Enpp2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Enpp2
Description: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2
Alias: ATX, E-NPP 2, Npps2, PD-Ialpha, Pdnp2, lysoPLD, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 2, autotaxin, extracellular lysophospholipase D, phosphodiesterase I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Enpp2

Top Publications

  1. Koike S, Keino Masu K, Ohto T, Sugiyama F, Takahashi S, Masu M. Autotaxin/lysophospholipase D-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signaling is required to form distinctive large lysosomes in the visceral endoderm cells of the mouse yolk sac. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33561-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin, a lysophospholipase D encoded by the Enpp2 gene, is an exoenzyme that produces lysophosphatidic acid in the extracellular space...
  2. Inoue M, Ma L, Aoki J, Chun J, Ueda H. Autotaxin, a synthetic enzyme of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), mediates the induction of nerve-injured neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2008;4:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we attempted to clarify the involvement of a single synthetic enzyme of LPA known as autotaxin (ATX) in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain...
  3. Ferry G, Tellier E, Try A, Gres S, Naime I, Simon M, et al. Autotaxin is released from adipocytes, catalyzes lysophosphatidic acid synthesis, and activates preadipocyte proliferation. Up-regulated expression with adipocyte differentiation and obesity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18162-9 pubmed
    ..adipocyte-conditioned medium and identified as the type II ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase, autotaxin (ATX)...
  4. Pamuklar Z, Federico L, Liu S, Umezu Goto M, Dong A, Panchatcharam M, et al. Autotaxin/lysopholipase D and lysophosphatidic acid regulate murine hemostasis and thrombosis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic overexpression of autotaxin/lysophospholipase D (Enpp2), the enzyme necessary for production of the bulk of biologically active LPA in ..
  5. Kanda H, Newton R, Klein R, Morita Y, Gunn M, Rosen S. Autotaxin, an ectoenzyme that produces lysophosphatidic acid, promotes the entry of lymphocytes into secondary lymphoid organs. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:415-23 pubmed publisher
    The extracellular lysophospholipase D autotaxin (ATX) and its product, lysophosphatidic acid, have diverse functions in development and cancer, but little is known about their functions in the immune system...
  6. Boucher J, Quilliot D, Pradères J, Simon M, Gres S, Guigne C, et al. Potential involvement of adipocyte insulin resistance in obesity-associated up-regulation of adipocyte lysophospholipase D/autotaxin expression. Diabetologia. 2005;48:569-77 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin is a lysophospholipase D that is secreted by adipocytes and whose expression is substantially up-regulated in obese, diabetic db/db mice...
  7. Bächner D, Ahrens M, Schroder D, Hoffmann A, Lauber J, Betat N, et al. Bmp-2 downstream targets in mesenchymal development identified by subtractive cloning from recombinant mesenchymal progenitors (C3H10T1/2). Dev Dyn. 1998;213:398-411 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the membrane-standing glycoprotein autotaxin (ATX) is expressed, at precartilage condensations, joint regions, and during tooth development...
  8. Yukiura H, Hama K, Nakanaga K, Tanaka M, Asaoka Y, Okudaira S, et al. Autotaxin regulates vascular development via multiple lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43972-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a multifunctional ecto-type phosphodiesterase that converts lysophospholipids, such as lysophosphatidylcholine, to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by its lysophospholipase D activity...
  9. Nishimasu H, Okudaira S, Hama K, Mihara E, Dohmae N, Inoue A, et al. Crystal structure of autotaxin and insight into GPCR activation by lipid mediators. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:205-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX, also known as Enpp2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to generate lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled receptors to evoke various cellular ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Fotopoulou S, Oikonomou N, Grigorieva E, Nikitopoulou I, Paparountas T, Thanassopoulou A, et al. ATX expression and LPA signalling are vital for the development of the nervous system. Dev Biol. 2010;339:451-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted glycoprotein widely present in biological fluids, originally isolated from the supernatant of melanoma cells as an autocrine motility stimulation factor...
  2. Inoue M, Xie W, Matsushita Y, Chun J, Aoki J, Ueda H. Lysophosphatidylcholine induces neuropathic pain through an action of autotaxin to generate lysophosphatidic acid. Neuroscience. 2008;152:296-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), also known as lysolecithin, which is hydrolyzed by autotaxin/ATX into LPA, induces similar plastic changes...
