Gene Symbol: Epha4
Description: Eph receptor A4
Alias: 2900005C20Rik, AI385584, Cek8, Hek8, Sek, Sek1, Tyro1, ephrin type-A receptor 4, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor MPK-3, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor SEK-1
Species: mouse
Products:     Epha4

Top Publications

  1. Ellis C, Kasmi F, Ganju P, Walls E, Panayotou G, Reith A. A juxtamembrane autophosphorylation site in the Eph family receptor tyrosine kinase, Sek, mediates high affinity interaction with p59fyn. Oncogene. 1996;12:1727-36 pubmed
    ..have now identified two in vitro autophosphorylation sites within the juxtamembrane domain of the Eph family member Sek, and a candidate binding protein for the activated Sek kinase...
  2. Egea J, Nissen U, Dufour A, Sahin M, Greer P, Kullander K, et al. Regulation of EphA 4 kinase activity is required for a subset of axon guidance decisions suggesting a key role for receptor clustering in Eph function. Neuron. 2005;47:515-28 pubmed
    ..We find that knockin mice expressing a mutant form of EphA4 (EphA4(EE)), whose kinase is constitutively activated in the absence of ephrinB ligands, are deficient in the ..
  3. Huber A, Kania A, Tran T, Gu C, De Marco Garcia N, Lieberam I, et al. Distinct roles for secreted semaphorin signaling in spinal motor axon guidance. Neuron. 2005;48:949-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, Sema3A-Npn-1 and Sema3F-Npn-2 signaling control distinct steps of motor axon growth and guidance during the formation of spinal motor connections. ..
  4. Zhou L, Martinez S, Haber M, Jones E, Bouvier D, Doucet G, et al. EphA4 signaling regulates phospholipase Cgamma1 activation, cofilin membrane association, and dendritic spine morphology. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5127-38 pubmed
    ..We reported previously that the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase regulates spine morphology...
  5. Bouvier D, Tremblay M, Riad M, Corera A, Gingras D, Horn K, et al. EphA4 is localized in clathrin-coated and synaptic vesicles in adult mouse brain. J Neurochem. 2010;113:153-65 pubmed publisher
    b>EphA4, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is expressed in various pre-, post- and peri-synaptic organelles and implicated in the regulation of morphological and physiological properties of synapses...
  6. Margolis S, Salogiannis J, Lipton D, Mandel Brehm C, Wills Z, Mardinly A, et al. EphB-mediated degradation of the RhoA GEF Ephexin5 relieves a developmental brake on excitatory synapse formation. Cell. 2010;143:442-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that aberrant EphB/Ephexin5 signaling during the development of synapses may contribute to the abnormal cognitive function that occurs in Angelman syndrome and, possibly, ASDs...
  7. Greferath U, Canty A, Messenger J, Murphy M. Developmental expression of EphA4-tyrosine kinase receptor in the mouse brain and spinal cord. Mech Dev. 2002;119 Suppl 1:S231-8 pubmed
    ..One member of the Eph family, EphA4, can bind to both classes of ephrins and may have multiple functions in nervous system development...
  8. Williams S, Mann F, Erskine L, Sakurai T, Wei S, Rossi D, et al. Ephrin-B2 and EphB1 mediate retinal axon divergence at the optic chiasm. Neuron. 2003;39:919-35 pubmed
    ..EphB1 null mice exhibit a dramatically reduced ipsilateral projection, suggesting that this receptor contributes to the formation of the ipsilateral retinal projection, most likely through its repulsive interaction with ephrin-B2. ..
  9. Goldshmit Y, Galea M, Wise G, Bartlett P, Turnley A. Axonal regeneration and lack of astrocytic gliosis in EphA4-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10064-73 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that adult mice lacking EphA4 (-/-), a molecule essential for correct guidance of spinal cord axons during development, exhibit axonal ..

