Gene Symbol: Esr2
Description: estrogen receptor 2 (beta)
Alias: ER[b], ERbeta, Estrb, estrogen receptor beta, ER-beta, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 2, oestrogen receptor beta
Species: mouse
Products:     Esr2

Top Publications

  1. Lindberg M, Alatalo S, Halleen J, Mohan S, Gustafsson J, Ohlsson C. Estrogen receptor specificity in the regulation of the skeleton in female mice. J Endocrinol. 2001;171:229-36 pubmed
    There are two known estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ER beta), which may mediate the actions of estrogen...
  2. Zhou Q, Nie R, Prins G, Saunders P, Katzenellenbogen B, Hess R. Localization of androgen and estrogen receptors in adult male mouse reproductive tract. J Androl. 2002;23:870-81 pubmed
    ..In this study, androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta were visualized by immunohistochemistry in adult male mice reproductive tracts, including testes, efferent ..
  3. Chagin A, Lindberg M, Andersson N, Moverare S, Gustafsson J, Savendahl L, et al. Estrogen receptor-beta inhibits skeletal growth and has the capacity to mediate growth plate fusion in female mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:72-7 pubmed
    To determine the long-term role of ER beta in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth, appendicular and axial skeletal growth was followed and compared in female ER beta-/-, ER alpha-/-, and ER alpha-/- beta-/- mice...
  4. McPherson S, Hussain S, Balanathan P, Hedwards S, Niranjan B, Grant M, et al. Estrogen receptor-beta activated apoptosis in benign hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate is androgen independent and TNFalpha mediated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..different to castration, this study shows beneficial proapoptotic actions of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) in BPH and PCa...
  5. Sims N, Dupont S, Krust A, Clement Lacroix P, Minet D, Resche Rigon M, et al. Deletion of estrogen receptors reveals a regulatory role for estrogen receptors-beta in bone remodeling in females but not in males. Bone. 2002;30:18-25 pubmed
    To determine the contributions of estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta in bone growth and remodeling in male and female mice, we generated and analyzed full knockouts for each receptor, and a double ER knockout...
  6. Bodo C, Kudwa A, Rissman E. Both estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta are required for sexual differentiation of the anteroventral periventricular area in mice. Endocrinology. 2006;147:415-20 pubmed
    ..In this series of experiments, the contributions of the two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERalpha and ERbeta, to the differentiation of the sexually dimorphic subpopulation of dopaminergic neurons in the anteroventral ..
  7. Tremblay A, Tremblay G, Labrie F, Giguere V. Ligand-independent recruitment of SRC-1 to estrogen receptor beta through phosphorylation of activation function AF-1. Mol Cell. 1999;3:513-9 pubmed
    ..of AF-1 by MAP kinase (MAPK) leads to the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) by ER beta in vitro...
  8. Weihua Z, Saji S, Makinen S, Cheng G, Jensen E, Warner M, et al. Estrogen receptor (ER) beta, a modulator of ERalpha in the uterus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5936-41 pubmed
    ..Because of the poor reproductive capacity of ERbeta knockout (BERKO) female mice (small litter size, multiple-resorbed fetuses), the role of uterine ERbeta was ..
  9. McPherson S, Ellem S, Simpson E, Patchev V, Fritzemeier K, Risbridger G. Essential role for estrogen receptor beta in stromal-epithelial regulation of prostatic hyperplasia. Endocrinology. 2007;148:566-74 pubmed
    ..Previous studies using animal models to determine the role of ERbeta in the prostate have been problematic because the centrally mediated response to estrogen results in reduced ..

More Information


  1. Couse J, Korach K. Estrogen receptor null mice: what have we learned and where will they lead us?. Endocr Rev. 1999;20:358-417 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated] ..
  2. Morani A, Barros R, Imamov O, Hultenby K, Arner A, Warner M, et al. Lung dysfunction causes systemic hypoxia in estrogen receptor beta knockout (ERbeta-/-) mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7165-9 pubmed
    b>Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is highly expressed in both type I and II pneumocytes as well as bronchiolar epithelial cells. ERalpha is not detectable in the adult lung...
  3. Saxon L, Robling A, Castillo A, Mohan S, Turner C. The skeletal responsiveness to mechanical loading is enhanced in mice with a null mutation in estrogen receptor-beta. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E484-91 pubmed
    ..001). We conclude that estrogen signaling through ER-beta suppresses the mechanical loading response on the periosteal surface of long bones. ..
  4. Saxon L, Galea G, Meakin L, Price J, Lanyon L. Estrogen receptors ? and ? have different gender-dependent effects on the adaptive responses to load bearing in cancellous and cortical bone. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2254-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone loss due to disuse in cortical bone is unaffected by ER status, but in cancellous bone, functional ER? contributes to greater disuse-related bone loss...
