Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: En2
Description: engrailed 2
Alias: BB131122, En-2, homeobox protein engrailed-2, homeobox protein en-2, mo-En-2
- Alberi L, Sgadò P, Simon H. Engrailed genes are cell-autonomously required to prevent apoptosis in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Development. 2004;131:3229-36 pubmed..This rapid induction of cell death in mDA neurons suggests that the engrailed genes participate directly in the regulation of apoptosis, a proposed mechanism for Parkinson's disease. ..
- Simon H, Saueressig H, Wurst W, Goulding M, O Leary D. Fate of midbrain dopaminergic neurons controlled by the engrailed genes. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3126-34 pubmed..However, the engrailed genes control the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a gene dose-dependent manner. Our findings also suggest a link between engrailed and Parkinson's disease. ..
- Sillitoe R, Stephen D, Lao Z, Joyner A. Engrailed homeobox genes determine the organization of Purkinje cell sagittal stripe gene expression in the adult cerebellum. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12150-62 pubmed publisher..that ML molecular code patterning is highly dependent on two homeobox transcription factors, Engrailed1 (En1) and En2, both of which are also required for patterning the lobules...
- Sillitoe R, Vogel M, Joyner A. Engrailed homeobox genes regulate establishment of the cerebellar afferent circuit map. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10015-24 pubmed publisher..In summary, our data suggest that En1/2 are master regulators of three-dimensional organization of the cerebellum and coordinately regulate morphology, patterned gene expression, and afferent topography. ..
- Wurst W, Auerbach A, Joyner A. Multiple developmental defects in Engrailed-1 mutant mice: an early mid-hindbrain deletion and patterning defects in forelimbs and sternum. Development. 1994;120:2065-75 pubmed..The results of these studies suggest a cell autonomous role for En-1 in generation and/or survival of mid-hindbrain precursor cells and also a non-cell autonomous role in signalling normal development of the limbs and possibly sternum. ..
- Millen K, Wurst W, Herrup K, Joyner A. Abnormal embryonic cerebellar development and patterning of postnatal foliation in two mouse Engrailed-2 mutants. Development. 1994;120:695-706 pubmed
- Sgadò P, Alberi L, Gherbassi D, Galasso S, Ramakers G, Alavian K, et al. Slow progressive degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in postnatal Engrailed mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15242-7 pubmed..the cells die by apoptosis when all four alleles of the Engrailed genes are genetically ablated (En1-/-;En2-/-)...
- Tripathi P, Sgadò P, Scali M, Viaggi C, Casarosa S, Simon H, et al. Increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in Engrailed-2 knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2009;159:842-9 pubmed publisherThe En2 gene, coding for the homeobox-containing transcription factor Engrailed-2 (EN2), has been associated to autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
- Wilson S, Kalinovsky A, Orvis G, Joyner A. Spatially restricted and developmentally dynamic expression of engrailed genes in multiple cerebellar cell types. Cerebellum. 2011;10:356-72 pubmed publisher..means to understand how the En genes regulate multiple levels of cerebellum construction, we characterized En1 and En2 expression around birth and at postnatal day (P) 21 during the period when the cerebellum undergoes a remarkable ..
- Davis C, Joyner A. Expression patterns of the homeo box-containing genes En-1 and En-2 and the proto-oncogene int-1 diverge during mouse development. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1736-44 pubmed..Later in development the En genes may have an additional function in neurogenesis. En-1 expression in the developing pericordal tube suggests that it may also be involved in vertebral assembly. ..
- Davis C, Noble Topham S, Rossant J, Joyner A. Expression of the homeo box-containing gene En-2 delineates a specific region of the developing mouse brain. Genes Dev. 1988;2:361-71 pubmed..The early, localized expression of En-2 within an apparently homogeneous tissue is consistent with the hypothesis that En-2 plays a role in defining a spatial domain within the developing brain. ..
- Simon H, Thuret S, Alberi L. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons: control of their cell fate by the engrailed transcription factors. Cell Tissue Res. 2004;318:53-61 pubmed..The genes for two transcription factors Engrailed-1 ( En1) and Engrailed-2 ( En2) play an essential role in the development and maintenance of these cells...
- Ang S, Jin O, Rhinn M, Daigle N, Stevenson L, Rossant J. A targeted mouse Otx2 mutation leads to severe defects in gastrulation and formation of axial mesoderm and to deletion of rostral brain. Development. 1996;122:243-52 pubmed
- Marinić M, Aktas T, Ruf S, Spitz F. An integrated holo-enhancer unit defines tissue and gene specificity of the Fgf8 regulatory landscape. Dev Cell. 2013;24:530-42 pubmed publisher..We discuss the implications of such regulatory systems regarding the evolution of gene expression and the impact of human genomic structural variations. ..