More Information


  1. Fu A, Hung K, Fu W, Shen C, Chen Y, Xia J, et al. APC(Cdh1) mediates EphA4-dependent downregulation of AMPA receptors in homeostatic plasticity. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that activation of EphA4 resulted in a decrease in synaptic and surface GluR1 and attenuated mEPSC amplitude through a degradation pathway ..
  2. Helmbacher F, Schneider Maunoury S, Topilko P, Tiret L, Charnay P. Targeting of the EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor affects dorsal/ventral pathfinding of limb motor axons. Development. 2000;127:3313-24 pubmed
    ..We have inactivated the mouse EphA4 gene to investigate its functions during development...
  3. Carmona M, Murai K, Wang L, Roberts A, Pasquale E. Glial ephrin-A3 regulates hippocampal dendritic spine morphology and glutamate transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We reported that the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons of the adult hippocampus and regulates spine ..
  4. Munro K, Dixon K, Gresle M, Jonas A, Kemper D, Doherty W, et al. EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a modulator of onset and disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55948 pubmed publisher
    The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is a major regulator of axonal growth and astrocyte reactivity and is a possible inflammatory mediator...
  5. Simón A, de Maturana R, Ricobaraza A, Escribano L, Schiapparelli L, Cuadrado Tejedor M, et al. Early changes in hippocampal Eph receptors precede the onset of memory decline in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17:773-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that EphA4 and EphB2 receptors were reduced in the hippocampus before the development of impaired object recognition and ..
  6. Shamah S, Lin M, Goldberg J, Estrach S, Sahin M, Hu L, et al. EphA receptors regulate growth cone dynamics through the novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor ephexin. Cell. 2001;105:233-44 pubmed
    ..The association of ephexin with Eph receptors constitutes a molecular link between Eph receptors and the actin cytoskeleton and provides a novel mechanism for achieving highly localized regulation of growth cone motility. ..
  7. Puschmann T, Turnley A. Eph receptor tyrosine kinases regulate astrocyte cytoskeletal rearrangement and focal adhesion formation. J Neurochem. 2010;113:881-94 pubmed publisher
    b>EphA4 null mice have impaired astrocytic gliosis following spinal cord injury. This may be because of altered cytoskeletal regulation and is examined herein using cultured astrocytes from wildtype and EphA4 null mice...
  8. Aulehla A, Wiegraebe W, Baubet V, Wahl M, Deng C, Taketo M, et al. A beta-catenin gradient links the clock and wavefront systems in mouse embryo segmentation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:186-93 pubmed
    ..This gradient of nuclear beta-catenin defines the size of the oscillatory field and controls key aspects of PSM maturation and segment formation, emphasizing the central role of Wnt signalling in this process. ..
  9. Bouvier D, Corera A, Tremblay M, Riad M, Chagnon M, Murai K, et al. Pre-synaptic and post-synaptic localization of EphA4 and EphB2 in adult mouse forebrain. J Neurochem. 2008;106:682-95 pubmed publisher
    The ephrin receptors EphA4 and EphB2 have been implicated in synaptogenesis and long-term potentiation in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, where they are generally viewed as post-synaptic receptors...
  10. North H, Zhao X, Kolk S, Clifford M, Ziskind D, Donoghue M. Promotion of proliferation in the developing cerebral cortex by EphA4 forward signaling. Development. 2009;136:2467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Cortical progenitor cells selectively express one receptor, EphA4, and reducing EphA4 signaling in cultured progenitors suppressed proliferation, decreasing cell number...
  11. Muñoz J, Alfaro D, García Ceca J, Alonso C L, Jiménez E, Zapata A. Thymic alterations in EphA4-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2006;177:804-13 pubmed
    ..The EphA4 (-/-) phenotype correlates with an early block of T cell precursor differentiation that results in accumulation of ..
  12. Benson M, Romero M, Lush M, Lu Q, Henkemeyer M, Parada L. Ephrin-B3 is a myelin-based inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10694-9 pubmed
    ..Our data describe a known vertebrate axon guidance molecule as a myelin-based inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. ..
