endothelin 2

Summary

Gene Symbol: endothelin 2
Description: endothelin 2
Alias: ET-2, PPET2, VIC, endothelin-2, preproendothelin-2, vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Endothelin-2 in ovarian follicle rupture
    Chemyong Ko
    Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 40536, USA
    Endocrinology 147:1770-9. 2006
  2. pmc Endothelin-2-mediated protection of mutant photoreceptors in inherited photoreceptor degeneration
    Alexa N Bramall
    Program in Developmental Biology, The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e58023. 2013
  3. pmc Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucoma
    Gareth R Howell
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:1429-44. 2011
  4. doi Endothelin system in intestinal villi: A possible role of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor in the maintenance of intestinal architecture
    Mariana Bianchi
    Microscopy Laboratory Applied to Cellular and Molecular Studies, Bioengineering and Bioinformatic School, National University of Entre Ríos, Ruta 11, KM 10, 3101 Oro Verde, Entre Rios, Argentina
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 417:1113-8. 2012
  5. pmc Role of hypoxia in the regulation of periovulatory EDN2 expression in the mouse
    Giyoun Na
    Division of Clinical and Reproductive Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 86:310-9. 2008
  6. doi Constitutive overexpression of Norrin activates Wnt/β-catenin and endothelin-2 signaling to protect photoreceptors from light damage
    Barbara M Braunger
    Institute of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr 31, D 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    Neurobiol Dis 50:1-12. 2013
  7. ncbi Endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor via ROCK regulates transglutaminase 1 on differentiation of mouse keratinocytes
    Eiichi Kotake-Nara
    Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 6, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 357:168-73. 2007
  8. ncbi Differential expression of endothelin-2 along the mouse intestinal tract
    Satoshi Takizawa
    Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    J Mol Endocrinol 35:201-9. 2005
  9. pmc Endothelin-2 deficiency causes growth retardation, hypothermia, and emphysema in mice
    Inik Chang
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8584, USA
    J Clin Invest 123:2643-53. 2013
  10. ncbi The prepro vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 gene (EDN2): structure, evolution, production, and embryonic expression
    K Saida
    National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 8566, Japan
    Genomics 64:51-61. 2000

Research Grants

  1. Endothelin-2 in Ovarian Follicle Rupture
    Chemyong Ko; Fiscal Year: 2010

Scientific Experts

  • Gareth R Howell
  • Rajkumar Cheluvappa
  • Mariana Bianchi
  • Y Masuo
  • Hans Jörg Leis
  • Kaname Saida
  • Tsuyoshi Uchide
  • Chemyong Ko
  • Masashi Yanagisawa
  • Alexa N Bramall
  • Amir Rattner
  • Inik Chang
  • Eiichi Kotake-Nara
  • Joseph A Cacioppo
  • Chintan Patel
  • Satoshi Takizawa
  • Duncan J Stewart
  • Barbara M Braunger
  • Roderick R McInnes
  • Chiung Ying Chang
  • Laura G Reinholdt
  • Keiji Tanese
  • Takaharu Kozakai
  • Giyoun Na
  • Takako Makita
  • R William Caldwell
  • S Priya Narayanan
  • Wenbo Zhang
  • Hey Young Kim
  • Sangeetha Sukumari-Ramesh
  • Ruth B Caldwell
  • Sang Wook Oh
  • Krishnan M Dhandapani
  • Jongki Cho
  • Zhimin Xu
  • Po Ching Patrick Lin
  • Naoyuki Tanimoto
  • Geraldine Guasch
  • Colin McKerlie
  • Michael J Szego
  • Cornelia Volz
  • Amy Greenstein Baynash
  • Pedro D'Orléans-Juste
  • Martin Post
  • Elaine Fuchs
  • Andreas Ohlmann
  • Stephen Joza
  • John Williams
  • Marcus Koch
  • William W Hauswirth
  • Dinesh Rakheja
  • Richard M Gronostajski
  • H Amalia Pasolli
  • Huimin Yu
  • Eduardo Diez
  • Philip M Smallwood
  • Olivier Elemento
  • Herbert Jagle
  • Eugenia G Giannopoulou
  • Michael R Bösl
  • Mathias W Seeliger
  • Ernst R Tamm
  • Jeremy Nathans
  • Ying Yang
  • Ales Cvekl
  • Laura R Pacione
  • Simon W M John
  • Leah Rae Donahue
  • Danilo G Macalinao
  • Chyuan Sheng Lin
  • Katharine H MacNicoll
  • Anne M Czechanski
  • Michiie Sakamoto
  • Akira Ishiko
  • Mariko Fukuma
  • David D Ginty
  • Phillip J Bridges
  • Henry M Sucov
  • YongBum Koo
  • Cheryl E Gariepy
  • Javier Adur
  • Jiexia Quan
  • K Reid
  • Mitsue Sakate
  • H Kurihara
  • Y Kurihara
  • K Maemura
  • A M Turnley
  • M Murphy
  • P F Bartlett

