Esr1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Esr1
Description: estrogen receptor 1 (alpha)
Alias: ER-alpha, ERa, ERalpha, ESR, Estr, Estra, Nr3a1, estrogen receptor, C-terminally-truncated estrogen receptor alpha product-4, C-terminally-truncated estrogen receptor alpha product-5, C-terminally-truncated estrogen receptor alpha product-6, C-terminally-truncated estrogen receptor alpha product-7, estradiol receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Esr1

Top Publications

  1. Ahlbory Dieker D, Stride B, Leder G, Schkoldow J, Trölenberg S, Seidel H, et al. DNA binding by estrogen receptor-alpha is essential for the transcriptional response to estrogen in the liver and the uterus. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1544-55 pubmed publisher
    The majority of the biological effects of estrogens in the reproductive tract are mediated by estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, which regulates transcription by several mechanisms...
  2. Fontaine C, Abot A, Billon Gales A, Flouriot G, Berges H, Grunenwald E, et al. Tamoxifen elicits atheroprotection through estrogen receptor ? AF-1 but does not accelerate reendothelialization. Am J Pathol. 2013;183:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro experiments demonstrated that tamoxifen elicits its transcriptional effect through estrogen receptor (ER) ?, but other targets can participate in its actions...
  3. Huang B, Qu Z, Ong C, Tsang Y, Xiao G, Shapiro D, et al. RUNX3 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by targeting estrogen receptor ?. Oncogene. 2012;31:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..By destabilizing ER?, RUNX3 acts as a novel tumor suppressor in breast cancer. ..
  4. Joseph A, Hess R, Schaeffer D, Ko C, Hudgin Spivey S, Chambon P, et al. Absence of estrogen receptor alpha leads to physiological alterations in the mouse epididymis and consequent defects in sperm function. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:948-57 pubmed publisher
    Male mice deficient in ESR1 (ERalpha) (Esr1KO mice) are infertile, and sperm recovered from the cauda epididymis exhibit reduced motility and fail to fertilize eggs in vitro...
  5. Lizotte E, Grandy S, Tremblay A, Allen B, Fiset C. Expression, distribution and regulation of sex steroid hormone receptors in mouse heart. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;23:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis and densitometry to characterize the subcellular distribution and abundance of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ERbeta and androgen receptor (AR) in atrial and ventricular tissue from male and female mice...
  6. Sunters A, Armstrong V, Zaman G, Kypta R, Kawano Y, Lanyon L, et al. Mechano-transduction in osteoblastic cells involves strain-regulated estrogen receptor alpha-mediated control of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor sensitivity to Ambient IGF, leading to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent Wnt/LRP5 r. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8743-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Strain-related IGF-IR activation of AKT requires estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) with which IGF-1R physically associates...
  7. Jesmin S, Mowa C, Sultana S, Shimojo N, Togashi H, Iwashima Y, et al. VEGF signaling is disrupted in the hearts of mice lacking estrogen receptor alpha. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;641:168-78 pubmed publisher
    ..of its basic signaling machinery (VEGF receptors, Akt, and eNOS) in the heart, and 2) delineate the specific estrogen receptor signaling pathway that mediates its beneficial effects using mice lacking either estrogen receptor alpha or ..
  8. Hewitt S, O Brien J, Jameson J, Kissling G, Korach K. Selective disruption of ER{alpha} DNA-binding activity alters uterine responsiveness to estradiol. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:2111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles by microarray in the KIKO mouse, an in vivo knock-in mouse model that lacks the DNA-binding function of ERalpha and is consequently restricted to non-ERE-mediated responses...
  9. Bernardo G, Lozada K, Miedler J, Harburg G, Hewitt S, Mosley J, et al. FOXA1 is an essential determinant of ERalpha expression and mammary ductal morphogenesis. Development. 2010;137:2045-54 pubmed publisher
    FOXA1, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and GATA3 independently predict favorable outcome in breast cancer patients, and their expression correlates with a differentiated, luminal tumor subtype...
  10. Börjesson A, Lagerquist M, Liu C, Shao R, Windahl S, Karlsson C, et al. The role of estrogen receptor ? in growth plate cartilage for longitudinal bone growth. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:2690-700 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, it is essential for high-dose estradiol to reduce the growth plate height in adult mice and for reduction of longitudinal bone growth in elderly mice. ..