  3. Tanaka M, Okudaira S, Kishi Y, Ohkawa R, Iseki S, Ota M, et al. Autotaxin stabilizes blood vessels and is required for embryonic vasculature by producing lysophosphatidic acid. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25822-30 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a cancer-associated motogen that has multiple biological activities in vitro through the production of bioactive small lipids, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX and LPA are abundantly present in circulating blood...
  4. van Meeteren L, Ruurs P, Stortelers C, Bouwman P, van Rooijen M, Pradere J, et al. Autotaxin, a secreted lysophospholipase D, is essential for blood vessel formation during development. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5015-22 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin (ATX), or nucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 2, is a secreted lysophospholipase D that promotes cell migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis...
  5. Takeda A, Kobayashi D, Aoi K, Sasaki N, Sugiura Y, Igarashi H, et al. Fibroblastic reticular cell-derived lysophosphatidic acid regulates confined intranodal T-cell motility. elife. 2016;5:e10561 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, either specific ablation of LPA-producing ectoenzyme autotaxin in FRCs or LPA2 deficiency in T cells markedly decreased intranodal T cell motility, and FRC-derived LPA ..
  6. Ferry G, Giganti A, Coge F, Bertaux F, Thiam K, Boutin J. Functional invalidation of the autotaxin gene by a single amino acid mutation in mouse is lethal. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3572-8 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin is a member of the phosphodiesterase family of enzymes, (NPP2). It is an important secreted protein found in conditioned medium from adipocytes. It also has a putative role in the metastatic process...
  7. Aikawa S, Kano K, Inoue A, Wang J, Saigusa D, Nagamatsu T, et al. Autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid-LPA3 signaling at the embryo-epithelial boundary controls decidualization pathways. EMBO J. 2017;36:2146-2160 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockout of Lpar3 or inhibition of the LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin (ATX) in pregnant mice leads to HB-EGF and COX-2 down-regulation near embryos and attenuates decidual reactions...
  8. Bächner D, Ahrens M, Betat N, Schroder D, Gross G. Developmental expression analysis of murine autotaxin (ATX). Mech Dev. 1999;84:121-5 pubmed
    The murine homologue of the human motility-stimulating protein autotaxin (ATX) was identified as a BMP2 upregulated gene by subtractive cloning from mesenchymal progenitors C3H10T1/2 (Bächner, D., Ahrens, M., Betat, N., Schröder, D...
  9. Zhang Y, Chen Y, Krummel M, Rosen S. Autotaxin through lysophosphatidic acid stimulates polarization, motility, and transendothelial migration of naive T cells. J Immunol. 2012;189:3914-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The transendothelial migration (TEM) step is poorly understood. Autotaxin (ATX) is an ectoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (..
  10. Grisanti L, Rezza A, Clavel C, Sennett R, Rendl M. Enpp2/Autotaxin in dermal papilla precursors is dispensable for hair follicle morphogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:2332-2339 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we validate Enpp2/Autotaxin as one of the highest expressed signature genes in postnatal DP, and demonstrate specific expression of this ..
  11. Ganguly K, Stoeger T, Wesselkamper S, Reinhard C, Sartor M, Medvedovic M, et al. Candidate genes controlling pulmonary function in mice: transcript profiling and predicted protein structure. Physiol Genomics. 2007;31:410-21 pubmed
    ..of trefoil factor 2 (TFF2; mCh 17: TLC and D(CO)), and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2; mCh 15: TLC and CL)...
  12. Katsifa A, Kaffe E, Nikolaidou Katsaridou N, Economides A, Newbigging S, McKerlie C, et al. The Bulk of Autotaxin Activity Is Dispensable for Adult Mouse Life. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143083 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalysing the production of lysophosphatidic acid, a pleiotropic growth factor-like lysophospholipid...
  13. Giganti A, Rodriguez M, Fould B, Moulharat N, Coge F, Chomarat P, et al. Murine and human autotaxin alpha, beta, and gamma isoforms: gene organization, tissue distribution, and biochemical characterization. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7776-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin is a type II ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase enzyme. It has been recently discovered that it also has a lysophospholipase D activity...
