Gene Symbol: Esrrb
Description: estrogen related receptor, beta
Alias: Err2, Errb, Estrrb, Nr3b2, steroid hormone receptor ERR2, ERR-beta, estrogen receptor related 2, estrogen receptor-like 2, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group B member 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Esrrb

Top Publications

  1. Zhang X, Zhang J, Wang T, Esteban M, Pei D. Esrrb activates Oct4 transcription and sustains self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown that knockdown of Esrrb (estrogen-related-receptor beta), a member of the nuclear orphan receptor family, induces differentiation of mouse ..
  2. Han D, Tapia N, Joo J, Greber B, Arauzo Bravo M, Bernemann C, et al. Epiblast stem cell subpopulations represent mouse embryos of distinct pregastrulation stages. Cell. 2010;143:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the rare ability of EpiSCs to contribute to chimeras is due to the presence of the minor EpiSC fraction representing the early epiblast. ..
  3. Chen F, Zhang Q, McDonald T, Davidoff M, Bailey W, Bai C, et al. Identification of two hERR2-related novel nuclear receptors utilizing bioinformatics and inverse PCR. Gene. 1999;228:101-9 pubmed
    ..domain in hERRbeta2 and extra N-terminal domain in hERRgamma2 are not present in the closely related hERR2 or mouse ERR2 (mERR2)...
  4. Luo J, Sladek R, Bader J, Matthyssen A, Rossant J, Giguere V. Placental abnormalities in mouse embryos lacking the orphan nuclear receptor ERR-beta. Nature. 1997;388:778-82 pubmed
    ..Homozygous mutant embryos generated by targeted disruption of the Estrrb gene have severely impaired placental formation, and die at 10.5 days post-coitum...
  5. Festuccia N, Osorno R, Halbritter F, Karwacki Neisius V, Navarro P, Colby D, et al. Esrrb is a direct Nanog target gene that can substitute for Nanog function in pluripotent cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:477-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Prominent among Nanog-reponsive genes is Estrogen-related receptor b (Esrrb). Nanog binds directly to Esrrb, enhances binding of RNAPolII, and stimulates Esrrb transcription...
  6. Ivanova N, Dobrin R, Lu R, Kotenko I, Levorse J, DeCoste C, et al. Dissecting self-renewal in stem cells with RNA interference. Nature. 2006;442:533-8 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest specific biological roles for these molecules and reveal the complexity of cell fate regulation in embryonic stem cells. ..
  7. Pettersson K, Svensson K, Mattsson R, Carlsson B, Ohlsson R, Berkenstam A. Expression of a novel member of estrogen response element-binding nuclear receptors is restricted to the early stages of chorion formation during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1996;54:211-23 pubmed
  8. Onishi A, Peng G, Poth E, Lee D, Chen J, Alexis U, et al. The orphan nuclear hormone receptor ERRbeta controls rod photoreceptor survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that ERRbeta is a critical regulator of rod photoreceptor function and survival, and suggest that ERRbeta agonists may be useful in the treatment of certain retinal dystrophies. ..
  9. van den Berg D, Zhang W, Yates A, Engelen E, Takacs K, Bezstarosti K, et al. Estrogen-related receptor beta interacts with Oct4 to positively regulate Nanog gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5986-95 pubmed publisher
    ..self-renewal have recently been identified, including the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor beta (Esrrb). However, the mode of action of Esrrb in ES cells is unknown...

More Information


  1. Chen J, Nathans J. Estrogen-related receptor beta/NR3B2 controls epithelial cell fate and endolymph production by the stria vascularis. Dev Cell. 2007;13:325-37 pubmed
    ..We show here that estrogen-related receptor beta (ERR-beta; NR3B2), an orphan nuclear receptor, is specifically expressed in and controls the development of the endolymph-producing ..
  2. Byerly M, Al Salayta M, Swanson R, Kwon K, Peterson J, Wei Z, et al. Estrogen-related receptor ? deletion modulates whole-body energy balance via estrogen-related receptor ? and attenuates neuropeptide Y gene expression. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;37:1033-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the relative expression ratio between ERR? and ERR? may be important in modulating ingestive behavior, specifically satiety, gene expression, as well as whole-body energy balance. ..
  3. Wang S, Myers S, Dooms C, Capon R, Muscat G. An ERRbeta/gamma agonist modulates GRalpha expression, and glucocorticoid responsive gene expression in skeletal muscle cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;315:146-52 pubmed publisher
  4. Feng B, Jiang J, Kraus P, Ng J, Heng J, Chan Y, et al. Reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells with orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb functions in conjunction with Oct4 and Sox2 to mediate reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to iPS ..