  13. Gilardi Hebenstreit P, Nieto M, Frain M, Mattei M, Chestier A, Wilkinson D, et al. An Eph-related receptor protein tyrosine kinase gene segmentally expressed in the developing mouse hindbrain. Oncogene. 1993;8:1103 pubmed
  14. Mendes S, Henkemeyer M, Liebl D. Multiple Eph receptors and B-class ephrins regulate midline crossing of corpus callosum fibers in the developing mouse forebrain. J Neurosci. 2006;26:882-92 pubmed
    ..Our results support a significant role for ephrins and Eph receptors in CC development and may provide insight to possible mechanisms involved in axon midline crossing and human disorder. ..
  15. Dudanova I, Kao T, Herrmann J, Zheng B, Kania A, Klein R. Genetic evidence for a contribution of EphA:ephrinA reverse signaling to motor axon guidance. J Neurosci. 2012;32:5209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro studies have suggested that reverse signaling from limb-derived EphA4 to axonal ephrinAs might result in attraction of LMC axons. However, genetic evidence for this function is lacking...
  16. Iwasato T, Katoh H, Nishimaru H, Ishikawa Y, Inoue H, Saito Y, et al. Rac-GAP alpha-chimerin regulates motor-circuit formation as a key mediator of EphrinB3/EphA4 forward signaling. Cell. 2007;130:742-53 pubmed
    ..Here we show that alpha-chimerin Rac GTPase-activating protein mediates ephrinB3/EphA4 forward signaling...
  17. Goldshmit Y, Galea M, Bartlett P, Turnley A. EphA4 regulates central nervous system vascular formation. J Comp Neurol. 2006;497:864-75 pubmed
    ..To examine whether axon guidance molecules, such as the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase, might also play a role in development of the central nervous system (CNS) vasculature ..
  18. Davy A, Aubin J, Soriano P. Ephrin-B1 forward and reverse signaling are required during mouse development. Genes Dev. 2004;18:572-83 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that ephrin-B1 acts both as a ligand and as a receptor in a tissue-specific manner during embryogenesis. ..
  19. Munro K, Perreau V, Turnley A. Differential gene expression in the EphA4 knockout spinal cord and analysis of the inflammatory response following spinal cord injury. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37635 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking the axon guidance molecule EphA4 have been shown to exhibit extensive axonal regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord injury...
  20. Kullander K, Butt S, Lebret J, Lundfald L, Restrepo C, Rydström A, et al. Role of EphA4 and EphrinB3 in local neuronal circuits that control walking. Science. 2003;299:1889-92 pubmed
    ..The molecules that organize the mammalian CPG are unknown. Isolated spinal cords from mice lacking either the EphA4 receptor or its ligand ephrinB3 have lost left-right limb alternation and instead exhibit synchrony...
  21. Raft S, Andrade L, Shao D, Akiyama H, Henkemeyer M, Wu D. Ephrin-B2 governs morphogenesis of endolymphatic sac and duct epithelia in the mouse inner ear. Dev Biol. 2014;390:51-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that developmental dysplasias described here are a gene dose-sensitive cause of the vestibular dysfunction observed in EphB-Efnb2 signaling-deficient mice. ..
  22. Studer M, Lumsden A, Ariza McNaughton L, Bradley A, Krumlauf R. Altered segmental identity and abnormal migration of motor neurons in mice lacking Hoxb-1. Nature. 1996;384:630-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that, as a part of its role in maintaining rhombomere identity, Hoxb-1 is involved in controlling migratory properties of motor neurons in the hindbrain. ..
  23. MIKO I, Henkemeyer M, Cramer K. Auditory brainstem responses are impaired in EphA4 and ephrin-B2 deficient mice. Hear Res. 2008;235:39-46 pubmed
    ..We recorded the ABR of EphA4 and ephrin-B2 mutant mice, aged postnatal day 18-20, and compared them to wild type controls...