- Kuemerle B, Gulden F, Cherosky N, Williams E, Herrup K. The mouse Engrailed genes: a window into autism. Behav Brain Res. 2007;176:121-32 pubmed..The Engrailed-2 gene has been associated with autism in genetic linkage studies. The En2 knock-out mouse harbors cerebellar abnormalities that are similar to those found in autistic individuals and, as we ..
- Brielmaier J, MATTESON P, Silverman J, Senerth J, Kelly S, Genestine M, et al. Autism-relevant social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in engrailed-2 knockout mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40914 pubmed publisherENGRAILED 2 (En2), a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways...
- Fox S, Deneris E. Engrailed is required in maturing serotonin neurons to regulate the cytoarchitecture and survival of the dorsal raphe nucleus. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7832-42 pubmed publisher..An unresolved question is whether En plays intrinsic roles in these neurons. Here, we show that En1 and En2 are expressed in maturing 5-HT neurons that will form the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and part of the median raphe ..
- Orvis G, Hartzell A, Smith J, Barraza L, Wilson S, Szulc K, et al. The engrailed homeobox genes are required in multiple cell lineages to coordinate sequential formation of fissures and growth of the cerebellum. Dev Biol. 2012;367:25-39 pubmed publisher..The engrailed genes (En1 and En2) are expressed in all cerebellar cell types and are critical for regulating formation of specific fissures...
- Joyner A, Martin G. En-1 and En-2, two mouse genes with sequence homology to the Drosophila engrailed gene: expression during embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1987;1:29-38 pubmed..Both genes map in the vicinity of mutations that are known to cause abnormalities during development. ..
- Jacobs F, Veenvliet J, Almirza W, Hoekstra E, von Oerthel L, van der Linden A, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent and -independent gene-regulatory pathways of Pitx3 in meso-diencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Development. 2011;138:5213-22 pubmed publisher..RA signaling represents only one aspect of the Pitx3 downstream cascade, as Vmat2, Dat, Ahd2 (Aldh1a1), En1, En2 and Cck were unaffected by RA treatment and are (subset) specifically modulated by Pitx3...
- Gemel J, Jacobsen C, MacArthur C. Fibroblast growth factor-8 expression is regulated by intronic engrailed and Pbx1-binding sites. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:6020-6 pubmed..In addition, in vitro mutagenesis of both Engrailed and Pbx1 sites indicated that other unidentified sites are responsible for the transcriptional enhancement observed with the intronic fragment. ..
- Cheh M, Millonig J, Roselli L, Ming X, Jacobsen E, Kamdar S, et al. En2 knockout mice display neurobehavioral and neurochemical alterations relevant to autism spectrum disorder. Brain Res. 2006;1116:166-76 pubmed..Recent human genetic studies are consistent with the homeobox transcription factor, ENGRAILED 2 (EN2), being an ASD susceptibility gene...
- Rhinn M, Dierich A, Shawlot W, Behringer R, Le Meur M, Ang S. Sequential roles for Otx2 in visceral endoderm and neuroectoderm for forebrain and midbrain induction and specification. Development. 1998;125:845-56 pubmed..Altogether, these results demonstrate that Otx2 is first required in the visceral endoderm for the induction, and subsequently in the neuroectoderm for the specification of forebrain and midbrain territories. ..
- Wizenmann A, Brunet I, Lam J, Sonnier L, Beurdeley M, Zarbalis K, et al. Extracellular Engrailed participates in the topographic guidance of retinal axons in vivo. Neuron. 2009;64:355-366 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our results indicate that extracellular Engrailed contributes to retinotectal mapping in vivo by modulating the sensitivity of growth cones to EphrinA. ..
- Kuemerle B, Zanjani H, Joyner A, Herrup K. Pattern deformities and cell loss in Engrailed-2 mutant mice suggest two separate patterning events during cerebellar development. J Neurosci. 1997;17:7881-9 pubmed..We further postulate that the configuration of the seven Zebrin bands as well as the shapes and locations of the cerebellar lobules are set up by a second patterning event that occurs after neurogenesis is complete. ..
- Jankovic J, Chen S, Le W. The role of Nurr1 in the development of dopaminergic neurons and Parkinson's disease. Prog Neurobiol. 2005;77:128-38 pubmed..All these studies suggest that Nurr1 is not only essential in the development of mensencephalic dopaminergic neurons and maintenance of their functions, but it may also play a role in the pathogenesis of PD. ..