Detail Information

Publications69

  1. Ahlbory Dieker D, Stride B, Leder G, Schkoldow J, Trölenberg S, Seidel H, et al. DNA binding by estrogen receptor-alpha is essential for the transcriptional response to estrogen in the liver and the uterus. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1544-55 pubmed publisher
    The majority of the biological effects of estrogens in the reproductive tract are mediated by estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, which regulates transcription by several mechanisms...
  2. Fontaine C, Abot A, Billon Gales A, Flouriot G, Berges H, Grunenwald E, et al. Tamoxifen elicits atheroprotection through estrogen receptor ? AF-1 but does not accelerate reendothelialization. Am J Pathol. 2013;183:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro experiments demonstrated that tamoxifen elicits its transcriptional effect through estrogen receptor (ER) ?, but other targets can participate in its actions...
  3. Huang B, Qu Z, Ong C, Tsang Y, Xiao G, Shapiro D, et al. RUNX3 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by targeting estrogen receptor ?. Oncogene. 2012;31:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..By destabilizing ER?, RUNX3 acts as a novel tumor suppressor in breast cancer. ..
  4. Joseph A, Hess R, Schaeffer D, Ko C, Hudgin Spivey S, Chambon P, et al. Absence of estrogen receptor alpha leads to physiological alterations in the mouse epididymis and consequent defects in sperm function. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:948-57 pubmed publisher
    Male mice deficient in ESR1 (ERalpha) (Esr1KO mice) are infertile, and sperm recovered from the cauda epididymis exhibit reduced motility and fail to fertilize eggs in vitro...
  5. Lizotte E, Grandy S, Tremblay A, Allen B, Fiset C. Expression, distribution and regulation of sex steroid hormone receptors in mouse heart. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;23:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis and densitometry to characterize the subcellular distribution and abundance of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ERbeta and androgen receptor (AR) in atrial and ventricular tissue from male and female mice...
  6. Sunters A, Armstrong V, Zaman G, Kypta R, Kawano Y, Lanyon L, et al. Mechano-transduction in osteoblastic cells involves strain-regulated estrogen receptor alpha-mediated control of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor sensitivity to Ambient IGF, leading to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent Wnt/LRP5 r. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8743-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Strain-related IGF-IR activation of AKT requires estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) with which IGF-1R physically associates...
  7. Jesmin S, Mowa C, Sultana S, Shimojo N, Togashi H, Iwashima Y, et al. VEGF signaling is disrupted in the hearts of mice lacking estrogen receptor alpha. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;641:168-78 pubmed publisher
    ..of its basic signaling machinery (VEGF receptors, Akt, and eNOS) in the heart, and 2) delineate the specific estrogen receptor signaling pathway that mediates its beneficial effects using mice lacking either estrogen receptor alpha or ..
  8. Hewitt S, O Brien J, Jameson J, Kissling G, Korach K. Selective disruption of ER{alpha} DNA-binding activity alters uterine responsiveness to estradiol. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:2111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles by microarray in the KIKO mouse, an in vivo knock-in mouse model that lacks the DNA-binding function of ERalpha and is consequently restricted to non-ERE-mediated responses...
  9. Bernardo G, Lozada K, Miedler J, Harburg G, Hewitt S, Mosley J, et al. FOXA1 is an essential determinant of ERalpha expression and mammary ductal morphogenesis. Development. 2010;137:2045-54 pubmed publisher
    FOXA1, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and GATA3 independently predict favorable outcome in breast cancer patients, and their expression correlates with a differentiated, luminal tumor subtype...
  10. Börjesson A, Lagerquist M, Liu C, Shao R, Windahl S, Karlsson C, et al. The role of estrogen receptor ? in growth plate cartilage for longitudinal bone growth. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:2690-700 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, it is essential for high-dose estradiol to reduce the growth plate height in adult mice and for reduction of longitudinal bone growth in elderly mice. ..
  11. Wong W, Tiano J, Liu S, Hewitt S, Le May C, Dalle S, et al. Extranuclear estrogen receptor-alpha stimulates NeuroD1 binding to the insulin promoter and favors insulin synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13057-62 pubmed publisher
    Estrogen receptors (ERs) protect pancreatic islet survival in mice through rapid extranuclear actions. ERalpha also enhances insulin synthesis in cultured islets...