  24. Coate T, Raft S, Zhao X, Ryan A, Crenshaw E, Kelley M. Otic mesenchyme cells regulate spiral ganglion axon fasciculation through a Pou3f4/EphA4 signaling pathway. Neuron. 2012;73:49-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we demonstrate that Pou3f4 binds to and directly regulates expression of Epha4, Epha4⁻/⁻ mice present similar SGN defects, and exogenous EphA4 promotes SGN fasciculation in the ..
  25. Cesa R, Premoselli F, Renna A, Ethell I, Pasquale E, Strata P. Eph receptors are involved in the activity-dependent synaptic wiring in the mouse cerebellar cortex. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19160 pubmed publisher
    ..Such repression persists after Eph receptor activation, but is overridden by Eph receptor inhibition with EphA4/Fc in neonatal cultured cerebellar slices as well as mature acute cerebellar slices, following in vivo infusion of ..
  26. Bevins N, Lemke G, Reber M. Genetic dissection of EphA receptor signaling dynamics during retinotopic mapping. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..A key feature of these rules is that the component receptors of the gradient--in the mouse, EphA4, EphA5, and EphA6--must be functionally equivalent and interchangeable...
  27. Gatto G, Morales D, Kania A, Klein R. EphA4 receptor shedding regulates spinal motor axon guidance. Curr Biol. 2014;24:2355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In support of established models, we find that cleavage of EphA4 promotes cell-cell and growth cone-cell detachment in vitro...
  28. Barrantes I, Elia A, Wunsch K, Hrabe de Angelis M, Mak T, Rossant J, et al. Interaction between Notch signalling and Lunatic fringe during somite boundary formation in the mouse. Curr Biol. 1999;9:470-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, expression of EphA4, mCer 1 and uncx4...
  29. Van Hoecke A, Schoonaert L, Lemmens R, Timmers M, Staats K, Laird A, et al. EPHA4 is a disease modifier of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in animal models and in humans. Nat Med. 2012;18:1418-22 pubmed
    ..Here, we have screened a zebrafish model of ALS and identified Epha4, a receptor in the ephrin axonal repellent system, as a modifier of the disease phenotype in fish, rodents and ..
  30. Grunwald I, Korte M, Adelmann G, Plueck A, Kullander K, Adams R, et al. Hippocampal plasticity requires postsynaptic ephrinBs. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:33-40 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that EphA4, a candidate receptor, is also critically involved in long-term plasticity independent of its cytoplasmic domain, ..
  31. Kramer E, Knott L, Su F, Dessaud E, Krull C, Helmbacher F, et al. Cooperation between GDNF/Ret and ephrinA/EphA4 signals for motor-axon pathway selection in the limb. Neuron. 2006;50:35-47 pubmed
    ..Earlier work indicated that the pathway into the dorsal limb by lateral motor column (LMC[l]) axons requires the EphA4 receptor, which mediates repulsion elicited by ephrinAs expressed in ventral limb mesoderm...
  32. Cowan C, Shao Y, Sahin M, Shamah S, Lin M, Greer P, et al. Vav family GEFs link activated Ephs to endocytosis and axon guidance. Neuron. 2005;46:205-17 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest an important role for Vav family GEFs as regulators of ligand-receptor endocytosis and determinants of repulsive signaling during axon guidance. ..
  33. Canty A, Greferath U, Turnley A, Murphy M. Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 is required for the topographic mapping of the corticospinal tract. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15629-34 pubmed
    ..To investigate the possibility that the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 is involved in this process, we have traced CST axons in mice in which the EphA4 gene has been deleted...
  34. Gale N, Holland S, Valenzuela D, Flenniken A, Pan L, Ryan T, et al. Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during embryogenesis. Neuron. 1996;17:9-19 pubmed
    ..This reciprocal compartmentalization implicates the Eph family in the formation of spatial boundaries that may help to organize the developing body plan. ..
  35. Adams R, Diella F, Hennig S, Helmbacher F, Deutsch U, Klein R. The cytoplasmic domain of the ligand ephrinB2 is required for vascular morphogenesis but not cranial neural crest migration. Cell. 2001;104:57-69 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate distinct requirements of functions mediated by the ephrinB carboxyterminus for developmental processes in the vertebrate embryo. ..
