Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: endothelin 2
Description: endothelin 2
Alias: ET-2, PPET2, VIC, endothelin-2, preproendothelin-2, vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide
Products: endothelin 2
- Ko C, Gieske M, Al Alem L, Hahn Y, Su W, Gong M, et al. Endothelin-2 in ovarian follicle rupture. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1770-9 pubmed..As a target tissue of EDN2 action, we identified a layer of smooth muscle cells in the follicular wall of each follicle. Taken together, our data indicate that EDN2 induces follicular rupture by constricting periovulatory follicles. ..
- Saida K, Hashimoto M, Mitsui Y, Ishida N, Uchide T. The prepro vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 gene (EDN2): structure, evolution, production, and embryonic expression. Genomics. 2000;64:51-61 pubmedMurine vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) and its human analog endothelin-2 (ET2) are potent vasoactive hormones composed of 21 amino acids...
- Uchide T, Masuda H, Mitsui Y, Saida K. Gene expression of vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 in ovary, uterus and embryo: comprehensive gene expression profiles of the endothelin ligand-receptor system revealed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactio. J Mol Endocrinol. 1999;22:161-71 pubmedVasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 (ET-2) is a 21 amino acid intestinal peptide characterized as a potent vasoactive and intestinal smooth muscle-contracting compound...
- Takizawa S, Uchide T, Adur J, Kozakai T, Kotake Nara E, Quan J, et al. Differential expression of endothelin-2 along the mouse intestinal tract. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;35:201-9 pubmed..These results suggest that in intestinal epithelial cells ET-2 could be secreted into the lamina propria and the dome region in Peyer's patch, and that it might modulate immune cells in these sites for mucosal defense. ..
- Rattner A, Yu H, Williams J, Smallwood P, Nathans J. Endothelin-2 signaling in the neural retina promotes the endothelial tip cell state and inhibits angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3830-9 pubmed publisher..The response to Edn2 is sufficiently potent that it overrides the activities of other homeostatic regulators of angiogenesis, such as Vegf. ..
- Makita T, Sucov H, Gariepy C, Yanagisawa M, Ginty D. Endothelins are vascular-derived axonal guidance cues for developing sympathetic neurons. Nature. 2008;452:759-63 pubmed publisher..Moreover, they suggest a model in which newborn sympathetic neurons distinguish and choose between distinct vascular trajectories to innervate their appropriate end organs. ..
- Howell G, Macalinao D, Sousa G, Walden M, Soto I, Kneeland S, et al. Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucoma. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1429-44 pubmed publisher..Since endothelin 2 is potently vasoconstrictive and was produced by microglia/macrophages, our data provide what we believe to be ..
- Kotake Nara E, Takizawa S, Saida K. Endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor via ROCK regulates transglutaminase 1 on differentiation of mouse keratinocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:168-73 pubmedWe previously found that endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor (ET-2/VIC) greatly increased in mouse epidermis after birth...
- Bianchi M, Adur J, Takizawa S, Saida K, Casco V. Endothelin system in intestinal villi: A possible role of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor in the maintenance of intestinal architecture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:1113-8 pubmed publisher..In mice ET-2 counterpart is a peptide originally called "vasoactive intestinal contractor" (VIC) for this reason, this peptide is frequently named ET-2/VIC...
- Chang I, Bramall A, Baynash A, Rattner A, Rakheja D, Post M, et al. Endothelin-2 deficiency causes growth retardation, hypothermia, and emphysema in mice. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2643-53 pubmed publisher..Together, these findings reveal that ET-2 is critical for the growth and survival of postnatal mice and plays important roles in energy homeostasis, thermoregulation, and the maintenance of lung morphology and function...
- Braunger B, Ohlmann A, Koch M, Tanimoto N, Volz C, Yang Y, et al. Constitutive overexpression of Norrin activates Wnt/?-catenin and endothelin-2 signaling to protect photoreceptors from light damage. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;50:1-12 pubmed publisher..The findings suggest that Norrin and its associated signaling pathways have strong potentials to attenuate photoreceptor death following injury. ..
