  32. Sood R, Zogg M, Westrick R, Guo Y, Kerschen E, Girardi G, et al. Fetal gene defects precipitate platelet-mediated pregnancy failure in factor V Leiden mothers. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1049-56 pubmed
    ..Platelet depletion or elimination of protease-activated receptor 4 (Par4) from the mother allows normal placentation and prevents fetal loss...
  33. Weiss E, Hamilton J, Lease K, Coughlin S. Protection against thrombosis in mice lacking PAR3. Blood. 2002;100:3240-4 pubmed
    The recent observation that knock-out of protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) ablates thrombin signaling in mouse platelets and protects against ferric chloride-induced thrombosis of mouse mesenteric arterioles suggests that thrombin's ..
  34. Suo Z, Wu M, Citron B, Gao C, Festoff B. Persistent protease-activated receptor 4 signaling mediates thrombin-induced microglial activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31177-83 pubmed
    ..action in promoting inflammatory mediators from brain microglia is mediated through another thrombin receptor, PAR4. Here we show that the PAR4 agonist peptide (PAR4AP, GYPGKF), but not the PAR1AP (TRAP, SFLLRN), induced tumor ..
  35. de Stoppelaar S, Van T Veer C, VAN DEN Boogaard F, Nieuwland R, Hoogendijk A, de Boer O, et al. Protease activated receptor 4 limits bacterial growth and lung pathology during late stage Streptococcus pneumoniae induced pneumonia in mice. Thromb Haemost. 2013;110:582-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PAR4 is one of four subtypes of PARs and is widely expressed by multiple cell types in the respiratory tract implicated ..
  36. Boulaftali Y, Hess P, Getz T, Cholka A, Stolla M, Mackman N, et al. Platelet ITAM signaling is critical for vascular integrity in inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:908-16 pubmed publisher
  37. Avdonin P, Konstantinova M, Podmareva O, Khatkevitch A, Turpaev T. Effects of selective agonists of type 1 and type 4 proteinase-activated receptors on the contractile properties of the myometrium in mice with different hormonal statuses. Dokl Biol Sci. 2001;381:526-9 pubmed
  38. Tsujii K, Andoh T, Lee J, Kuraishi Y. Activation of proteinase-activated receptors induces itch-associated response through histamine-dependent and -independent pathways in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008;108:385-8 pubmed
    ..Activating peptides of PAR1, PAR2, and PAR4, but not PAR3, induced scratching...
  39. Shpacovitch V, Feld M, Hollenberg M, Luger T, Steinhoff M. Role of protease-activated receptors in inflammatory responses, innate and adaptive immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:1309-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms by which PARs exert the effects of serine proteases on immune cells may lead to new therapeutic strategies in inflammation, immune defense, and allergy. ..
  40. Gomides L, Duarte I, Ferreira R, Perez A, Francischi J, Klein A. Proteinase-activated receptor-4 plays a major role in the recruitment of neutrophils induced by trypsin or carrageenan during pleurisy in mice. Pharmacology. 2012;89:275-82 pubmed publisher
  41. Quinton T, Kim S, Derian C, Jin J, Kunapuli S. Plasmin-mediated activation of platelets occurs by cleavage of protease-activated receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18434-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, a protease-resistant recombinant PAR-4 was refractory to activation by plasmin. We conclude that plasmin induces platelet aggregation primarily through slow cleavage of PAR-4. ..
  42. McDougall J, Zhang C, Cellars L, Joubert E, Dixon C, Vergnolle N. Triggering of proteinase-activated receptor 4 leads to joint pain and inflammation in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:728-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show for the first time that PARs are involved in the modulation of joint pain, with PAR-4 being pronociceptive in this tissue. Thus, blockade of articular PAR-4 may be a useful means of controlling joint inflammation and pain. ..
  43. Bah A, Chen Z, Bush Pelc L, Mathews F, Di Cera E. Crystal structures of murine thrombin in complex with the extracellular fragments of murine protease-activated receptors PAR3 and PAR4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11603-8 pubmed
    ..the cleaved form of protease-activated receptor 3 (PAR3) acts as a cofactor for thrombin cleavage and activation of PAR4 on murine platelets, but the molecular basis of this physiologically important effect remains elusive...
  44. Gomides L, Lima O, Matos N, Freitas K, Francischi J, Tavares J, et al. Blockade of proteinase-activated receptor 4 inhibits neutrophil recruitment in experimental inflammation in mice. Inflamm Res. 2014;63:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the effects of the PAR4 antagonist YPGKF-NH 2 (tcY-NH2) on neutrophil recruitment in experimentally induced inflammation...