- Kitajima S, Takagi A, Inoue T, Saga Y. MesP1 and MesP2 are essential for the development of cardiac mesoderm. Development. 2000;127:3215-26 pubmed..These results strongly indicate that the defect in the cranial-cardiac mesoderm is cell-autonomous, whereas the defect in the paraxial mesoderm is a non-cell-autonomous secondary consequence. ..
- Chung A, Xu X, Niederreither K, Cooney A. Loss of orphan nuclear receptor GCNF function disrupts forebrain development and the establishment of the isthmic organizer. Dev Biol. 2006;293:13-24 pubmed..Increased cell death may contribute to the loss of midbrain structure in GCNF-/- embryos. These results indicate that GCNF is required for establishment of the isthmic organizer, thereby regulating the midbrain development. ..
- Lagutin O, Zhu C, Kobayashi D, Topczewski J, Shimamura K, Puelles L, et al. Six3 repression of Wnt signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm is essential for vertebrate forebrain development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:368-79 pubmed..Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that a Wnt signal gradient specifies posterior fates in the anterior neural plate. ..
- Mukhopadhyay M, Teufel A, Yamashita T, Agulnick A, Chen L, Downs K, et al. Functional ablation of the mouse Ldb1 gene results in severe patterning defects during gastrulation. Development. 2003;130:495-505 pubmed..The expression of several Wnt inhibitors is curtailed in the mutant, suggesting that Wnt pathways may be involved in axial patterning regulated by Ldb1. ..
- Correia A, Costa M, Moraes F, Bom J, Novoa A, Mallo M. Bmp2 is required for migration but not for induction of neural crest cells in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2493-501 pubmed..Finally, our data suggest that the molecular cascade downstream of BMP signaling in early neural crest development may be different in mouse and avian embryos. ..
- Augustine K, Liu E, Sadler T. Antisense inhibition of engrailed genes in mouse embryos reveals roles for these genes in craniofacial and neural tube development. Teratology. 1995;51:300-10 pubmed..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
- Marigo V, Roberts D, Lee S, Tsukurov O, Levi T, Gastier J, et al. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal location of SHH and IHH: two human homologues of the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog. Genomics. 1995;28:44-51 pubmed..82, theta = 0.05) tightly linked to the EN2 locus...
- Provenzano G, Pangrazzi L, Poli A, Pernigo M, SgadÃ² P, Genovesi S, et al. Hippocampal dysregulation of neurofibromin-dependent pathways is associated with impaired spatial learning in engrailed 2 knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2014;34:13281-8 pubmed publisherGenome-wide association studies indicated the homeobox-containing transcription factor Engrailed-2 (En2) as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)...
- Palmiter R, Cole T, Quaife C, Findley S. ZnT-3, a putative transporter of zinc into synaptic vesicles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:14934-9 pubmed..We propose that ZnT-3 facilitates the accumulation of zinc in synaptic vesicles. ..
- Fowler K, Newson A, MacDonald A, Kalitsis P, Lyu M, Kozak C, et al. Chromosomal localization of mouse Cenpa gene. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1997;79:298-301 pubmed..Comparison of this localization with that of human CENPA, which maps to chromosome 2, is consistent with the presence of a new region of conserved synteny between the two species. ..
- Erickson S, O Shea K, Ghaboosi N, Loverro L, Frantz G, Bauer M, et al. ErbB3 is required for normal cerebellar and cardiac development: a comparison with ErbB2-and heregulin-deficient mice. Development. 1997;124:4999-5011 pubmed..Numerous organs, including the stomach and pancreas also exhibited anomalous development. ..
- Lee S, Danielian P, Fritzsch B, McMahon A. Evidence that FGF8 signalling from the midbrain-hindbrain junction regulates growth and polarity in the developing midbrain. Development. 1997;124:959-69 pubmed..Taken together our results suggest that FGF8 signalling from the isthmus has a key role in coordinately regulating growth and polarity in the developing mesencephalon. ..
- Moy S, Nadler J, Young N, Nonneman R, Grossman A, Murphy D, et al. Social approach in genetically engineered mouse lines relevant to autism. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:129-42 pubmed publisher..Targeted disruption in other genes of interest, En2 (engrailed-2) and Dhcr7, was carried on genetic backgrounds that showed low levels of exploration in the choice ..
- Logan C, Hanks M, Noble Topham S, Nallainathan D, Provart N, Joyner A. Cloning and sequence comparison of the mouse, human, and chicken engrailed genes reveal potential functional domains and regulatory regions. Dev Genet. 1992;13:345-58 pubmed
- Davis C, Holmyard D, Millen K, Joyner A. Examining pattern formation in mouse, chicken and frog embryos with an En-specific antiserum. Development. 1991;111:287-98 pubmed..The results show that En expression is a good marker for pattern formation in a variety of tissues and will be useful in experimental studies designed to characterize further these processes. ..