  36. Filosa A, Paixão S, Honsek S, Carmona M, Becker L, Feddersen B, et al. Neuron-glia communication via EphA4/ephrin-A3 modulates LTP through glial glutamate transport. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands have been suggested to regulate neuron-glia interactions, and EphA4-mediated ephrin reverse signaling is required for synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus...
  37. Dufour A, Seibt J, Passante L, Depaepe V, Ciossek T, Frisen J, et al. Area specificity and topography of thalamocortical projections are controlled by ephrin/Eph genes. Neuron. 2003;39:453-65 pubmed
  38. Yun M, Johnson R, Antic A, Donoghue M. EphA family gene expression in the developing mouse neocortex: regional patterns reveal intrinsic programs and extrinsic influence. J Comp Neurol. 2003;456:203-16 pubmed
    ..Along with this zone-selective expression, several genes (EphA3, EphA4, EphA5) were evenly expressed along the axes of the developing cortex, whereas one family member (EphA7) was ..
  39. Dottori M, Hartley L, Galea M, Paxinos G, Polizzotto M, Kilpatrick T, et al. EphA4 (Sek1) receptor tyrosine kinase is required for the development of the corticospinal tract. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13248-53 pubmed
    ..The function of the EphA4 (Sek1) receptor was explored through creation of a null mutant mouse...
  40. Coonan J, Greferath U, Messenger J, Hartley L, Murphy M, Boyd A, et al. Development and reorganization of corticospinal projections in EphA4 deficient mice. J Comp Neurol. 2001;436:248-62 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of the EphA4 gene results in axon guidance defects of the corticospinal tract, a major descending motor pathway that originates ..
  41. Lai K, Chen Y, Po H, Lok K, Gong K, Ip N. Identification of the Jak/Stat proteins as novel downstream targets of EphA4 signaling in muscle: implications in the regulation of acetylcholinesterase expression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13383-92 pubmed
    ..Here we report a novel signaling pathway of EphA4, which involves activation of the tyrosine kinase Jak2 and the transcriptional activator Stat3...
  42. Bourgin C, Murai K, Richter M, Pasquale E. The EphA4 receptor regulates dendritic spine remodeling by affecting beta1-integrin signaling pathways. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:1295-307 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase regulates spine morphology in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, but the signaling pathways ..
  43. Fu W, Chen Y, Sahin M, Zhao X, Shi L, Bikoff J, et al. Cdk5 regulates EphA4-mediated dendritic spine retraction through an ephexin1-dependent mechanism. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:67-76 pubmed
    ..Dendritic spines are retracted upon Eph receptor A4 (EphA4) activation, but the mechanisms that control this process are not well understood...
  44. Murai K, Nguyen L, Irie F, Yamaguchi Y, Pasquale E. Control of hippocampal dendritic spine morphology through ephrin-A3/EphA4 signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:153-60 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a repulsive interaction that regulates postsynaptic morphology through the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand ephrin-A3...
  45. Beg A, Sommer J, Martin J, Scheiffele P. alpha2-Chimaerin is an essential EphA4 effector in the assembly of neuronal locomotor circuits. Neuron. 2007;55:768-78 pubmed
    ..We identified the neuronal RacGAP alpha2-chimaerin as an effector for the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA4. alpha2-Chimaerin interacts with activated EphA4 and is required for ephrin-induced growth cone collapse in ..
  46. Wegmeyer H, Egea J, Rabe N, Gezelius H, Filosa A, Enjin A, et al. EphA4-dependent axon guidance is mediated by the RacGAP alpha2-chimaerin. Neuron. 2007;55:756-67 pubmed
    ..We show that the Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein alpha2-chimaerin binds activated EphA4 and mediates EphA4-triggered axonal growth cone collapse...