  5. Ohnemus U, Uenalan M, Conrad F, Handjiski B, Mecklenburg L, Nakamura M, et al. Hair cycle control by estrogens: catagen induction via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha is checked by ER beta signaling. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1214-25 pubmed
    ..Between the two recognized estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, only ER alpha had been detected in murine skin...
  6. Imamov O, Morani A, Shim G, Omoto Y, Thulin Andersson C, Warner M, et al. Estrogen receptor beta regulates epithelial cellular differentiation in the mouse ventral prostate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9375-80 pubmed
    We have previously reported epithelial cellular hyperplasia in ventral prostates (VP) of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta (ER beta)...
  7. Kudwa A, Rissman E. Double oestrogen receptor alpha and beta knockout mice reveal differences in neural oestrogen-mediated progestin receptor induction and female sexual behaviour. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:978-83 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta act together to mediate the actions of oestrogen in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), we used mice with single or double knockout mutations of the ERalpha and ..
  8. Mitra S, Hoskin E, Yudkovitz J, Pear L, Wilkinson H, Hayashi S, et al. Immunolocalization of estrogen receptor beta in the mouse brain: comparison with estrogen receptor alpha. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2055-67 pubmed
    Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and ER beta are members of the steroid nuclear receptor family that modulate gene transcription in an estrogen-dependent manner...
  9. Shughrue P, Askew G, Dellovade T, Merchenthaler I. Estrogen-binding sites and their functional capacity in estrogen receptor double knockout mouse brain. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1643-50 pubmed
    ..The discovery of ERbeta suggested that binding was due to ERbeta, although questions about an ERgamma remained...
  10. Alonso Magdalena P, Ropero A, Carrera M, Cederroth C, Baquie M, Gauthier B, et al. Pancreatic insulin content regulation by the estrogen receptor ER alpha. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2069 pubmed publisher
    ..Estrogen receptors, ER alpha and ER beta, are important molecules involved in glucose metabolism, yet their role in pancreatic beta-cell physiology is ..
  11. Ogawa S, Chester A, Hewitt S, Walker V, Gustafsson J, Smithies O, et al. Abolition of male sexual behaviors in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta (alpha beta ERKO). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14737-41 pubmed
    ..Offensive attacks, on the other hand, depend specifically on the ER-alpha gene. Different patterns of natural behaviors require different patterns of functions by ER genes. ..
  12. Campbell L, Emmerson E, Davies F, Gilliver S, Krust A, Chambon P, et al. Estrogen promotes cutaneous wound healing via estrogen receptor beta independent of its antiinflammatory activities. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..modulates skin repair, particularly the cell type-specific role of the two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, has yet to be determined...
  13. Antal M, Krust A, Chambon P, Mark M. Sterility and absence of histopathological defects in nonreproductive organs of a mouse ERbeta-null mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2433-8 pubmed publisher
    Estrogen signaling is mediated by estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta)...
  14. Lindberg M, Moverare S, Skrtic S, Gao H, Dahlman Wright K, Gustafsson J, et al. Estrogen receptor (ER)-beta reduces ERalpha-regulated gene transcription, supporting a "ying yang" relationship between ERalpha and ERbeta in mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:203-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine the role of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) in vivo on global estrogen-regulated transcriptional activity in bone...
  15. Rosenfeld C, Roberts R, Lubahn D. Estrogen receptor- and aromatase-deficient mice provide insight into the roles of estrogen within the ovary and uterus. Mol Reprod Dev. 2001;59:336-46 pubmed
    ..The data obtained have confirmed some older inferences about how the steroid acts, but have also revealed some unexpected aspects of estrogen action. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 59:336-346, 2001. ..
  16. Soriano S, Ropero A, Alonso Magdalena P, Ripoll C, Quesada I, Gassner B, et al. Rapid regulation of K(ATP) channel activity by 17{beta}-estradiol in pancreatic {beta}-cells involves the estrogen receptor {beta} and the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1973-82 pubmed publisher
    ..K(ATP) channel was not modified in beta-cells from ERalpha-/- mice, yet it was significantly reduced in cells from ERbeta-/- mice. The effect of E2 was mimicked by the ERbeta agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN)...
  17. Sato T, Matsumoto T, Kawano H, Watanabe T, Uematsu Y, Sekine K, et al. Brain masculinization requires androgen receptor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1673-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggested that perinatal brain masculinization requires AR function and that expression of male-typical behaviors in adults is mediated by both AR-dependent and -independent androgen signaling. ..