- Hill R, Jones P, Rees A, Sime C, Justice M, Copeland N, et al. A new family of mouse homeo box-containing genes: molecular structure, chromosomal location, and developmental expression of Hox-7.1. Genes Dev. 1989;3:26-37 pubmed..Later, this gene is expressed in regions of the face that are derived from neural crest and in the interdigital mesenchymal tissues in both the fore- and hindlimbs. ..
- Montgomery J, Guarnieri M, Tartaglia K, Flaherty L. High-resolution genetic map and YAC contig around the mouse neurological locus reeler. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:756-61 pubmed..A yeast artificial chromosome contig consisting of clones containing two of these loci, D5Mit72 (located 0.31 cM distal to rl), and D5Mit61 (no recombinants with rl), has been assembled and is being used to locate the rl gene. ..
- Miao G, Smeyne R, D ARCANGELO G, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Morgan J, et al. Isolation of an allele of reeler by insertional mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11050-4 pubmed..Thus, unlike the two rl alleles described previously, rltg provides a molecular probe that can now be used to identify and isolate the rl gene. ..
- Anderson E, Devenney P, Hill R, Lettice L. Mapping the Shh long-range regulatory domain. Development. 2014;141:3934-43 pubmed publisher..Finally, the boundaries of the Shh TAD do not represent the absolute expression limits of enhancer activity, as expression activity is lost stepwise at a number of genomic positions at the verges of these domains. ..
- Alvarez Saavedra M, De Repentigny Y, Lagali P, Raghu Ram E, Yan K, Hashem E, et al. Snf2h-mediated chromatin organization and histone H1 dynamics govern cerebellar morphogenesis and neural maturation. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4181 pubmed publisher..Our studies reveal that Snf2h controls chromatin organization and histone H1 dynamics for the establishment of gene expression programs underlying cerebellar morphogenesis and neural maturation. ..
- Bouchard M, Grote D, Craven S, Sun Q, Steinlein P, Busslinger M. Identification of Pax2-regulated genes by expression profiling of the mid-hindbrain organizer region. Development. 2005;132:2633-43 pubmed..These genes code for the transcription factors En2 and Brn1 (Pou3f3), the intracellular signaling modifiers Sef and Tapp1, and the non-coding RNA Ncrms...
- Degenhardt K, Sassoon D. A role for Engrailed-2 in determination of skeletal muscle physiologic properties. Dev Biol. 2001;231:175-89 pubmed..We conclude that the specific expression of En-2 in the jaw therefore plays a role in specifying muscle-fiber characteristics that contribute to the physiologic properties of specific muscle groups. ..
- Sgaier S, Lao Z, Villanueva M, Berenshteyn F, Stephen D, Turnbull R, et al. Genetic subdivision of the tectum and cerebellum into functionally related regions based on differential sensitivity to engrailed proteins. Development. 2007;134:2325-35 pubmed..En1 mutants lack most of the tectum and cerebellum and die at birth, whereas En2 mutants are viable with a smaller cerebellum and foliation defects...
- Hentges K, Thompson K, Peterson A. The flat-top gene is required for the expansion and regionalization of the telencephalic primordium. Development. 1999;126:1601-9 pubmed..Thus the phenotype of the flat-top mouse reveals that outgrowth of the telencephalic vesicles and their regionalization are coupled processes. ..
- Yamamoto M, Fujinuma M, Tanaka M, Drager U, McCaffery P. Sagittal band expression of COUP-TF2 gene in the developing cerebellum. Mech Dev. 1999;84:143-6 pubmed..By postnatal day 5 the COUP-TF2 expression substantially decreases to low, but detectable, levels. ..
- Rhinn M, Dierich A, Le Meur M, Ang S. Cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous functions of Otx2 in patterning the rostral brain. Development. 1999;126:4295-304 pubmed..reduction or loss of expression of Rpx/Hesx1, Wnt1, R-cadherin and ephrin-A2 in mutant cells, whereas expression of En2 and Six3 is rescued by surrounding wild-type cells. Forebrain Otx2 mutant cells subsequently undergo apoptosis...
- Crawley J. Translational animal models of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2012;14:293-305 pubmed..The field is now poised to employ the most robust phenotypes in the most replicable mouse models for preclinical screening of novel therapeutics. ..
