Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: endothelin 2
Description: endothelin 2
Alias: ET-2, PPET2, VIC, endothelin-2, preproendothelin-2, vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide
- Endothelin-2 in ovarian follicle ruptureChemyong Ko
Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 40536, USA
Endocrinology 147:1770-9. 2006..As a target tissue of EDN2 action, we identified a layer of smooth muscle cells in the follicular wall of each follicle. Taken together, our data indicate that EDN2 induces follicular rupture by constricting periovulatory follicles...
- Endothelin-2-mediated protection of mutant photoreceptors in inherited photoreceptor degenerationAlexa N Bramall
Program in Developmental Biology, The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
PLoS ONE 8:e58023. 2013..Our findings indicate that the increased expression of PR Edn2 increases PR survival, and suggest that the Edn2-dependent increase in PR expression of FGF2 may contribute to the augmented survival...
- Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucomaGareth R Howell
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
J Clin Invest 121:1429-44. 2011..Since endothelin 2 is potently vasoconstrictive and was produced by microglia/macrophages, our data provide what we believe to be ..
- Endothelin system in intestinal villi: A possible role of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor in the maintenance of intestinal architectureMariana Bianchi
Microscopy Laboratory Applied to Cellular and Molecular Studies, Bioengineering and Bioinformatic School, National University of Entre Ríos, Ruta 11, KM 10, 3101 Oro Verde, Entre Rios, Argentina
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 417:1113-8. 2012..In mice ET-2 counterpart is a peptide originally called "vasoactive intestinal contractor" (VIC) for this reason, this peptide is frequently named ET-2/VIC...
- Role of hypoxia in the regulation of periovulatory EDN2 expression in the mouseGiyoun Na
Division of Clinical and Reproductive Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
Can J Physiol Pharmacol 86:310-9. 2008..Treatment with RU-486 or indomethacin did not affect expression of mRNA for Edn2 (p>0.05). Taken together, we believe that hypoxia, but not the PR or COX-2, regulate gonadotropin-induced EDN2 expression in the periovulatory follicle...
- Constitutive overexpression of Norrin activates Wnt/β-catenin and endothelin-2 signaling to protect photoreceptors from light damageBarbara M Braunger
Institute of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr 31, D 93053 Regensburg, Germany
Neurobiol Dis 50:1-12. 2013..The findings suggest that Norrin and its associated signaling pathways have strong potentials to attenuate photoreceptor death following injury...
- Endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor via ROCK regulates transglutaminase 1 on differentiation of mouse keratinocytesEiichi Kotake-Nara
Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 6, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 357:168-73. 2007We previously found that endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor (ET-2/VIC) greatly increased in mouse epidermis after birth...
- Differential expression of endothelin-2 along the mouse intestinal tractSatoshi Takizawa
Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
J Mol Endocrinol 35:201-9. 2005..These results suggest that in intestinal epithelial cells ET-2 could be secreted into the lamina propria and the dome region in Peyer's patch, and that it might modulate immune cells in these sites for mucosal defense...
- Endothelin-2 deficiency causes growth retardation, hypothermia, and emphysema in miceInik Chang
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8584, USA
J Clin Invest 123:2643-53. 2013..Together, these findings reveal that ET-2 is critical for the growth and survival of postnatal mice and plays important roles in energy homeostasis, thermoregulation, and the maintenance of lung morphology and function...
- The prepro vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 gene (EDN2): structure, evolution, production, and embryonic expressionK Saida
National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 8566, Japan
Genomics 64:51-61. 2000Murine vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) and its human analog endothelin-2 (ET2) are potent vasoactive hormones composed of 21 amino acids...
- Gene expression of vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 in ovary, uterus and embryo: comprehensive gene expression profiles of the endothelin ligand-receptor system revealed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction anaT Uchide
National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
J Mol Endocrinol 22:161-71. 1999Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 (ET-2) is a 21 amino acid intestinal peptide characterized as a potent vasoactive and intestinal smooth muscle-contracting compound...
- Endothelin-2 signaling in the neural retina promotes the endothelial tip cell state and inhibits angiogenesisAmir Rattner
Departments of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Neuroscience, and Ophthalmology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E3830-9. 2013..The response to Edn2 is sufficiently potent that it overrides the activities of other homeostatic regulators of angiogenesis, such as Vegf. ..
- Loss of function of endothelin-2 leads to reduced ovulation and CL formationJoseph A Cacioppo
Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois, United States of America
PLoS ONE 9:e96115. 2014..Endothelin receptor antagonism in wild type mice similarly disrupted ovulation, CL formation, and progesterone secretion. Overall, this study suggests that EDN2 is necessary for normal ovulation and CL formation. ..
- Endothelin and vascular remodelling in colitis pathogenesis--appendicitis and appendectomy limit colitis by suppressing endothelin pathwaysRajkumar Cheluvappa
Department of Medicine, St George Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Int J Colorectal Dis 29:1321-8. 2014..Using the first murine model of AA (developed by us), we aimed to determine the role of AA in modulating vascular remodelling mediated by endothelin activity in IBD...
- Combinatorial targeting of early pathways profoundly inhibits neurodegeneration in a mouse model of glaucomaGareth R Howell
The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME, USA Electronic address
Neurobiol Dis 71:44-52. 2014..We discover that endothelin 2 (EDN2) is expressed in astrocytes as well as microglia/monocytes in the ONH...