  12. Almeida M, Martin Millan M, Ambrogini E, Bradsher R, Han L, Chen X, et al. Estrogens attenuate oxidative stress and the differentiation and apoptosis of osteoblasts by DNA-binding-independent actions of the ERalpha. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:769-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We have searched for the molecular mechanism of these effects using as tools a mouse model bearing an estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) knock-in mutation that prevents binding to DNA (ERalpha(NERKI/-)) and several osteoblast ..
  13. Xu Y, Nedungadi T, Zhu L, Sobhani N, Irani B, Davis K, et al. Distinct hypothalamic neurons mediate estrogenic effects on energy homeostasis and reproduction. Cell Metab. 2011;14:453-65 pubmed publisher
    Estrogens regulate body weight and reproduction primarily through actions on estrogen receptor-? (ER?). However, ER?-expressing cells mediating these effects are not identified...
  14. Chen M, Yeh C, Chang H, Vitkus S, Wen X, Bhowmick N, et al. Loss of epithelial oestrogen receptor ? inhibits oestrogen-stimulated prostate proliferation and squamous metaplasia via in vivo tissue selective knockout models. J Pathol. 2012;226:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These in vivo results suggest that epithelial ER? is required for oestrogen-mediated proliferative response and could be an appropriate target for preventing aberrant oestrogen signalling in the prostate...
  15. Saxon L, Galea G, Meakin L, Price J, Lanyon L. Estrogen receptors ? and ? have different gender-dependent effects on the adaptive responses to load bearing in cancellous and cortical bone. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2254-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone loss due to disuse in cortical bone is unaffected by ER status, but in cancellous bone, functional ER? contributes to greater disuse-related bone loss...
  16. Martin Millan M, Almeida M, Ambrogini E, Han L, Zhao H, Weinstein R, et al. The estrogen receptor-alpha in osteoclasts mediates the protective effects of estrogens on cancellous but not cortical bone. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:323-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We selectively deleted the estrogen receptor (ER)alpha from the monocyte/macrophage cell lineage in mice (ERalpha(LysM)(-/-)) and found a 2-fold increase ..
  17. Billon Gales A, Fontaine C, Douin Echinard V, Delpy L, Berges H, Calippe B, et al. Endothelial estrogen receptor-alpha plays a crucial role in the atheroprotective action of 17beta-estradiol in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Circulation. 2009;120:2567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We first confirmed the key role of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) in the atheroprotective effect of estradiol, because this action was completely abolished in ..
  18. Engdahl C, Jochems C, Windahl S, Börjesson A, Ohlsson C, Carlsten H, et al. Amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis and immune-associated bone loss through signaling via estrogen receptor alpha, and not estrogen receptor beta or G protein-coupled receptor 30. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:524-33 pubmed publisher
    ..via the nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) ERalpha or ERbeta or via the recently proposed transmembrane estrogen receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR-30)...
  19. Spencer Segal J, Tsuda M, Mattei L, Waters E, Romeo R, Milner T, et al. Estradiol acts via estrogen receptors alpha and beta on pathways important for synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampal formation. Neuroscience. 2012;202:131-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Using estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta knockout mice and wild-type littermates, we investigated the role of ERs in estradiol ..
  20. Arao Y, Hamilton K, Ray M, Scott G, Mishina Y, Korach K. Estrogen receptor ? AF-2 mutation results in antagonist reversal and reveals tissue selective function of estrogen receptor modulators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:14986-91 pubmed publisher
    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor containing two transcriptional activation domains...
  21. de Souza F, Nasif S, López Leal R, Levi D, Low M, Rubinsten M. The estrogen receptor ? colocalizes with proopiomelanocortin in hypothalamic neurons and binds to a conserved motif present in the neuron-specific enhancer nPE2. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;660:181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In a search for candidate nuclear receptors that might control POMC we observed that estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) - a known regulator of energy balance at the hypothalamic level - can bind to the NRBE element ..
  22. Park C, Zhao Z, Glidewell Kenney C, Lazic M, Chambon P, Krust A, et al. Genetic rescue of nonclassical ER? signaling normalizes energy balance in obese Er?-null mutant mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:604-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Estrogen receptor ?-null (Er?-/-) mutant mice develop an obese state characterized by decreased energy expenditure, decreased ..