  14. Pradere J, Tarnus E, Gres S, Valet P, Saulnier Blache J. Secretion and lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin by adipocytes are controlled by N-glycosylation and signal peptidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:93-102 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a lysophospholipase D involved in synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is secreted by adipocytes and is associated with adipogenesis and obesity-associated diabetes...
  15. Williams T, Williams M, Kuick R, Misek D, McDonagh K, Hanash S, et al. Candidate downstream regulated genes of HOX group 13 transcription factors with and without monomeric DNA binding capability. Dev Biol. 2005;279:462-80 pubmed
    ..Among the genes strongly activated by HOXA13 were Enpp2, a bifunctional enzyme known to modulate tumor and normal cell motility and which is expressed in precartilaginous ..
  16. Zhao J, He D, Berdyshev E, Zhong M, Salgia R, Morris A, et al. Autotaxin induces lung epithelial cell migration through lysoPLD activity-dependent and -independent pathways. Biochem J. 2011;439:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present paper we hypothesize that secreted ATX (autotaxin), which exhibits lysoPLD (lysophospholipase D) activity, stimulates lung epithelial cell migration through LPA (..
  17. Shelton E, Galindo C, Williams C, Pfaltzgraff E, Hong C, Bader D. Autotaxin signaling governs phenotypic heterogeneity in visceral and parietal mesothelia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69712 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene profiling determined that autotaxin, a secreted lysophospholipase D originally discovered as a tumor cell-motility-stimulating factor, was expressed ..
  18. Shaut C, Keene D, Sorensen L, Li D, Stadler H. HOXA13 Is essential for placental vascular patterning and labyrinth endothelial specification. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000073 pubmed publisher
  19. Ohuchi H, Hamada A, Matsuda H, Takagi A, Tanaka M, Aoki J, et al. Expression patterns of the lysophospholipid receptor genes during mouse early development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3280-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that multiple receptor systems for LPA/S1P lysophospholipids may be functioning during organogenesis. ..
  20. Oikonomou N, Mouratis M, Tzouvelekis A, Kaffe E, Valavanis C, Vilaras G, et al. Pulmonary autotaxin expression contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47:566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, increased concentrations of autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2), the enzyme largely responsible for extracellular LPA production, were detected in both murine and ..
  21. Nikitopoulou I, Oikonomou N, Karouzakis E, Sevastou I, Nikolaidou Katsaridou N, Zhao Z, et al. Autotaxin expression from synovial fibroblasts is essential for the pathogenesis of modeled arthritis. J Exp Med. 2012;209:925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..study shows that activated arthritic SFs from human patients and animal models express significant quantities of autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2), a lysophospholipase D that catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic ..
  22. Piao J, Matsuda Y, Nakamura H, Sano K. Assignment of Pdnp2, the gene encoding phosphodiesterase I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase 2, to mouse chromosome 15D2. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1999;87:172-4 pubmed
    We have isolated cDNA and genomic DNA encoding mouse PDNP2 (PD-Ialpha). The mouse Pdnp2 cDNA contains a 2,589-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 863 amino acids...
  23. Song J, Clair T, Noh J, Eun J, Ryu S, Lee S, et al. Autotaxin (lysoPLD/NPP2) protects fibroblasts from apoptosis through its enzymatic product, lysophosphatidic acid, utilizing albumin-bound substrate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:967-75 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) was originally identified as a potent tumor cell motility-stimulating factor that displays multiple enzymatic activities including ATPase, Type I nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, and lysophospholipase D, ..
  24. Benesch M, Tang X, Dewald J, Dong W, Mackey J, Hemmings D, et al. Tumor-induced inflammation in mammary adipose tissue stimulates a vicious cycle of autotaxin expression and breast cancer progression. FASEB J. 2015;29:3990-4000 pubmed publisher
    Compared to normal tissues, many cancer cells overexpress autotaxin (ATX). This secreted enzyme produces extracellular lysophosphatidate, which signals through 6 GPCRs to drive cancer progression...
  25. Castelino F, Bain G, Pace V, Black K, George L, Probst C, et al. An Autotaxin/Lysophosphatidic Acid/Interleukin-6 Amplification Loop Drives Scleroderma Fibrosis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:2964-2974 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify the role of the LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin (ATX), and to connect the ATX/LPA and interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathways in SSc...