  45. Grewal P, Holzfeind P, Bittner R, Hewitt J. Mutant glycosyltransferase and altered glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan in the myodystrophy mouse. Nat Genet. 2001;28:151-4 pubmed
    ..We speculate that abnormal post-translational modification of alpha-dystroglycan may contribute to the myd phenotype. ..
  46. Sood R, Sholl L, Isermann B, Zogg M, Coughlin S, Weiler H. Maternal Par4 and platelets contribute to defective placenta formation in mouse embryos lacking thrombomodulin. Blood. 2008;112:585-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Par4 deficiency of the mother, or the absence of maternal platelets, restores normal development in one-third of Thbd-..
  47. An J, Waitara M, Bordas M, Arumugam V, Hoffmann R, Petrich B, et al. Heparin rescues factor V Leiden-associated placental failure independent of anticoagulation in a murine high-risk pregnancy model. Blood. 2013;121:2127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, thrombin-mediated maternal platelet activation remains central in the mechanism of placental failure. ..
  48. Kouzoukas D, Ma F, Meyer Siegler K, Westlund K, Hunt D, Vera P. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 Induces Bladder Pain through High Mobility Group Box-1. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152055 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of urothelial protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) causes pain through release of urothelial macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)...
  49. Schoenwaelder S, Yuan Y, Josefsson E, White M, Yao Y, Mason K, et al. Two distinct pathways regulate platelet phosphatidylserine exposure and procoagulant function. Blood. 2009;114:663-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show the existence of 2 distinct pathways regulating the procoagulant function of platelets. ..
  50. Liang H, Kerschen E, Basu S, Hernandez I, Zogg M, Jia S, et al. Coagulation factor V mediates inhibition of tissue factor signaling by activated protein C in mice. Blood. 2015;126:2415-23 pubmed publisher
  51. Ellery P, Maroney S, Cooley B, Luyendyk J, Zogg M, Weiler H, et al. A balance between TFPI and thrombin-mediated platelet activation is required for murine embryonic development. Blood. 2015;125:4078-84 pubmed publisher
    ..embryonic lethality, Tfpi(+/-) mice lacking the platelet thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4; Par4(-/-)), or its coreceptor, PAR3, were mated...
  52. Mumaw M, de la Fuente M, Arachiche A, Wahl J, Nieman M. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Protease Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4). Thromb Res. 2015;135:1165-71 pubmed publisher
    Protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) which is activated by proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal exodomain...
  53. Liang H, Kerschen E, Hernandez I, Basu S, Zogg M, Botros F, et al. EPCR-dependent PAR2 activation by the blood coagulation initiation complex regulates LPS-triggered interferon responses in mice. Blood. 2015;125:2845-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The inflammation-induced expression of TF and crosstalk with EPCR, PAR2, and TLR4 therefore appear necessary for the normal evolution of interferon-regulated host responses. ..
  54. Guo H, Liu D, Gelbard H, Cheng T, Insalaco R, Fernandez J, et al. Activated protein C prevents neuronal apoptosis via protease activated receptors 1 and 3. Neuron. 2004;41:563-72 pubmed
    ..By using different anti-PARs antibodies and mice with single PAR1, PAR3, or PAR4 deletion, we demonstrated that direct neuronal protective effects of APC in vitro and in vivo require PAR1 and PAR3...
  55. Mende K, Reifart J, Rosentreter D, Manukyan D, Mayr D, Krombach F, et al. Targeting platelet migration in the postischemic liver by blocking protease-activated receptor 4. Transplantation. 2014;97:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The protective effect of PAR-4 blockade did not suppress hemostasis or liver regeneration. Our in vivo data suggest PAR-4 as a potential target for future therapeutic strategies against platelet-mediated liver injury on transplantation. ..
  56. Cho J, Furie B, Coughlin S, Furie B. A critical role for extracellular protein disulfide isomerase during thrombus formation in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibrin deposition is normal in mice lacking the G protein-coupled platelet receptor Par4, although there is no stable accumulation of platelets...
  57. Li D, D Angelo L, Chavez M, Woulfe D. Arrestin-2 differentially regulates PAR4 and ADP receptor signaling in platelets. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3805-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of arrestin-2 in platelets is agonist-specific, as PAR4-dependent Akt phosphorylation and fibrinogen binding were reduced in arrestin-2 knock-out platelets compared with ..
  58. Mao Y, Zhang M, Tuma R, Kunapuli S. Deficiency of PAR4 attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010;30:1044-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate the role of one of the thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4), in a mouse transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model...