  5. Collin R, Kalay E, Tariq M, Peters T, van der Zwaag B, Venselaar H, et al. Mutations of ESRRB encoding estrogen-related receptor beta cause autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment DFNB35. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:125-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This region partially overlapped with the DFNB35 locus. Mutation analysis of ESRRB, a candidate gene in the overlapping region, revealed a homozygous 7 bp duplication in exon 8 in all affected ..
  6. Loh Y, Wu Q, Chew J, Vega V, Zhang W, Chen X, et al. The Oct4 and Nanog transcription network regulates pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat Genet. 2006;38:431-40 pubmed
    ..The emerging picture is one in which Oct4 and Nanog control a cascade of pathways that are intricately connected to govern pluripotency, self-renewal, genome surveillance and cell fate determination. ..
  7. Uranishi K, Akagi T, Sun C, Koide H, Yokota T. Dax1 associates with Esrrb and regulates its function in embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2056-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified an orphan nuclear receptor, Esrrb (estrogen-related receptor beta), as a Dax1-interacting protein...
  8. Polydorou C, Georgiades P. Ets2-dependent trophoblast signalling is required for gastrulation progression after primitive streak initiation. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1658 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model that provides a genetic explanation as to how Ets2 in trophoblast mediates the progression of gastrulation within the epiblast. ..
  9. Hutchins A, Choo S, Mistri T, Rahmani M, Woon C, Ng C, et al. Co-motif discovery identifies an Esrrb-Sox2-DNA ternary complex as a mediator of transcriptional differences between mouse embryonic and epiblast stem cells. Stem Cells. 2013;31:269-81 pubmed publisher the well-known and most prevalent sox-oct motif, we also discovered a novel constrained spacer motif for Esrrb and Sox2 with a gap of between 2 and 8 bps that Essrb and Sox2 cobind in a selective fashion...
  10. Byerly M, Swanson R, Wong G, Blackshaw S. Estrogen-related receptor ? deficiency alters body composition and response to restraint stress. BMC Physiol. 2013;13:10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Err? alters the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and indicates a role for Err? in regulating stress response. ..
  11. Kumar A, Lualdi M, Lyozin G, Sharma P, Loncarek J, Fu X, et al. Nodal signaling from the visceral endoderm is required to maintain Nodal gene expression in the epiblast and drive DVE/AVE migration. Dev Biol. 2015;400:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a required role for VE Nodal to maintain normal levels of expression in the epiblast, and suggest signaling from both VE and epiblast is important for DVE/AVE migration. ..
  12. Latos P, Goncalves A, Oxley D, Mohammed H, Turro E, Hemberger M. Fgf and Esrrb integrate epigenetic and transcriptional networks that regulate self-renewal of trophoblast stem cells. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7776 pubmed publisher
    b>Esrrb (oestrogen-related receptor beta) is a transcription factor implicated in embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal, yet its knockout causes intrauterine lethality due to defects in trophoblast development...
  13. Iseki H, Nakachi Y, Hishida T, Yamashita Sugahara Y, Hirasaki M, Ueda A, et al. Combined Overexpression of JARID2, PRDM14, ESRRB, and SALL4A Dramatically Improves Efficiency and Kinetics of Reprogramming to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cells. 2016;34:322-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that JARID2 physically interacts with ESRRB, SALL4A, and PRDM14, and that these JARID2-associated proteins synergistically and robustly facilitate iPSC ..
  14. Dragatsis I, Efstratiadis A, Zeitlin S. Mouse mutant embryos lacking huntingtin are rescued from lethality by wild-type extraembryonic tissues. Development. 1998;125:1529-39 pubmed
  15. Papadaki C, Alexiou M, Cecena G, Verykokakis M, Bilitou A, Cross J, et al. Transcriptional repressor erf determines extraembryonic ectoderm differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5201-13 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that attenuation of FGF/Erk signaling and consecutive Erf nuclear localization and function is required for extraembryonic ectoderm differentiation, ectoplacental cone cavity closure, and chorioallantoic attachment. ..
  16. Georgiades P, Rossant J. Ets2 is necessary in trophoblast for normal embryonic anteroposterior axis development. Development. 2006;133:1059-68 pubmed
    ..This study provides new insights about the genetic and cellular basis of the patterning role and development of the early trophoblast. ..