  26. Furuta D, Yamane M, Tsujiuchi T, Moriyama R, Fukushima N. Lysophosphatidic acid induces neurite branch formation through LPA3. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;50:21-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the novel signaling pathway involving LPA(3), G(q), and Rnd2 may play an important role in neuronal network formation. ..
  27. Dusaulcy R, Rancoule C, Gres S, Wanecq E, Colom A, Guigne C, et al. Adipose-specific disruption of autotaxin enhances nutritional fattening and reduces plasma lysophosphatidic acid. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1247-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is secreted by adipose tissue and its expression is enhanced in obese/insulin-resistant individuals...
  28. Yukiura H, Kano K, Kise R, Inoue A, Aoki J. Autotaxin overexpression causes embryonic lethality and vascular defects. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0126734 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a secretory protein, which converts lysophospholipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is essential for embryonic vascular formation...
  29. Billon Denis E, Tanfin Z, Robin P. Role of lysophosphatidic acid in the regulation of uterine leiomyoma cell proliferation by phospholipase D and autotaxin. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:295-307 pubmed
    ..b>Autotaxin (ATX), a naturally occurring lysoPLD, reproduced the effects of scPLD...
  30. Narita M, Goji J, Nakamura H, Sano K. Molecular cloning, expression, and localization of a brain-specific phosphodiesterase I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase (PD-I alpha) from rat brain. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:28235-42 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that this protein might be involved in the synthesis of adenosine as well as in the regulation of the secretion/transport of epithelial cells and glial cells in the central nervous system. ..
  31. Corcoran D, Feingold E, Dominick J, Wright M, Harnaha J, Trucco M, et al. Footer: a quantitative comparative genomics method for efficient recognition of cis-regulatory elements. Genome Res. 2005;15:840-7 pubmed
    ..Our algorithm also successfully predicted two novel NF-kappaB binding sites in the promoter region of the mouse autotaxin gene (ATX, ENPP2), which we were able to verify by using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay coupled with ..
  32. Ohuchi H, Hayashibara Y, Hayashibaral Y, Matsuda H, Onoi M, Mitsumori M, et al. Diversified expression patterns of autotaxin, a gene for phospholipid-generating enzyme during mouse and chicken development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1134-43 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin (ATX), or nucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 2, is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates bioactive phospholipids that act on G protein-coupled receptors...
  33. Guo X, Day T, Jiang X, Garrett Beal L, Topol L, Yang Y. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is sufficient and necessary for synovial joint formation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2404-17 pubmed
    ..Wnt4, Wnt14, and Wnt16 may play redundant roles in synovial joint induction by signaling through the beta-catenin-mediated canonical Wnt pathway. ..
  34. Hozumi H, Hokari R, Kurihara C, Narimatsu K, Sato H, Sato S, et al. Involvement of autotaxin/lysophospholipase D expression in intestinal vessels in aggravation of intestinal damage through lymphocyte migration. Lab Invest. 2013;93:508-19 pubmed publisher
    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has a critical role in lymphocyte migration to secondary lymphoid organs. Autotaxin (ATX)/lysophospholipase D, in the vascular endothelium, is the main enzyme involved in LPA production...
  35. Nishimura S, Nagasaki M, Okudaira S, Aoki J, Ohmori T, Ohkawa R, et al. ENPP2 contributes to adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity. Diabetes. 2014;63:4154-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we show that nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2, autotaxin) is an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that controls adipose expansion, brown adipose tissue (BAT) function, ..
  36. Haraguchi S, Tsuda M, Kitajima S, Sasaoka Y, Nomura Kitabayashid A, Kurokawa K, et al. nanos1: a mouse nanos gene expressed in the central nervous system is dispensable for normal development. Mech Dev. 2003;120:721-31 pubmed
    ..The nanos1 -deficient mice develop to term without any detectable abnormality and they are fertile. No significant neural defect is observed in terms of their behavior to date. ..
  37. David M, Wannecq E, Descotes F, Jansen S, Deux B, Ribeiro J, et al. Cancer cell expression of autotaxin controls bone metastasis formation in mouse through lysophosphatidic acid-dependent activation of osteoclasts. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9741 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Autotaxin (ATX/NPP2) is a secreted protein with both oncogenic and pro-metastatic properties...