Detail Information

Publications30

  1. ncbi Endothelin-2 in ovarian follicle rupture
    Chemyong Ko
    Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 40536, USA
    Endocrinology 147:1770-9. 2006
    ..As a target tissue of EDN2 action, we identified a layer of smooth muscle cells in the follicular wall of each follicle. Taken together, our data indicate that EDN2 induces follicular rupture by constricting periovulatory follicles...
  2. pmc Endothelin-2-mediated protection of mutant photoreceptors in inherited photoreceptor degeneration
    Alexa N Bramall
    Program in Developmental Biology, The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e58023. 2013
    ..Our findings indicate that the increased expression of PR Edn2 increases PR survival, and suggest that the Edn2-dependent increase in PR expression of FGF2 may contribute to the augmented survival...
  3. pmc Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucoma
    Gareth R Howell
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:1429-44. 2011
    ..Since endothelin 2 is potently vasoconstrictive and was produced by microglia/macrophages, our data provide what we believe to be ..
  4. doi Endothelin system in intestinal villi: A possible role of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor in the maintenance of intestinal architecture
    Mariana Bianchi
    Microscopy Laboratory Applied to Cellular and Molecular Studies, Bioengineering and Bioinformatic School, National University of Entre Ríos, Ruta 11, KM 10, 3101 Oro Verde, Entre Rios, Argentina
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 417:1113-8. 2012
    ..In mice ET-2 counterpart is a peptide originally called "vasoactive intestinal contractor" (VIC) for this reason, this peptide is frequently named ET-2/VIC...
  5. pmc Role of hypoxia in the regulation of periovulatory EDN2 expression in the mouse
    Giyoun Na
    Division of Clinical and Reproductive Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 86:310-9. 2008
    ..Treatment with RU-486 or indomethacin did not affect expression of mRNA for Edn2 (p>0.05). Taken together, we believe that hypoxia, but not the PR or COX-2, regulate gonadotropin-induced EDN2 expression in the periovulatory follicle...
  6. doi Constitutive overexpression of Norrin activates Wnt/β-catenin and endothelin-2 signaling to protect photoreceptors from light damage
    Barbara M Braunger
    Institute of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr 31, D 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    Neurobiol Dis 50:1-12. 2013
    ..The findings suggest that Norrin and its associated signaling pathways have strong potentials to attenuate photoreceptor death following injury...
  7. ncbi Endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor via ROCK regulates transglutaminase 1 on differentiation of mouse keratinocytes
    Eiichi Kotake-Nara
    Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 6, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 357:168-73. 2007
    We previously found that endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor (ET-2/VIC) greatly increased in mouse epidermis after birth...
  8. ncbi Differential expression of endothelin-2 along the mouse intestinal tract
    Satoshi Takizawa
    Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    J Mol Endocrinol 35:201-9. 2005
    ..These results suggest that in intestinal epithelial cells ET-2 could be secreted into the lamina propria and the dome region in Peyer's patch, and that it might modulate immune cells in these sites for mucosal defense...
  9. pmc Endothelin-2 deficiency causes growth retardation, hypothermia, and emphysema in mice
    Inik Chang
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8584, USA
    J Clin Invest 123:2643-53. 2013
    ..Together, these findings reveal that ET-2 is critical for the growth and survival of postnatal mice and plays important roles in energy homeostasis, thermoregulation, and the maintenance of lung morphology and function...
  10. ncbi The prepro vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 gene (EDN2): structure, evolution, production, and embryonic expression
    K Saida
    National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 8566, Japan
    Genomics 64:51-61. 2000
    Murine vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) and its human analog endothelin-2 (ET2) are potent vasoactive hormones composed of 21 amino acids...
  11. ncbi Gene expression of vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 in ovary, uterus and embryo: comprehensive gene expression profiles of the endothelin ligand-receptor system revealed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ana