- Bramall A, Szego M, Pacione L, Chang I, Diez E, D Orléans Juste P, et al. Endothelin-2-mediated protection of mutant photoreceptors in inherited photoreceptor degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58023 pubmed publisher..Our findings indicate that the increased expression of PR Edn2 increases PR survival, and suggest that the Edn2-dependent increase in PR expression of FGF2 may contribute to the augmented survival. ..
- Na G, Bridges P, Koo Y, Ko C. Role of hypoxia in the regulation of periovulatory EDN2 expression in the mouse. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:310-9 pubmed publisher..Treatment with RU-486 or indomethacin did not affect expression of mRNA for Edn2 (p>0.05). Taken together, we believe that hypoxia, but not the PR or COX-2, regulate gonadotropin-induced EDN2 expression in the periovulatory follicle. ..
- Kozakai T, Sakate M, Masuo Y, Uchide T, Saida K. Increased gene expression of endothelin-1 and vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 in the mammary gland of lactating mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:1339-43 pubmedIn an attempt to understand the roles of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 (VIC/ET-2), we have studied the genes for both peptides to be expressed in the mammary gland of lactating mice...
- Cacioppo J, Oh S, Kim H, Cho J, Lin P, Yanagisawa M, et al. Loss of function of endothelin-2 leads to reduced ovulation and CL formation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96115 pubmed publisher..Endothelin receptor antagonism in wild type mice similarly disrupted ovulation, CL formation, and progesterone secretion. Overall, this study suggests that EDN2 is necessary for normal ovulation and CL formation. ..
- Masuo Y, Ishikawa Y, Kozakai T, Uchide T, Komatsu Y, Saida K. Vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 gene expression in the murine central nervous system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:661-8 pubmedVasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) is a member of the endothelin (ET) family. We have investigated the regional distribution of VIC/ET-2 and of ET-1 gene expression in the adult murine brain and pituitary gland...
- Reid K, Turnley A, Maxwell G, Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Bartlett P, et al. Multiple roles for endothelin in melanocyte development: regulation of progenitor number and stimulation of differentiation. Development. 1996;122:3911-9 pubmed..These findings indicate two key roles for endothelin in melanocyte development: regulation of expansion of the progenitor pool and differentiation of progenitors into mature melanocytes. ..
- Leis H, Zach D, Huber E, Windischhofer W. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 contributes to the endothelin/sarafotoxin-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis in mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1): evidence for a protein tyrosine kinase-signaling pathway and involvement of protein kinase C. Endocrinology. 1998;139:1268-77 pubmed..We conclude that in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, ET-1, ET-2, beta-ET, S6b, and S6a peptides induce PGHS-2 through a protein tyrosine kinase-dependent and protein kinase C-dependent pathway, signaling through ET(A) receptor occupancy. ..
- Howell G, MacNicoll K, Braine C, Soto I, Macalinao D, Sousa G, et al. Combinatorial targeting of early pathways profoundly inhibits neurodegeneration in a mouse model of glaucoma. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;71:44-52 pubmed publisher..We discover that endothelin 2 (EDN2) is expressed in astrocytes as well as microglia/monocytes in the ONH...
- Saida K, Mitsui Y. cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and tissue distribution of a precursor for vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1089:404-6 pubmed..From the deduced 160 amino acid PPVIC, the mature VIC is predicted to be produced via a 37 residue intermediate, big VIC...
- Tanese K, Fukuma M, Ishiko A, Sakamoto M. Endothelin-2 is upregulated in basal cell carcinoma under control of Hedgehog signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:486-91 pubmed publisher..8kb downstream fragment containing GLI-binding sites activates transcription in a reporter assay. These data indicate that ET-2 is a direct target gene of HH signaling in BCC. ..
- Uchide T, Fujimori Y, Sasaki T, Temma K, Adur J, Masuo Y, et al. Expression of endothelin-1 and vasoactive intestinal contractor genes in mouse organs during the perinatal period. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;103 Suppl 48:167S-170S pubmedIn an attempt to understand the significance of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/ET-2 peptides in organs during perinatal development, we performed quantitative analysis of ET-1 and VIC gene expression in ..