  23. Adlanmerini M, Solinhac R, Abot A, Fabre A, Raymond Letron I, Guihot A, et al. Mutation of the palmitoylation site of estrogen receptor ? in vivo reveals tissue-specific roles for membrane versus nuclear actions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E283-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) activation functions AF-1 and AF-2 classically mediate gene transcription in response to estradiol (E2)...
  24. Börjesson A, Windahl S, Lagerquist M, Engdahl C, Frenkel B, Moverare Skrtic S, et al. Roles of transactivating functions 1 and 2 of estrogen receptor-alpha in bone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6288-93 pubmed publisher
    The bone-sparing effect of estrogen is primarily mediated via estrogen receptor-? (ER?), which stimulates target gene transcription through two activation functions (AFs), AF-1 in the N-terminal and AF-2 in the ligand binding domain...
  25. Tiano J, Delghingaro Augusto V, Le May C, Liu S, Kaw M, Khuder S, et al. Estrogen receptor activation reduces lipid synthesis in pancreatic islets and prevents ? cell failure in rodent models of type 2 diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The antilipogenic actions of E2 were recapitulated by pharmacological activation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) or ER? in a rat ? cell line and in cultured ZDF rat, mouse, and human islets...
  26. Zhu L, Brown W, Cai Q, Krust A, Chambon P, McGuinness O, et al. Estrogen treatment after ovariectomy protects against fatty liver and may improve pathway-selective insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2013;62:424-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice lacking the liver estrogen receptor ?, E2 after OVX limited adiposity but failed to improve insulin sensitivity, to limit liver lipid deposition,..
  27. Wend K, Wend P, Drew B, Hevener A, Miranda Carboni G, Krum S. ERα regulates lipid metabolism in bone through ATGL and perilipin. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:1306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we show increased lipid accumulation in bone marrow from estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) knockout (ERαKO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice or estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ..
  28. Hewitt S, Li Y, Li L, Korach K. Estrogen-mediated regulation of Igf1 transcription and uterine growth involves direct binding of estrogen receptor alpha to estrogen-responsive elements. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2676-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This proliferation and IGF1 synthesis requires the estrogen receptor (ER), which binds directly to target DNA sequences (estrogen-responsive elements or EREs), or interacts with ..
  29. Liu S, Le May C, Wong W, Ward R, Clegg D, Marcelli M, et al. Importance of extranuclear estrogen receptor-alpha and membrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in pancreatic islet survival. Diabetes. 2009;58:2292-302 pubmed publisher
    We showed that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) favors pancreatic beta-cell survival via the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) in mice. E(2) activates nuclear estrogen receptors via an estrogen response element (ERE)...
  30. Spiteri T, Musatov S, Ogawa S, Ribeiro A, Pfaff D, Agmo A. The role of the estrogen receptor alpha in the medial amygdala and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus in social recognition, anxiety and aggression. Behav Brain Res. 2010;210:211-20 pubmed publisher
    Social recognition manifests itself in decreased investigation of a previously encountered individual. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) knock out mice show deficient social recognition and anxiety...
  31. Ribas V, Nguyen M, Henstridge D, Nguyen A, Beaven S, Watt M, et al. Impaired oxidative metabolism and inflammation are associated with insulin resistance in ERalpha-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E304-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, we found that global knockout (KO) of the estrogen receptor (ER)alpha leads to reduced oxygen uptake and caloric expenditure compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
  32. Chambliss K, Wu Q, Oltmann S, Konaniah E, Umetani M, Korach K, et al. Non-nuclear estrogen receptor alpha signaling promotes cardiovascular protection but not uterine or breast cancer growth in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2319-30 pubmed publisher
    ..conjugate (EDC) that is excluded from the nucleus stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via ERalpha, direct ERalpha-Galphai interaction, and endothelial NOS (eNOS) activation...
  33. Hsu I, Vitkus S, Da J, Yeh S. Role of oestrogen receptors in bladder cancer development. Nat Rev Urol. 2013;10:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of female hormones (predominantly oestrogens) and their binding receptors, including oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1; also known as ER?), oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2; also known as ER?), and GPR30 protein on bladder cancer incidence ..