  17. Kang E, Wu G, Ma H, Li Y, Tippner Hedges R, Tachibana M, et al. Nuclear reprogramming by interphase cytoplasm of two-cell mouse embryos. Nature. 2014;509:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to use interphase cytoplasm in SCNT could aid efforts to generate autologous human ES cells for regenerative applications, as donated or discarded embryos are more accessible than unfertilized MII oocytes. ..
  18. Guzman Ayala M, Ben Haim N, Beck S, Constam D. Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15656-60 pubmed
    ..Because the ExE itself produces the proteases Furin and PACE4 to activate Nodal, it represents the first example, to our knowledge, of a stem cell compartment that actively maintains its own microenvironment. ..
  19. Enjin A, Rabe N, Nakanishi S, Vallstedt A, Gezelius H, Memic F, et al. Identification of novel spinal cholinergic genetic subtypes disclose Chodl and Pitx2 as markers for fast motor neurons and partition cells. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:2284-304 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we suggest paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (Pitx2) as a marker for cholinergic partition cells. ..
  20. Rowe G, Asimaki A, Graham E, Martin K, Margulies K, Das S, et al. Development of dilated cardiomyopathy and impaired calcium homeostasis with cardiac-specific deletion of ESRRβ. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;312:H662-H671 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice bearing cardiac-specific deletion of ESRRβ (MHC-ERRB KO) develop DCM and sudden death at ~10 mo of age...
  21. Sone M, Morone N, Nakamura T, Tanaka A, Okita K, Woltjen K, et al. Hybrid Cellular Metabolism Coordinated by Zic3 and Esrrb Synergistically Enhances Induction of Naive Pluripotency. Cell Metab. 2017;25:1103-1117.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that when transduced with Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 (OSK) into murine fibroblasts, Zic3 and Esrrb synergistically enhance the reprogramming efficiency by regulating cellular metabolic pathways...
  22. Cardelli M, Zirngibl R, Boetto J, McKenzie K, Troy T, Turksen K, et al. Cartilage-specific overexpression of ERR? results in Chondrodysplasia and reduced chondrocyte proliferation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81511 pubmed publisher
  23. Uranishi K, Akagi T, Koide H, Yokota T. Esrrb directly binds to Gata6 promoter and regulates its expression with Dax1 and Ncoa3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:1720-5 pubmed publisher
    Estrogen-related receptor beta (Esrrb) is expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells and is involved in self-renewal ability and pluripotency. Previously, we found that Dax1 is associated with Esrrb and represses its transcriptional activity...
  24. Festuccia N, Dubois A, Vandormael Pournin S, Gallego Tejeda E, Mouren A, Bessonnard S, et al. Mitotic binding of Esrrb marks key regulatory regions of the pluripotency network. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:1139-1148 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Esrrb, a major pluripotency TF, remains bound to key regulatory regions during mitosis...
  25. Real M, Heredia R, Dávila J, Guirado S. Efferent retinal projections visualized by immunohistochemical detection of the estrogen-related receptor beta in the postnatal and adult mouse brain. Neurosci Lett. 2008;438:48-53 pubmed publisher
  26. Otero J, Kalaszczynska I, Michowski W, Wong M, Gygli P, Gokozan H, et al. Cerebellar cortical lamination and foliation require cyclin A2. Dev Biol. 2014;385:328-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Although cyclin E1 has been reported to compensate for cyclin A2 function in fibroblasts and is upregulated in cyclin A2 null cerebella, cyclin E1 expression was unable to compensate for loss-of cyclin A2 function. ..
  27. Lee S, Pallerla S, Kim S, Shaffer B, Simerly C, Richard Chaillet J, et al. Esrrb-Cre excises loxP-flanked alleles in early four-cell embryos. Genesis. 2016;54:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This manuscript describes a new mouse strain, in which Cre recombinase, integrated into the Esrrb locus, efficiently excises floxed alleles in pre-implantation embryos at the onset of the four-cell stage...
  28. Kunst S, Wolloscheck T, Grether M, Trunsch P, Wolfrum U, Spessert R. Photoreceptor cells display a daily rhythm in the orphan receptor Esrrβ. Mol Vis. 2015;21:173-84 pubmed
    ..The data presented in this study indicate that daily regulation of Esrrβ in photoreceptor cells may contribute to their adaptation to 24-h changes in metabolic demands. ..
  29. Kagey M, Newman J, Bilodeau S, Zhan Y, Orlando D, van Berkum N, et al. Mediator and cohesin connect gene expression and chromatin architecture. Nature. 2010;467:430-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Mediator and cohesin co-occupy different promoters in different cells, thus generating cell-type-specific DNA loops linked to the gene expression program of each cell. ..