  18. Krege J, Hodgin J, Couse J, Enmark E, Warner M, Mahler J, et al. Generation and reproductive phenotypes of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:15677-82 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the generation of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta -/-) by insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into exon 3 of the coding gene by using homologous ..
  19. Couse J, Yates M, Deroo B, Korach K. Estrogen receptor-beta is critical to granulosa cell differentiation and the ovulatory response to gonadotropins. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3247-62 pubmed
    ..gonadotropin-induced follicle growth, differentiation, and rupture, we characterized the response of ERalpha- and ERbeta-null mice to gonadotropin-induced ovulation...
  20. Deroo B, Rodriguez K, Couse J, Hamilton K, Collins J, Grissom S, et al. Estrogen receptor beta is required for optimal cAMP production in mouse granulosa cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:955-65 pubmed publisher
    ..have previously shown that FSH-mediated granulosa cell differentiation requires functional estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) by demonstrating that the granulosa cells of ERbeta(-/-) FSH-treated mice are unable to maximally induce ..
  21. Barros R, Gabbi C, Morani A, Warner M, Gustafsson J. Participation of ERalpha and ERbeta in glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, to investigate the relative contributions of ERalpha and ERbeta in glucose homeostasis, we examined the effects of tamoxifen (Tam) on GLUT4 expression in SM and WAT in wild-type (..
  22. Barros R, Machado U, Warner M, Gustafsson J. Muscle GLUT4 regulation by estrogen receptors ERbeta and ERalpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1605-8 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the expression of the two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, and their influence on regulation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, and its associated structural protein, ..
  23. Pedram A, Razandi M, O Mahony F, Lubahn D, Levin E. Estrogen receptor-beta prevents cardiac fibrosis. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:2152-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish the cardiac fibroblast as an important target for hypertrophic/fibrosis-inducing peptides the actions of which were mitigated by E2/ER? acting in these stromal cells. ..
  24. Pettersson K, Grandien K, Kuiper G, Gustafsson J. Mouse estrogen receptor beta forms estrogen response element-binding heterodimers with estrogen receptor alpha. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11:1486-96 pubmed
    ..Here we report on the cloning of the cDNA encoding the mouse homolog of estrogen receptor-beta (ER beta) and the functional characterization of mouse ER beta protein...
  25. Delbes G, Levacher C, Duquenne C, Racine C, Pakarinen P, Habert R. Endogenous estrogens inhibit mouse fetal Leydig cell development via estrogen receptor alpha. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2454-61 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that ER beta deficiency affects gametogenesis in mice but changes neither the number nor the differentiated functions of fetal ..
  26. Dupont S, Krust A, Gansmuller A, Dierich A, Chambon P, Mark M. Effect of single and compound knockouts of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) on mouse reproductive phenotypes. Development. 2000;127:4277-91 pubmed
    ..ERs) in mouse ovary and genital tracts were investigated by generating null mutants for ERalpha (ERalphaKO), ERbeta (ERbetaKO) and both ERs (ERalphabetaKO)...
  27. Ohlsson C, Hellberg N, Parini P, Vidal O, Bohlooly Y M, Bohlooly M, et al. Obesity and disturbed lipoprotein profile in estrogen receptor-alpha-deficient male mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;278:640-5 pubmed
    ..Total body fat content and serum levels of leptin were followed in ERalpha knockout (ERKO), ERbeta knockout (BERKO), and ERalpha/beta double knockout (DERKO) mice...
  28. Cheng G, Weihua Z, Mäkinen S, MAKELA S, Saji S, Warner M, et al. A role for the androgen receptor in follicular atresia of estrogen receptor beta knockout mouse ovary. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:77-84 pubmed
    b>Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is highly expressed, but ERalpha is not detectable in granulosa cells in the mouse ovary. In ERbeta knockout (BERKO) mice, there is abnormal follicular development and very reduced fertility...
  29. Couse J, Yates M, Walker V, Korach K. Characterization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen receptor (ER) Null mice reveals hypergonadism and endocrine sex reversal in females lacking ERalpha but not ERbeta. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1039-53 pubmed
    To determine the role of each estrogen receptor (ER) form (ERalpha, ERbeta) in mediating the estrogen actions necessary to maintain proper function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, we have characterized the hypothalamic-..
  30. Pedram A, Razandi M, Wallace D, Levin E. Functional estrogen receptors in the mitochondria of breast cancer cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2125-37 pubmed
    ..of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and endothelial cells, compatible with classical estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta. We report that in MCF-7, estrogen inhibits UV radiation-induced cytochrome C release, the decrease of the ..