- Maemura K, Kurihara H, Kurihara Y, Kuwaki T, Kumada M, Yazaki Y. Gene expression of endothelin isoforms and receptors in endothelin-1 knockout mice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1995;26 Suppl 3:S17-21 pubmed..Neither compensation by redundant expression of other ET isoforms nor upregulation of ET receptors could explain the elevated blood pressure in Edn1+/- heterozygous mice. ..
- Saida K, Mitsui Y, Ishida N. A novel peptide, vasoactive intestinal contractor, of a new (endothelin) peptide family. Molecular cloning, expression, and biological activity. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:14613-6 pubmed..Furthermore, the peptide evoked a strong contractile response in the guinea pig ileum. This peptide may thus be reasonably classified as a gastrointestinal peptide, vasoactive intestinal contractor. ..
- Reinholdt L, Howell G, Czechanski A, Macalinao D, MacNicoll K, Lin C, et al. Generating embryonic stem cells from the inbred mouse strain DBA/2J, a model of glaucoma and other complex diseases. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50081 pubmed publisher..We also demonstrate the utility of DBA/2J ES cells with the creation of conditional knockout allele for Endothelin-2 (Edn2) directly on the DBA/2J strain background...
- Manousiouthakis E, Mendez M, Garner M, Exertier P, Makita T. Venous endothelin guides sympathetic innervation of the developing mouse heart. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3918 pubmed publisher..Our findings present venous Edn1 as a sympathetic guidance cue, and show how axon guidance mechanisms are coordinated with endorgan morphogenesis. ..
- Cheluvappa R, Eri R, Luo A, Grimm M. Endothelin and vascular remodelling in colitis pathogenesis--appendicitis and appendectomy limit colitis by suppressing endothelin pathways. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2014;29:1321-8 pubmed publisher..Elucidating the pathways involved in suppression of endothelin activity and manipulation of different genes/enzymes/proteins related to endothelin activity will significantly enhance the extant repertoire of therapeutic options in IBD. ..
- Bloch K, Hong C, Eddy R, Shows T, Quertermous T. cDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment of the endothelin 2 gene: vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide is rat endothelin 2. Genomics. 1991;10:236-42 pubmed..human endothelins 1, 2, and 3 (ET1, ET2, and ET3, respectively) and mouse vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)...
- Saida K, Kometani N, Uchide T, Mitsui Y. Sequence analysis and expression of the mouse full-length vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 gene (EDN2): comparison with the endothelin-1 gene (EDN1). Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;103 Suppl 48:84S-89S pubmedVasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 (ET2) is a vasoactive peptide hormone comprising 21 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequence of the full-length gene encoding preproVIC (PPVIC) was determined...
- Patel C, Narayanan S, Zhang W, Xu Z, Sukumari Ramesh S, Dhandapani K, et al. Activation of the endothelin system mediates pathological angiogenesis during ischemic retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:3040-51 pubmed publisher..EDN2 also induced VEGFA protein expression in cultured astrocytes. In conclusion, inhibition of the EDNRA during OIR suppresses pathological NV and promotes physiological angiogenesis. ..
- Binz N, Rakoczy E, Ali Rahman I, Vagaja N, Lai C. Biomarkers for Diabetic Retinopathy - Could Endothelin 2 Be Part of the Answer?. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0160442 pubmed publisher..05). These results demonstrated that long-term hyperglycaemia in conjunction with VEGF-driven RNV increased Edn2 serum concentration suggesting Edn2 might be a candidate biomarker for vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy. ..
- Chang C, Pasolli H, Giannopoulou E, Guasch G, Gronostajski R, Elemento O, et al. NFIB is a governor of epithelial-melanocyte stem cell behaviour in a shared niche. Nature. 2013;495:98-102 pubmed publisher..chromatin-immunoprecipitation with high-throughput-sequencing and transcriptional profiling, we identify endothelin 2 (Edn2) as an NFIB target aberrantly activated in NFIB-deficient hair follicle stem cells...