  47. Sahin M, Greer P, Lin M, Poucher H, Eberhart J, Schmidt S, et al. Eph-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of ephexin1 modulates growth cone collapse. Neuron. 2005;46:191-204 pubmed
    ..The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ephexin1 interacts with EphA4 and has been suggested to mediate the effect of EphA on the activity of Rho GTPases, key regulators of the ..
  48. Yokoyama N, Romero M, Cowan C, Galvan P, Helmbacher F, Charnay P, et al. Forward signaling mediated by ephrin-B3 prevents contralateral corticospinal axons from recrossing the spinal cord midline. Neuron. 2001;29:85-97 pubmed
    ..Ephrin-B3 is concentrated at the spinal cord midline, while one of its receptors, EphA4, is expressed in postnatal corticospinal neurons as their fibers pathfind down the contralateral spinal cord...
  49. Xavier G, Miletich I, Cobourne M. Ephrin Ligands and Eph Receptors Show Regionally Restricted Expression in the Developing Palate and Tongue. Front Physiol. 2016;7:60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest regulatory roles for ephrin-EphA signaling in development of the murine palate and tongue. ..
  50. Mishra A, Knerr B, Paixão S, Kramer E, Klein R. The protein dendrite arborization and synapse maturation 1 (Dasm-1) is dispensable for dendrite arborization. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2782-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the dendrite arborization phenotype was caused by off-target effects and that Dasm-1 is dispensable for hippocampal dendrite arborization. ..
  51. Rossel M, Capecchi M. Mice mutant for both Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 show extensive remodeling of the hindbrain and defects in craniofacial development. Development. 1999;126:5027-40 pubmed
  52. Vivancos V, Chen P, Spassky N, Qian D, Dabdoub A, KELLEY M, et al. Wnt activity guides facial branchiomotor neuron migration, and involves the PCP pathway and JNK and ROCK kinases. Neural Dev. 2009;4:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecules of the PCP pathway and the JNK and ROCK kinases also play a role in the FBM migration and are likely mediators of Wnt signalling. ..
  53. Wilks A. Two putative protein-tyrosine kinases identified by application of the polymerase chain reaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1603-7 pubmed
    ..The PCR library was then screened by DNA sequencing for PTK-related sequences. Two sequences were identified that, on the basis of sequence comparison with known PTKs, may encode representatives of a new class of PTK. ..
  54. Swiatek P, Gridley T. Perinatal lethality and defects in hindbrain development in mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the zinc finger gene Krox20. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2071-84 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Krox20 plays an essential role during development of the hindbrain and associated cranial sensory ganglia in mice. ..
  55. Vermot J, Schuhbaur B, Le Mouellic H, McCaffery P, Garnier J, Hentsch D, et al. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and Hoxc8 are required in the murine brachial spinal cord for the specification of Lim1+ motoneurons and the correct distribution of Islet1+ motoneurons. Development. 2005;132:1611-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, interdependent RA signaling and Hox gene functions are required for the specification of brachial motoneurons in the mouse. ..
  56. Sällström J, Peuckert C, Gao X, Larsson E, Nilsson A, Jensen B, et al. Impaired EphA4 signaling leads to congenital hydronephrosis, renal injury, and hypertension. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetically modified mice, where the cytoplasmic domain of the EphA4 receptor has been substituted by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EphA4gf/gf), develop spontaneous ..
  57. Escalante A, Murillo B, Morenilla Palao C, Klar A, Herrera E. Zic2-dependent axon midline avoidance controls the formation of major ipsilateral tracts in the CNS. Neuron. 2013;80:1392-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Zic2 induces EphA4 expression in dorsospinal neurons to prevent midline crossing while Robo3 is downregulated to ensure that axons ..
  58. Sulman E, Tang X, Allen C, Biegel J, Pleasure D, Brodeur G, et al. ECK, a human EPH-related gene, maps to 1p36.1, a common region of alteration in human cancers. Genomics. 1997;40:371-4 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that ECK maps to 1p36.1, a region that is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma, melanoma, and other neuroectodermal tumors. ..