- Activation of the endothelin system mediates pathological angiogenesis during ischemic retinopathyChintan Patel
Vascular Biology Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia College of Allied Health Sciences, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia
Am J Pathol 184:3040-51. 2014..EDN2 also induced VEGFA protein expression in cultured astrocytes. In conclusion, inhibition of the EDNRA during OIR suppresses pathological NV and promotes physiological angiogenesis. ..
- NFIB is a governor of epithelial-melanocyte stem cell behaviour in a shared nicheChiung Ying Chang
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
Nature 495:98-102. 2013..chromatin-immunoprecipitation with high-throughput-sequencing and transcriptional profiling, we identify endothelin 2 (Edn2) as an NFIB target aberrantly activated in NFIB-deficient hair follicle stem cells...
- Generating embryonic stem cells from the inbred mouse strain DBA/2J, a model of glaucoma and other complex diseasesLaura G Reinholdt
The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e50081. 2012..We also demonstrate the utility of DBA/2J ES cells with the creation of conditional knockout allele for Endothelin-2 (Edn2) directly on the DBA/2J strain background...
- Endothelins are vascular-derived axonal guidance cues for developing sympathetic neuronsTakako Makita
The Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Nature 452:759-63. 2008..Moreover, they suggest a model in which newborn sympathetic neurons distinguish and choose between distinct vascular trajectories to innervate their appropriate end organs...
- Endothelin-2 is upregulated in basal cell carcinoma under control of Hedgehog signaling pathwayKeiji Tanese
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 391:486-91. 2010..8kb downstream fragment containing GLI-binding sites activates transcription in a reporter assay. These data indicate that ET-2 is a direct target gene of HH signaling in BCC...
- cDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment of the endothelin 2 gene: vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide is rat endothelin 2K D Bloch
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
Genomics 10:236-42. 1991..human endothelins 1, 2, and 3 (ET1, ET2, and ET3, respectively) and mouse vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)...
- Vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 gene expression in the murine central nervous systemYoshinori Masuo
International Patent Organism Depositary, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Tsukuba Central 6, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 300:661-8. 2003Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) is a member of the endothelin (ET) family. We have investigated the regional distribution of VIC/ET-2 and of ET-1 gene expression in the adult murine brain and pituitary gland...
- Increased gene expression of endothelin-1 and vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 in the mammary gland of lactating miceTakaharu Kozakai
Laboratory of Gene Function Analysis, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Central 6, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305 8566, Ibaraki, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:1339-43. 2002In an attempt to understand the roles of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 (VIC/ET-2), we have studied the genes for both peptides to be expressed in the mammary gland of lactating mice...
- Expression of endothelin-1 and vasoactive intestinal contractor genes in mouse organs during the perinatal periodTsuyoshi Uchide
Department of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, 35 1, Higashi 23 bancho, Towada, Aomori 034 8628, Japan
Clin Sci (Lond) 103:167S-170S. 2002In an attempt to understand the significance of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/ET-2 peptides in organs during perinatal development, we performed quantitative analysis of ET-1 and VIC gene expression in ..
- Sequence analysis and expression of the mouse full-length vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 gene (EDN2): comparison with the endothelin-1 gene (EDN1)Kaname Saida
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
Clin Sci (Lond) 103:84S-89S. 2002Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 (ET2) is a vasoactive peptide hormone comprising 21 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequence of the full-length gene encoding preproVIC (PPVIC) was determined...
- Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 contributes to the endothelin/sarafotoxin-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis in mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1): evidence for a protein tyrosine kinase-signaling pathway and involvement of protein kinase CH J Leis
University Children s Hospital, Department of Biochemical Analysis and Mass Spectrometry, University of Graz, Austria
Endocrinology 139:1268-77. 1998..We conclude that in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, ET-1, ET-2, beta-ET, S6b, and S6a peptides induce PGHS-2 through a protein tyrosine kinase-dependent and protein kinase C-dependent pathway, signaling through ET(A) receptor occupancy...
- Multiple roles for endothelin in melanocyte development: regulation of progenitor number and stimulation of differentiationK Reid
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
Development 122:3911-9. 1996..These findings indicate two key roles for endothelin in melanocyte development: regulation of expansion of the progenitor pool and differentiation of progenitors into mature melanocytes...
- Gene expression of endothelin isoforms and receptors in endothelin-1 knockout miceK Maemura
Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 26:S17-21. 1995..Neither compensation by redundant expression of other ET isoforms nor upregulation of ET receptors could explain the elevated blood pressure in Edn1+/- heterozygous mice...
- A novel peptide, vasoactive intestinal contractor, of a new (endothelin) peptide family. Molecular cloning, expression, and biological activityK Saida
Fermentation Research Institute, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, Japan
J Biol Chem 264:14613-6. 1989..Furthermore, the peptide evoked a strong contractile response in the guinea pig ileum. This peptide may thus be reasonably classified as a gastrointestinal peptide, vasoactive intestinal contractor...
- cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and tissue distribution of a precursor for vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)K Saida
Cell Science and Technology Division, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, Japan
Biochim Biophys Acta 1089:404-6. 1991..From the deduced 160 amino acid PPVIC, the mature VIC is predicted to be produced via a 37 residue intermediate, big VIC...
- Endothelin-2 in Ovarian Follicle RuptureChemyong Ko; Fiscal Year: 2010..The proposed experiments will provide clinical direction in identifying the therapeutic target for the cure of annovulatory symptoms, one of the leading causes of female infertility. ..