  30. Yoon H, Lee D, Kim M, Bok J. Identification of genes concordantly expressed with Atoh1 during inner ear development. Anat Cell Biol. 2011;44:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, by reanalyzing archived genetic profiling data, we identified a list of novel genes possibly involved in hair cell differentiation. ..
  31. Ao A, Wang H, Kamarajugadda S, Lu J. Involvement of estrogen-related receptors in transcriptional response to hypoxia and growth of solid tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Because nuclear receptors are outstanding targets for drug discovery, the findings not only may offer mechanistic insights into HIF-mediated transcription but also may open new avenues for targeting the HIF pathway for cancer therapy. ..
  32. Wei Y, Peng S, Wu M, Sachidanandam R, Tu Z, Zhang S, et al. Multifaceted roles of miR-1s in repressing the fetal gene program in the heart. Cell Res. 2014;24:278-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that miR-1 and its primary target Err? act together to regulate the transition from prenatal to neonatal stages by repressing the cardiac fetal gene program. Loss of this regulation leads to a neonatal DCM...
  33. Percharde M, Lavial F, Ng J, Kumar V, Tomaz R, Martin N, et al. Ncoa3 functions as an essential Esrrb coactivator to sustain embryonic stem cell self-renewal and reprogramming. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2286-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Alongside core transcription factors, the orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb (estrogen-related receptor ?) is vital for the maintenance of ESC identity and furthermore is uniquely associated ..
  34. Katano M, Ema M, Nakachi Y, Mizuno Y, Hirasaki M, Suzuki A, et al. Forced expression of Nanog or Esrrb preserves the ESC status in the absence of nucleostemin expression. Stem Cells. 2015;33:1089-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that forced expression of Nanog or Esrrb, but not other pluripotency factors, resulted in the dispensability of NS expression in ESCs...
  35. Hunter P, Swanson B, Haendel M, Lyons G, Cross J. Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. Development. 1999;126:1247-58 pubmed
    ..However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced...
  36. Zhang J, Su B, Cai W. Immunolocalization of estrogen receptor beta in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of female mice during pregnancy, lactation and postnatal development. Brain Res. 2004;997:89-96 pubmed
  37. Akter M, Chano T, Okabe H, Yamaguchi T, Hirose F, Osumi T. Target specificities of estrogen receptor-related receptors: analysis of binding sequences and identification of Rb1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (Rb1cc1) as a target gene. J Biochem. 2008;143:395-406 pubmed
    ..In vivo binding of ERRalpha to the Rb1cc1 promoter region was confirmed by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Thus, Rb1cc1 is a target gene of ERRalpha, driven by a novel type of recognition sequence. ..
  38. Geula S, Moshitch Moshkovitz S, Dominissini D, Mansour A, Kol N, Salmon Divon M, et al. Stem cells. m6A mRNA methylation facilitates resolution of naïve pluripotency toward differentiation. Science. 2015;347:1002-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights a critical role for an mRNA epigenetic modification in vivo and identifies regulatory modules that functionally influence naïve and primed pluripotency in an opposing manner. ..
  39. Wu Z, Yang M, Liu H, Guo H, Wang Y, Cheng H, et al. Role of nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (Ncoa3) in pluripotency maintenance. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38295-304 pubmed publisher
    Nuclear receptors, including Esrrb, Dax1, and Nr5a2, have been shown to be involved in pluripotency maintenance. Yet, the role of their coactivators in mouse embryonic stem cells remains unexplored...
  40. Sebastiano V, Dalvai M, Gentile L, Schubart K, Sutter J, Wu G, et al. Oct1 regulates trophoblast development during early mouse embryogenesis. Development. 2010;137:3551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggest that Oct1 is required in the embryo proper from late gastrulation stages onwards. ..
  41. Kudwa A, Rissman E. Double oestrogen receptor alpha and beta knockout mice reveal differences in neural oestrogen-mediated progestin receptor induction and female sexual behaviour. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:978-83 pubmed
    ..However, despite the presence of PR in VMH, females lacking a functional ERalpha gene do not display sexual behaviour, via either ligand-dependent or -independent activation. ..
  42. Mitsunaga K, Araki K, Mizusaki H, Morohashi K, Haruna K, Nakagata N, et al. Loss of PGC-specific expression of the orphan nuclear receptor ERR-beta results in reduction of germ cell number in mouse embryos. Mech Dev. 2004;121:237-46 pubmed
    ..The rescued ERR-beta null male were found to be fertile, but both male and female null mutants exhibited behavioural abnormalities, implying that the ERR-beta plays important roles in wider biological processes than previously thought. ..