  31. Looijer van Langen M, Hotte N, Dieleman L, Albert E, Mulder C, Madsen K. Estrogen receptor-? signaling modulates epithelial barrier function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;300:G621-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests a potential role for ER? signaling in the modulation of epithelial permeability and demonstrates reduced ER? mRNA in animal models of colitis and colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  32. Yepuru M, Eswaraka J, Kearbey J, Barrett C, Raghow S, Veverka K, et al. Estrogen receptor-{beta}-selective ligands alleviate high-fat diet- and ovariectomy-induced obesity in mice. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31292-303 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these studies indicate that ligand-activated ER-? is a potential therapeutic target to combat obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. ..
  33. Emmen J, Couse J, Elmore S, Yates M, Kissling G, Korach K. In vitro growth and ovulation of follicles from ovaries of estrogen receptor (ER){alpha} and ER{beta} null mice indicate a role for ER{beta} in follicular maturation. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2817-26 pubmed
    ..In this study, the role of ERalpha and ERbeta in folliculogenesis and ovulation was further analyzed...
  34. Windahl S, Hollberg K, Vidal O, Gustafsson J, Ohlsson C, Andersson G. Female estrogen receptor beta-/- mice are partially protected against age-related trabecular bone loss. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16:1388-98 pubmed
    Recently, it has been shown that inactivation of estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) by gene targeting results in increased cortical bone formation in adolescent female mice...
  35. Krum S, Miranda Carboni G, Hauschka P, Carroll J, Lane T, Freedman L, et al. Estrogen protects bone by inducing Fas ligand in osteoblasts to regulate osteoclast survival. EMBO J. 2008;27:535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that estrogen protects bone by inducing a paracrine signal originating in osteoblasts leading to the death of pre-osteoclasts and offer an important new target for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. ..
  36. Tiwari Woodruff S, Morales L, Lee R, Voskuhl R. Differential neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta ligand treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14813-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we have contrasted effects of treatment with an ERalpha vs. an ERbeta ligand in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the multiple sclerosis model with a known pathogenic role for ..
  37. Bryzgalova G, Gao H, Ahren B, Zierath J, Galuska D, Steiler T, et al. Evidence that oestrogen receptor-alpha plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in mice: insulin sensitivity in the liver. Diabetologia. 2006;49:588-97 pubmed
    We used oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) knockout (ERKO) and receptor-beta (ERbeta) knockout (BERKO) mice to investigate the mechanism(s) behind the effects of oestrogens on glucose homeostasis...
  38. Wada Hiraike O, Warner M, Gustafsson J. New developments in oestrogen signalling in colonic epithelium. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:1114-6 pubmed
    ..studies show that oestrogen reduces the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women and ERbeta (oestrogen receptor beta)-selective ligands have been reported to be very effective treatment in animal models of inflammatory ..
  39. Wang C, Dehghani B, Magrisso I, Rick E, Bonhomme E, Cody D, et al. GPR30 contributes to estrogen-induced thymic atrophy. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:636-48 pubmed
    ..receptor 30 (GPR30), and the intracellular estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), in 17beta-estradiol (E2)-induced thymic atrophy were distinguished by construction and the side-by-side ..
  40. Hsu I, Chuang K, Slavin S, Da J, Lim W, Pang S, et al. Suppression of ER? signaling via ER? knockout or antagonist protects against bladder cancer development. Carcinogenesis. 2014;35:651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..rates than men, suggesting that estrogen and the estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and estrogen receptor beta (ER?), may play critical roles in BCa progression...
  41. Markiewicz M, Znoyko S, Stawski L, Ghatnekar A, Gilkeson G, Trojanowska M. A role for estrogen receptor-? and estrogen receptor-? in collagen biosynthesis in mouse skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate distinct functions of ERs in the regulation of collagen biosynthesis in mouse skin in vivo. ..
  42. Paech K, Webb P, Kuiper G, Nilsson S, Gustafsson J, Kushner P, et al. Differential ligand activation of estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta at AP1 sites. Science. 1997;277:1508-10 pubmed
    The transactivation properties of the two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, were examined with different ligands in the context of an estrogen response element and an AP1 element...
  43. Wada Hiraike O, Imamov O, Hiraike H, Hultenby K, Schwend T, Omoto Y, et al. Role of estrogen receptor beta in colonic epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2959-64 pubmed
    ..To better understand the physiological role of ERbeta in colonic tissue, we have compared morphology, proliferation, and differentiation of colonic epithelium in ERbeta-..