    T Uchide
    National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    J Mol Endocrinol 22:161-71. 1999
    Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 (ET-2) is a 21 amino acid intestinal peptide characterized as a potent vasoactive and intestinal smooth muscle-contracting compound...
  12. pmc Endothelin-2 signaling in the neural retina promotes the endothelial tip cell state and inhibits angiogenesis
    Amir Rattner
    Departments of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Neuroscience, and Ophthalmology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E3830-9. 2013
    ..The response to Edn2 is sufficiently potent that it overrides the activities of other homeostatic regulators of angiogenesis, such as Vegf. ..
  13. pmc Loss of function of endothelin-2 leads to reduced ovulation and CL formation
    Joseph A Cacioppo
    Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e96115. 2014
    ..Endothelin receptor antagonism in wild type mice similarly disrupted ovulation, CL formation, and progesterone secretion. Overall, this study suggests that EDN2 is necessary for normal ovulation and CL formation. ..
  14. doi Endothelin and vascular remodelling in colitis pathogenesis--appendicitis and appendectomy limit colitis by suppressing endothelin pathways
    Rajkumar Cheluvappa
    Department of Medicine, St George Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Int J Colorectal Dis 29:1321-8. 2014
    ..Using the first murine model of AA (developed by us), we aimed to determine the role of AA in modulating vascular remodelling mediated by endothelin activity in IBD...
  15. pmc Combinatorial targeting of early pathways profoundly inhibits neurodegeneration in a mouse model of glaucoma
    Gareth R Howell
    The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME, USA Electronic address
    Neurobiol Dis 71:44-52. 2014
    ..We discover that endothelin 2 (EDN2) is expressed in astrocytes as well as microglia/monocytes in the ONH...
  16. pmc Activation of the endothelin system mediates pathological angiogenesis during ischemic retinopathy
    Chintan Patel
    Vascular Biology Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia College of Allied Health Sciences, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia
    Am J Pathol 184:3040-51. 2014
    ..EDN2 also induced VEGFA protein expression in cultured astrocytes. In conclusion, inhibition of the EDNRA during OIR suppresses pathological NV and promotes physiological angiogenesis. ..
  17. pmc NFIB is a governor of epithelial-melanocyte stem cell behaviour in a shared niche
    Chiung Ying Chang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 495:98-102. 2013
    ..chromatin-immunoprecipitation with high-throughput-sequencing and transcriptional profiling, we identify endothelin 2 (Edn2) as an NFIB target aberrantly activated in NFIB-deficient hair follicle stem cells...
  18. pmc Generating embryonic stem cells from the inbred mouse strain DBA/2J, a model of glaucoma and other complex diseases
    Laura G Reinholdt
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e50081. 2012
    ..We also demonstrate the utility of DBA/2J ES cells with the creation of conditional knockout allele for Endothelin-2 (Edn2) directly on the DBA/2J strain background...
  19. pmc Endothelins are vascular-derived axonal guidance cues for developing sympathetic neurons
    Takako Makita
    The Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 452:759-63. 2008
    ..Moreover, they suggest a model in which newborn sympathetic neurons distinguish and choose between distinct vascular trajectories to innervate their appropriate end organs...
  20. doi Endothelin-2 is upregulated in basal cell carcinoma under control of Hedgehog signaling pathway
    Keiji Tanese
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 391:486-91. 2010
    ..8kb downstream fragment containing GLI-binding sites activates transcription in a reporter assay. These data indicate that ET-2 is a direct target gene of HH signaling in BCC...
  21. ncbi cDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment of the endothelin 2 gene: vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide is rat endothelin 2
    K D Bloch
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Genomics 10:236-42. 1991
    ..human endothelins 1, 2, and 3 (ET1, ET2, and ET3, respectively) and mouse vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)...
  22. ncbi Vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 gene expression in the murine central nervous system
    Yoshinori Masuo
    International Patent Organism Depositary, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Tsukuba Central 6, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 300:661-8. 2003
    Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) is a member of the endothelin (ET) family. We have investigated the regional distribution of VIC/ET-2 and of ET-1 gene expression in the adult murine brain and pituitary gland...
  23. ncbi Increased gene expression of endothelin-1 and vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 in the mammary gland of lactating mice
    Takaharu Kozakai
    Laboratory of Gene Function Analysis, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Central 6, 1 1 1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305 8566, Ibaraki, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:1339-43. 2002
    In an attempt to understand the roles of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 (VIC/ET-2), we have studied the genes for both peptides to be expressed in the mammary gland of lactating mice...
  24. ncbi Expression of endothelin-1 and vasoactive intestinal contractor genes in mouse organs during the perinatal period
    Tsuyoshi Uchide
    Department of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, 35 1, Higashi 23 bancho, Towada, Aomori 034 8628, Japan
    Clin Sci (Lond) 103:167S-170S. 2002
    In an attempt to understand the significance of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/ET-2 peptides in organs during perinatal development, we performed quantitative analysis of ET-1 and VIC gene expression in ..
  25. ncbi Sequence analysis and expression of the mouse full-length vasoactive intestinal contractor/endothelin-2 gene (EDN2): comparison with the endothelin-1 gene (EDN1)
    Kaname Saida
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    Clin Sci (Lond) 103:84S-89S. 2002
    Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)/endothelin-2 (ET2) is a vasoactive peptide hormone comprising 21 amino acids. The complete nucleotide sequence of the full-length gene encoding preproVIC (PPVIC) was determined...
  26. ncbi Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 contributes to the endothelin/sarafotoxin-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis in mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1): evidence for a protein tyrosine kinase-signaling pathway and involvement of protein kinase C
    H J Leis
    University Children s Hospital, Department of Biochemical Analysis and Mass Spectrometry, University of Graz, Austria
    Endocrinology 139:1268-77. 1998
    ..We conclude that in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, ET-1, ET-2, beta-ET, S6b, and S6a peptides induce PGHS-2 through a protein tyrosine kinase-dependent and protein kinase C-dependent pathway, signaling through ET(A) receptor occupancy...
  27. ncbi Multiple roles for endothelin in melanocyte development: regulation of progenitor number and stimulation of differentiation
    K Reid
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Development 122:3911-9. 1996
    ..These findings indicate two key roles for endothelin in melanocyte development: regulation of expansion of the progenitor pool and differentiation of progenitors into mature melanocytes...
  28. ncbi Gene expression of endothelin isoforms and receptors in endothelin-1 knockout mice
    K Maemura
    Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 26:S17-21. 1995
    ..Neither compensation by redundant expression of other ET isoforms nor upregulation of ET receptors could explain the elevated blood pressure in Edn1+/- heterozygous mice...
  29. ncbi A novel peptide, vasoactive intestinal contractor, of a new (endothelin) peptide family. Molecular cloning, expression, and biological activity
    K Saida
    Fermentation Research Institute, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Biol Chem 264:14613-6. 1989
    ..Furthermore, the peptide evoked a strong contractile response in the guinea pig ileum. This peptide may thus be reasonably classified as a gastrointestinal peptide, vasoactive intestinal contractor...
  30. ncbi cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and tissue distribution of a precursor for vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC)
    K Saida
    Cell Science and Technology Division, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1089:404-6. 1991
    ..From the deduced 160 amino acid PPVIC, the mature VIC is predicted to be produced via a 37 residue intermediate, big VIC...

Research Grants1

  1. Endothelin-2 in Ovarian Follicle Rupture
    Chemyong Ko; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed experiments will provide clinical direction in identifying the therapeutic target for the cure of annovulatory symptoms, one of the leading causes of female infertility. ..