  43. Hanna L, Foreman R, Tarasenko I, Kessler D, Labosky P. Requirement for Foxd3 in maintaining pluripotent cells of the early mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2650-61 pubmed
    ..These results establish Foxd3 as a factor required for the maintenance of progenitor cells in the mammalian embryo. ..
  44. Goolam M, Scialdone A, Graham S, Macaulay I, Jedrusik A, Hupalowska A, et al. Heterogeneity in Oct4 and Sox2 Targets Biases Cell Fate in 4-Cell Mouse Embryos. Cell. 2016;165:61-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results indicate that heterogeneous gene expression, as early as the 4-cell stage, initiates cell-fate decisions by modulating the balance of pluripotency and differentiation. ..
  45. Fiorenzano A, Pascale E, D Aniello C, Acampora D, Bassalert C, Russo F, et al. Cripto is essential to capture mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12589 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our studies provide novel insights into the current model of mammalian pluripotency and contribute to the understanding of the extrinsic regulation of the first cell lineage decision in the embryo. ..
  46. Tompers D, Foreman R, Wang Q, Kumanova M, Labosky P. Foxd3 is required in the trophoblast progenitor cell lineage of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2005;285:126-37 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this provides support for the hypothesis that there are conserved molecular mechanisms for maintaining the self-renewing properties of diverse progenitor cell types. ..
  47. Basyuk E, Cross J, Corbin J, Nakayama H, Hunter P, Nait Oumesmar B, et al. Murine Gcm1 gene is expressed in a subset of placental trophoblast cells. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:303-11 pubmed
    ..5 within a subset of labyrinthine trophoblast cells. Comparison with other transcription factors revealed that Gcm1 expression defines a unique subset of trophoblast cells. ..
  48. Sladek R, Beatty B, Squire J, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. Chromosomal mapping of the human and murine orphan receptors ERRalpha (ESRRA) and ERRbeta (ESRRB) and identification of a novel human ERRalpha-related pseudogene. Genomics. 1997;45:320-6 pubmed
    ..We have used interspecific backcross analysis to map the murine Estrra locus to chromosome 19 and Estrrb to mouse chromosome 12...
  49. Kim H, Ryu J, Woo H, Cho S, Sung M, Kim S, et al. Patterns of gene expression associated with Pten deficiency in the developing inner ear. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97544 pubmed publisher
    ..From this study, we suggest two key regulatory signaling networks mediated by Spp1 and Rgs4, which may play potential roles in neuronal differentiation of developing auditory neurons. ..
  50. Liang J, Wan M, Zhang Y, Gu P, Xin H, Jung S, et al. Nanog and Oct4 associate with unique transcriptional repression complexes in embryonic stem cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:731-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data collectively suggest that Nanog and Oct4 associate with unique repressor complexes on their target genes to control ES cell fate. ..
  51. Gan Z, Rumsey J, Hazen B, Lai L, Leone T, Vega R, et al. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2564-75 pubmed publisher
  52. Martello G, Sugimoto T, Diamanti E, Joshi A, Hannah R, Ohtsuka S, et al. Esrrb is a pivotal target of the Gsk3/Tcf3 axis regulating embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:491-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, manipulations of Esrrb gave distinctive phenotypes in functional assays...
  53. Shibata M, Blauvelt K, Liem K, GARCIA GARCIA M. TRIM28 is required by the mouse KRAB domain protein ZFP568 to control convergent extension and morphogenesis of extra-embryonic tissues. Development. 2011;138:5333-43 pubmed publisher
  54. Shimokawa K, Kimura Yoshida C, Nagai N, Mukai K, Matsubara K, Watanabe H, et al. Cell surface heparan sulfate chains regulate local reception of FGF signaling in the mouse embryo. Dev Cell. 2011;21:257-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results show that spatiotemporal expression of cell surface-tethered HS chains regulate the local reception of FGF-signaling activity during mammalian embryogenesis. ..
  55. Sivakamasundari V, Kraus P, Sun W, Hu X, Lim S, Prabhakar S, et al. A developmental transcriptomic analysis of Pax1 and Pax9 in embryonic intervertebral disc development. Biol Open. 2017;6:187-199 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight how early IVD development is regulated spatio-temporally and have implications for understanding kyphoscoliosis. ..