  44. Vidal O, Lindberg M, Hollberg K, Baylink D, Andersson G, Lubahn D, et al. Estrogen receptor specificity in the regulation of skeletal growth and maturation in male mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5474-9 pubmed
    ..relative importance of ER subtypes in the regulation of the male skeleton was studied in ERalpha-knockout (ERKO), ERbeta-knockout (BERKO), and double ERalpha/beta-knockout (DERKO) mice...
  45. Liu S, Le May C, Wong W, Ward R, Clegg D, Marcelli M, et al. Importance of extranuclear estrogen receptor-alpha and membrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in pancreatic islet survival. Diabetes. 2009;58:2292-302 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that ERbeta plays a minor cytoprotective role compared to ERalpha...
  46. Inzunza J, Morani A, Cheng G, Warner M, Hreinsson J, Gustafsson J, et al. Ovarian wedge resection restores fertility in estrogen receptor beta knockout (ERbeta-/-) mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:600-5 pubmed
    Ovulation rarely occurs in mice in which the estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) gene has been inactivated (ERbeta-/- mice)...
  47. Moverare S, Lindberg M, Faergemann J, Gustafsson J, Ohlsson C. Estrogen receptor alpha, but not estrogen receptor beta, is involved in the regulation of the hair follicle cycling as well as the thickness of epidermis in male mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:1053-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the relative functional importance of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in the regulation of the hair follicle cycling and epidermal thickness in male mice...
  48. Aguirre J, Plotkin L, Gortazar A, Millan M, O Brien C, Manolagas S, et al. A novel ligand-independent function of the estrogen receptor is essential for osteocyte and osteoblast mechanotransduction. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25501-8 pubmed
    ..the adaptive response of bone to mechanical forces is defective in mice lacking estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or ERbeta. We report that ERKs are not activated by stretching in osteocytic and osteoblastic cells in which both ERalpha ..
  49. Lee K, Jessop H, Suswillo R, Zaman G, Lanyon L. The adaptive response of bone to mechanical loading in female transgenic mice is deficient in the absence of oestrogen receptor-alpha and -beta. J Endocrinol. 2004;182:193-201 pubmed adult female mice lacking oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha(-/-)), those lacking oestrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta(-/-)) and their wild-type littermates...
  50. McCauley L, Tözüm T, Kozloff K, Koh Paige A, Chen C, Demashkieh M, et al. Transgenic models of metabolic bone disease: impact of estrogen receptor deficiency on skeletal metabolism. Connect Tissue Res. 2003;44 Suppl 1:250-63 pubmed
    ..Mechanisms for these effects and the selectivity to the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) or ER beta are unclear...
  51. Jefferson W, Couse J, Banks E, Korach K, Newbold R. Expression of estrogen receptor beta is developmentally regulated in reproductive tissues of male and female mice. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:310-7 pubmed
    ..assay (RPA) combined with immunohistochemical techniques, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta was mapped in the developing gonads and reproductive tracts of male and female mice from fetal day 14 to postnatal ..
  52. Foryst Ludwig A, Clemenz M, Hohmann S, Hartge M, Sprang C, Frost N, et al. Metabolic actions of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) are mediated by a negative cross-talk with PPARgamma. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000108 pubmed publisher
    ..While ERalpha seems to have a protective role in such diseases, the function of ERbeta is not clear...
  53. Tiano J, Delghingaro Augusto V, Le May C, Liu S, Kaw M, Khuder S, et al. Estrogen receptor activation reduces lipid synthesis in pancreatic islets and prevents ? cell failure in rodent models of type 2 diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, pancreas-specific deletion of Stat3 in mice curtailed ER-mediated suppression of lipid synthesis. These data suggest that extranuclear ERs may be promising therapeutic targets to prevent ? cell failure in T2D. ..
  54. Delbes G, Levacher C, Pairault C, Racine C, Duquenne C, Krust A, et al. Estrogen receptor beta-mediated inhibition of male germ cell line development in mice by endogenous estrogens during perinatal life. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3395-403 pubmed
    ..The homozygous inactivation of ERbeta (ERbeta-/-) increased the number of gonocytes by 50% in 2- and 6-d-old neonates...
  55. Saleiro D, Murillo G, Benya R, Bissonnette M, Hart J, Mehta R. Estrogen receptor-? protects against colitis-associated neoplasia in mice. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:2553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that ER? provides protection in the AOM/DSS-induced CAC model in mice, suggesting a preventive and/or therapeutic potential for the use of ER?-selective agonists in IBD. ..
  56. Kamiya Y, Chen J, Xu M, Utreja A, Choi T, Drissi H, et al. Increased mandibular condylar growth in mice with estrogen receptor beta deficiency. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In long bones, estrogen acting via estrogen receptor beta (ER?) inhibits axial skeletal growth in female mice...