  38. Itoh R, Miura S, Takimoto A, Kondo S, Sano H, Hiraki Y. Stimulatory actions of lysophosphatidic acid on mouse ATDC5 chondroprogenitor cells. J Bone Miner Metab. 2010;28:659-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that LPA plays an important role in the activation of chondroprogenitor cells. ..
  39. Koike S, Keino Masu K, Masu M. Deficiency of autotaxin/lysophospholipase D results in head cavity formation in mouse embryos through the LPA receptor-Rho-ROCK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:66-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin, encoded by the Enpp2 gene, generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) extracellularly, eliciting various cellular responses through specific LPA receptors. Previous studies have revealed that Enpp2(-/-) mice die at E9...
  40. Bai Z, Cai L, Umemoto E, Takeda A, Tohya K, Komai Y, et al. Constitutive lymphocyte transmigration across the basal lamina of high endothelial venules is regulated by the autotaxin/lysophosphatidic acid axis. J Immunol. 2013;190:2036-48 pubmed publisher
    ..we report that lymphocyte transmigration across the basal lamina of the HEVs is regulated, at least in part, by autotaxin (ATX) and its end-product, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)...
  41. Benesch M, Ko Y, Tang X, Dewald J, Lopez Campistrous A, Zhao Y, et al. Autotaxin is an inflammatory mediator and therapeutic target in thyroid cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015;22:593-607 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin is a secreted enzyme that converts extracellular lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidate (LPA). In cancers, LPA increases tumour growth, metastasis and chemoresistance by activating six G-protein coupled receptors...
  42. Sioletic S, Czaplinski J, Hu L, Fletcher J, Fletcher C, Wagner A, et al. c-Jun promotes cell migration and drives expression of the motility factor ENPP2 in soft tissue sarcomas. J Pathol. 2014;234:190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that high levels of c-Jun enhance motility in part by driving the expression of ENPP2/Autotaxin. c-Jun over-expression has minimal effects on in vitro proliferation but substantially enhances the in vivo ..
  43. Sun S, Zhang X, Lyu L, Li X, Yao S, Zhang J. Autotaxin Expression Is Regulated at the Post-transcriptional Level by the RNA-binding Proteins HuR and AUF1. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:25823-25836 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a key enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lysophospholipid mediator that regulates cellular activities through its specific G protein-coupled receptors...
  44. Jansen S, Stefan C, Creemers J, Waelkens E, Van Eynde A, Stalmans W, et al. Proteolytic maturation and activation of autotaxin (NPP2), a secreted metastasis-enhancing lysophospholipase D. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3081-9 pubmed
    b>Autotaxin (NPP2) is an extracellular protein that is upregulated in various malignancies, including breast and lung cancer...
  45. Balogh A, Shimizu Y, Lee S, Norman D, Gangwar R, Bavaria M, et al. The autotaxin-LPA2 GPCR axis is modulated by γ-irradiation and facilitates DNA damage repair. Cell Signal. 2015;27:1751-62 pubmed publisher
    In this study we characterized the effects of radiation injury on the expression and function of the autotaxin (ATX)-LPA2 GPCR axis...
  46. Panchatcharam M, Salous A, Brandon J, Miriyala S, Wheeler J, Patil P, et al. Mice with targeted inactivation of ppap2b in endothelial and hematopoietic cells display enhanced vascular inflammation and permeability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:837-45 pubmed publisher
    ..by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of either LPA production by the circulating lysophospholipase D autotaxin or of G-protein-coupled receptor-dependent LPA signaling...
  47. Knowlden S, Georas S. The autotaxin-LPA axis emerges as a novel regulator of lymphocyte homing and inflammation. J Immunol. 2014;192:851-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A key discovery was that autotaxin (ATX), an enzyme previously implicated in cancer cell motility, generates extracellular LPA from the precursor ..
  48. Sallinen R, Kuang W, Engvall E, Palotie A, Wessman M, Horelli Kuitunen N. Assignment of laminin alpha 2-chain gene (Lama2) to mouse chromosome 10A4-B1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1999;87:195-6 pubmed
  49. Cheng H, Dong A, Panchatcharam M, Mueller P, Yang F, Li Z, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid signaling protects pulmonary vasculature from hypoxia-induced remodeling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:24-32 pubmed publisher
    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule produced by the plasma lysophospholipase D enzyme autotaxin that is present at ?100 nmol/L in plasma. Local administration of LPA promotes systemic arterial remodeling in rodents...