  34. Matic M, Bryzgalova G, Gao H, Antonson P, Humire P, Omoto Y, et al. Estrogen signalling and the metabolic syndrome: targeting the hepatic estrogen receptor alpha action. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57458 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that total estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) knockout (KO) mice exhibit hepatic insulin resistance...
  35. Vitkus S, Yeh C, Lin H, Hsu I, Yu J, Chen M, et al. Distinct function of estrogen receptor ? in smooth muscle and fibroblast cells in prostate development. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:38-49 pubmed publisher
    Estrogen signaling, through estrogen receptor (ER)?, has been shown to cause hypertrophy in the prostate. Our recent report has shown that epithelial ER? knockout (KO) will not affect the normal prostate development or homeostasis...
  36. Doublier S, Lupia E, Catanuto P, Periera Simon S, Xia X, Korach K, et al. Testosterone and 17?-estradiol have opposite effects on podocyte apoptosis that precedes glomerulosclerosis in female estrogen receptor knockout mice. Kidney Int. 2011;79:404-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Female estrogen receptor knockout mice develop glomerulosclerosis at 9 months of age due to excessive ovarian testosterone production ..
  37. Callewaert F, Bakker A, Schrooten J, Van Meerbeek B, Verhoeven G, Boonen S, et al. Androgen receptor disruption increases the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in male mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:124-31 pubmed publisher
    In female mice, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) mediates the anabolic response of bone to mechanical loading...
  38. Toutain C, Filipe C, Billon A, Fontaine C, Brouchet L, Guéry J, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha expression in both endothelium and hematopoietic cells is required for the accelerative effect of estradiol on reendothelialization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1543-50 pubmed publisher
    E2 accelerates reendothelialization through estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), and we now aimed at defining the precise local and systemic cellular actors of this process...
  39. Barros R, Gabbi C, Morani A, Warner M, Gustafsson J. Participation of ERalpha and ERbeta in glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..that, in SM of male mice, expression of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter (GLUT)4 is reduced by estrogen receptor (ER)beta agonists...
  40. Billon Gales A, Krust A, Fontaine C, Abot A, Flouriot G, Toutain C, et al. Activation function 2 (AF2) of estrogen receptor-alpha is required for the atheroprotective action of estradiol but not to accelerate endothelial healing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13311-6 pubmed publisher
    17?-Estradiol (E2) regulates estrogen receptor-? (ER?) target gene transcription through the two independent activation functions (AFs), AF1 and AF2, located in the N-terminal and ligand binding domain of ER?, respectively...
  41. Moverare Skrtic S, Börjesson A, Farman H, Sjögren K, Windahl S, Lagerquist M, et al. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 can act both as an agonist and an inverse agonist when estrogen receptor ? AF-2 is modified. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1180-5 pubmed publisher
    The bone-sparing effect of estrogen is primarily mediated via estrogen receptor (ER) ?, which stimulates target gene transcription through two activation functions (AFs), AF-1 in the N-terminal and AF-2 in the ligand-binding domain...
  42. Almeida M, Iyer S, Martin Millan M, Bartell S, Han L, Ambrogini E, et al. Estrogen receptor-? signaling in osteoblast progenitors stimulates cortical bone accrual. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:394-404 pubmed publisher
    The detection of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts over 20 years ago suggested that direct effects of estrogens on both of these cell types are responsible for their beneficial effects on the skeleton, but the role ..
  43. Hiremath M, Dann P, Fischer J, Butterworth D, Boras Granic K, Hens J, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein activates Wnt signaling to specify the embryonic mammary mesenchyme. Development. 2012;139:4239-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that a mesenchymal, canonical Wnt pathway mediates the PTHrP-dependent specification of the mammary mesenchyme...
  44. Windahl S, Saxon L, Börjesson A, Lagerquist M, Frenkel B, Henning P, et al. Estrogen receptor-? is required for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in a ligand-independent manner involving its activation function 1 but not 2. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:291-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor-? (ER?) is crucial for the adaptive response of bone to loading but the role of endogenous estradiol (E2) for this response is unclear...
  45. Antonson P, Omoto Y, Humire P, Gustafsson J. Generation of ER?-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;424:710-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens...
  46. Ren Y, Wu L, Frost A, Grizzle W, Cao X, Wan M. Dual effects of TGF-beta on ERalpha-mediated estrogenic transcriptional activity in breast cancer. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:111 pubmed publisher
    ..Smads-mediated cross-talk with the estrogen receptor has been implied to play an important role in development and/or progression of breast cancer...
  47. Feng F, Nyland J, Banyai M, Tatum A, Silverstone A, Gavalchin J. The induction of the lupus phenotype by estrogen is via an estrogen receptor-alpha-dependent pathway. Clin Immunol. 2010;134:226-36 pubmed publisher
    In order to investigate the roles of ER subtypes in the estrogen-induced lupus phenotype, ERalpha-deficient (ERalpha(-/-)) and wild-type mice (WT) were injected monthly with estradiol (E-2) starting at 8 weeks...
  48. Della Torre S, Rando G, Meda C, Stell A, Chambon P, Krust A, et al. Amino acid-dependent activation of liver estrogen receptor alpha integrates metabolic and reproductive functions via IGF-1. Cell Metab. 2011;13:205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We here demonstrate that dietary amino acids regulate the transcriptional activity of hepatic estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) through an mTOR-dependent mechanism...
  49. Hill L, Jeganathan V, Chinnasamy P, Grimaldi C, Diamond B. Differential roles of estrogen receptors ? and ? in control of B-cell maturation and selection. Mol Med. 2011;17:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyze the contribution of estrogen receptor ? or ? engagement to the altered B-cell maturation and selection mediated by increased exposure to estrogen...
  50. Campbell L, Emmerson E, Davies F, Gilliver S, Krust A, Chambon P, et al. Estrogen promotes cutaneous wound healing via estrogen receptor beta independent of its antiinflammatory activities. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..which estrogen modulates skin repair, particularly the cell type-specific role of the two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, has yet to be determined...
  51. Hewitt S, Kissling G, Fieselman K, Jayes F, Gerrish K, Korach K. Biological and biochemical consequences of global deletion of exon 3 from the ER alpha gene. FASEB J. 2010;24:4660-7 pubmed publisher
    To address issues resulting from ? estrogen receptor-knockout (?ERKO) residual N-terminal truncated estrogen receptor ?, and to allow tissue-selective deletion of ER?, we generated loxP-flanked exon 3 mice...
  52. Valera M, Gratacap M, Gourdy P, Lenfant F, Cabou C, Toutain C, et al. Chronic estradiol treatment reduces platelet responses and protects mice from thromboembolism through the hematopoietic estrogen receptor ?. Blood. 2012;120:1703-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for E2 in regulating the platelet proteome and platelet function, and point to new potential antithrombotic and vasculoprotective therapeutic strategies. ..
  53. Abot A, Fontaine C, Raymond Letron I, Flouriot G, Adlanmerini M, Buscato M, et al. The AF-1 activation function of estrogen receptor ? is necessary and sufficient for uterine epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2222-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor-? (ER?) regulates gene transcription through the 2 activation functions (AFs) AF-1 and AF-2. The crucial role of ER?AF-2 was previously demonstrated for endometrial proliferative action of 17?-estradiol (E2)...
  54. Shrestha S, Cao S, Lin V. The local microenvironment instigates the regulation of mammary tetratricopeptide repeat domain 9A during lactation and involution through local regulation of the activity of estrogen receptor ?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;426:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, this local induction of TTC9A expression upon involution coincided with the re-activation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?)...
  55. Maatta J, Buki K, Gu G, Alanne M, Vääräniemi J, Liljenbäck H, et al. Inactivation of estrogen receptor ? in bone-forming cells induces bone loss in female mice. FASEB J. 2013;27:478-88 pubmed publisher
    The role of the estrogen receptor ? (ER?) in bone-forming cells is incompletely understood at present...
  56. Lubahn D, Moyer J, Golding T, Couse J, Korach K, Smithies O. Alteration of reproductive function but not prenatal sexual development after insertional disruption of the mouse estrogen receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:11162-6 pubmed
    ..Prenatal male and female reproductive tract development can therefore occur in the absence of estradiol receptor-mediated responsiveness.