  50. Kime C, Sakaki Yumoto M, Goodrich L, Hayashi Y, Sami S, Derynck R, et al. Autotaxin-mediated lipid signaling intersects with LIF and BMP signaling to promote the naive pluripotency transcription factor program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:12478-12483 pubmed
    ..bypassed the need for exogenous LPA by increasing the activity of the extracellular LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin (ATX)...
  51. Ohuchi H, Fukui H, Matsuyo A, Tomonari S, Tanaka M, Arai H, et al. Autotaxin controls caudal diencephalon-mesencephalon development in the chick. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2647-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we focus on the role of Autotaxin (ATX), a lysophospholipid-generating exoenzyme, whose mRNA is detected in the caudal diencephalon...
  52. Kaffe E, Katsifa A, Xylourgidis N, Ninou I, Zannikou M, Harokopos V, et al. Hepatocyte autotaxin expression promotes liver fibrosis and cancer. Hepatology. 2017;65:1369-1383 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that catalyzes the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic growth-factor-like lysophospholipid...
  53. Hino K, Horigome K, Nishio M, Komura S, Nagata S, Zhao C, et al. Activin-A enhances mTOR signaling to promote aberrant chondrogenesis in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3339-3352 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we identified ENPP2, an enzyme that generates lysophosphatidic acid, as a linker of FOP-ACVR1 and mTOR signaling in chondrogenesis...
  54. Awada R, Saulnier Blache J, Grès S, Bourdon E, Rondeau P, Parimisetty A, et al. Autotaxin downregulates LPS-induced microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. J Cell Biochem. 2014;115:2123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Autotaxin (ATX), a phospholipase D, converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and is ..
  55. Koike S, Yutoh Y, Keino Masu K, Noji S, Masu M, Ohuchi H. Autotaxin is required for the cranial neural tube closure and establishment of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary during mouse development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:413-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a lysophospholipid-generating exoenzyme expressed in embryonic and adult neural tissues...
  56. Nakasaki T, Tanaka T, Okudaira S, Hirosawa M, Umemoto E, Otani K, et al. Involvement of the lysophosphatidic acid-generating enzyme autotaxin in lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1566-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted protein with lysophospholipase D activity that generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine...
  57. Benesch M, Zhao Y, Curtis J, McMullen T, Brindley D. Regulation of autotaxin expression and secretion by lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:1134-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme, which produces extracellular lysophosphatidate (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)...
  58. Greenman R, Gorelik A, Sapir T, Baumgart J, Zamor V, Segal Salto M, et al. Non-cell autonomous and non-catalytic activities of ATX in the developing brain. Front Neurosci. 2015;9:53 pubmed publisher
    ..A non-biased screen allowed us to identify Autotaxin (ATX) as a non-cell autonomous regulator of neural stem cells...
  59. Nagai J, Ueda H. Pre-emptive morphine treatment abolishes nerve injury-induced lysophospholipid synthesis in mass spectrometrical analysis. J Neurochem. 2011;118:256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..and dorsal root were maximally increased at 75 min after SCNI and then declined, as LPC is converted to LPA by autotaxin (ATX)...
  60. Ahn J, Lee K, Shin D, Shim J, Kim C, Kim H, et al. Temporal expression changes during differentiation of neural stem cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cell. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:563-78 pubmed
    ..D2, and CDK4 were highly expressed in CNS germinal zones and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) was highly expressed in choroid plexus where stem/progenitor cells are possibly located...
  61. Tsuboi K, Okamoto Y, Rahman I, Uyama T, Inoue T, Tokumura A, et al. Glycerophosphodiesterase GDE4 as a novel lysophospholipase D: a possible involvement in bioactive N-acylethanolamine biosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851:537-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that mouse brain has a lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity hydrolyzing N-acylethanolamine lysophospholipids to N-acylethanolamines and that this activity could be ..
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    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an important mediator of pulmonary fibrosis. In blood and multiple tumor types, autotaxin produces LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) via lysophospholipase D activity, but alternative enzymatic pathways ..
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    ..of cultured primary brown adipocyte precursors, whereas potent selective inhibitors of the LPA-generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX) promote differentiation...