  57. Jelinsky S, Harris H, Brown E, Flanagan K, Zhang X, Tunkey C, et al. Global transcription profiling of estrogen activity: estrogen receptor alpha regulates gene expression in the kidney. Endocrinology. 2003;144:701-10 pubmed
    ..d ED(50) for c-fos induction in the uterus. E2 regulations in the kidney were intact in ERbetaKO mice, and the ERalpha-selective agonist propylpyrazole triol acted similarly to E2, together suggesting an ERalpha-mediated mechanism...
  58. Mitra S, Hoskin E, Yudkovitz J, Pear L, Wilkinson H, Hayashi S, et al. Immunolocalization of estrogen receptor beta in the mouse brain: comparison with estrogen receptor alpha. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2055-67 pubmed
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and ER beta are members of the steroid nuclear receptor family that modulate gene transcription in an estrogen-dependent manner...
  59. Ohnemus U, Uenalan M, Conrad F, Handjiski B, Mecklenburg L, Nakamura M, et al. Hair cycle control by estrogens: catagen induction via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha is checked by ER beta signaling. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1214-25 pubmed
    ..Between the two recognized estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, only ER alpha had been detected in murine skin...
  60. Chen M, Wolfe A, Wang X, Chang C, Yeh S, Radovick S. Generation and characterization of a complete null estrogen receptor alpha mouse using Cre/LoxP technology. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;321:145-53 pubmed publisher
    Conventional estrogen receptor alpha knockout (neo-ERalphaKO, neo-ERalpha(-/-)) mice contain a truncated and chimeric ERalpha fusion protein that retains 35% estrogen-dependent transactivation activity, and therefore the in vivo ERalpha ..
  61. Billon Gales A, Fontaine C, Filipe C, Douin Echinard V, Fouque M, Flouriot G, et al. The transactivating function 1 of estrogen receptor alpha is dispensable for the vasculoprotective actions of 17beta-estradiol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2053-8 pubmed publisher
    Full-length 66-kDa estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) stimulates target gene transcription through two activation functions (AFs), AF-1 in the N-terminal domain and AF-2 in the ligand binding domain...
  62. Wang M, Crisostomo P, Wairiuko G, Meldrum D. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates acute myocardial protection in females. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H2204-9 pubmed
    ..Estrogen and the estrogen receptor are critical determinants of cardiovascular sex differences...
  63. Kousteni S, Almeida M, Han L, Bellido T, Jilka R, Manolagas S. Induction of osteoblast differentiation by selective activation of kinase-mediated actions of the estrogen receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1516-30 pubmed
    Estrogens control gene transcription by cis or trans interactions of the estrogen receptor (ER) with target DNA or via the activation of cytoplasmic kinases...
  64. Milanesi L, Russo de Boland A, Boland R. Expression and localization of estrogen receptor alpha in the C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cell line. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:1254-73 pubmed publisher
    The classical model of 17beta-estradiol action has been traditionally described to be mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER) localized exclusively in the nucleus...
  65. Svenson J, EuDaly J, Ruiz P, Korach K, Gilkeson G. Impact of estrogen receptor deficiency on disease expression in the NZM2410 lupus prone mouse. Clin Immunol. 2008;128:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of estrogen receptor (ER) null genotypes on disease in lupus prone NZM2410 (NZM) and MRL/lpr mice, as a method to define the role ..
  66. Thurmond T, Murante F, Staples J, Silverstone A, Korach K, Gasiewicz T. Role of estrogen receptor alpha in hematopoietic stem cell development and B lymphocyte maturation in the male mouse. Endocrinology. 2000;141:2309-18 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to determine the role of ERalpha in hematopoietic progenitor and B lymphocyte maturation...
  67. Staples J, Gasiewicz T, Fiore N, Lubahn D, Korach K, Silverstone A. Estrogen receptor alpha is necessary in thymic development and estradiol-induced thymic alterations. J Immunol. 1999;163:4168-74 pubmed
    ..To determine how estrogens influence the thymus and affect T cell development, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) knockout (ERKO) mice were examined...
  68. Liu F, Day M, Muniz L, Bitran D, Arias R, Revilla Sanchez R, et al. Activation of estrogen receptor-beta regulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and improves memory. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:334-43 pubmed publisher
    ..processes, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects and the roles of the estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) remain unclear...