- Dumont D, Yamaguchi T, Conlon R, Rossant J, Breitman M. tek, a novel tyrosine kinase gene located on mouse chromosome 4, is expressed in endothelial cells and their presumptive precursors. Oncogene. 1992;7:1471-80 pubmed..tek encodes a novel putative receptor tyrosine kinase that may be critically involved in the determination and/or maintenance of cells of the endothelial lineage. ..
- Sato T, Joyner A. The duration of Fgf8 isthmic organizer expression is key to patterning different tectal-isthmo-cerebellum structures. Development. 2009;136:3617-26 pubmed publisher..Thus, the duration as well as the strength of Fgf8 signaling is key to patterning of the mid/hindbrain region. By extrapolation, the length of Fgf8 expression could be crucial to Fgf8 function in other embryonic organizers. ..
- Park S, Lee C, Sabharwal P, Zhang M, Meyers C, Sockanathan S. GDE2 promotes neurogenesis by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor cleavage of RECK. Science. 2013;339:324-8 pubmed publisher..This study identifies a previously unrecognized mechanism to initiate neurogenesis that involves GDE2-mediated surface cleavage of GPI-anchored targets to inhibit Dll1-Notch signaling...
- Sgadò P, Viaggi C, Pinna A, Marrone C, Vaglini F, Pontis S, et al. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological changes in an early spontaneous mouse model of nigrostriatal degeneration. Neurotox Res. 2011;20:170-81 pubmed publisher..neurophysiological, and behavioral changes induced by the loss of nigrostriatal innervation in the En1+/-;En2-/- mouse, in the 10 months following degeneration, compared to En2 null mutant mice...
- Allegra M, Genovesi S, Maggia M, Cenni M, Zunino G, Sgadò P, et al. Altered GABAergic markers, increased binocularity and reduced plasticity in the visual cortex of Engrailed-2 knockout mice. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:163 pubmed publisher..The homeobox-containing transcription factor Engrailed-2 (En2) has been associated to ASD, and En2 knockout (En2 (-/-)) mice show ASD-like features accompanied by a partial loss ..
- Lee C, Kozak C, Yamada K. Structure, genetic mapping, and expression of the mouse Hgf/scatter factor gene. Cell Adhes Commun. 1993;1:101-11 pubmed..The relationship of Hgf to the reeler mutation is discussed. The availability of mouse HGF/SF cDNA clones should facilitate further analysis of HGF/SF function during development. ..
- Provenzano G, Pangrazzi L, Poli A, SgadÃ² P, Berardi N, Bozzi Y. Reduced phosphorylation of synapsin I in the hippocampus of Engrailed-2 knockout mice, a model for autism spectrum disorders. Neuroscience. 2015;286:122-30 pubmed publisherMice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Engrailed-2 (En2(-/-) mice) are a well-characterized model for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)...
- Hoodless P, Pye M, Chazaud C, Labbe E, Attisano L, Rossant J, et al. FoxH1 (Fast) functions to specify the anterior primitive streak in the mouse. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1257-71 pubmed..These results show that FoxH1 functions in an activin/nodal-Smad signaling pathway that acts upstream of Foxa2 and is required specifically for patterning the APS and node in the mouse. ..
- Rathjen J, Haines B, Hudson K, Nesci A, Dunn S, Rathjen P. Directed differentiation of pluripotent cells to neural lineages: homogeneous formation and differentiation of a neurectoderm population. Development. 2002;129:2649-61 pubmed..Neurectoderm formation in culture allows elucidation of signals involved in neural specification and generation of implantable cell populations for therapeutic use. ..
- Desgraz R, Herrera P. Pancreatic neurogenin 3-expressing cells are unipotent islet precursors. Development. 2009;136:3567-74 pubmed publisher..We propose a model whereby Ngn3(+) cells are monotypic (i.e. unipotent) precursors, and use this paradigm to refocus ideas on how cell number and type must be regulated in building complete islets of Langerhans. ..
- Yamaguchi T, Conlon R, Rossant J. Expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR-1/flg during gastrulation and segmentation in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 1992;152:75-88 pubmed..FGFR-1 may also play significant roles in the formation of neural ectoderm and the early events that establish compartments within the developing somites. ..
- Niederreither K, Vermot J, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Retinoic acid synthesis and hindbrain patterning in the mouse embryo. Development. 2000;127:75-85 pubmed..We conclude that RA produced by the embryo is required to generate posterior cell fates in the developing mouse hindbrain, its absence leading to an abnormal r3 (and, to a lesser extent, r4) identity of the caudal hindbrain cells. ..
- Caetano A, Shiue Y, Lyons L, O Brien S, Laughlin T, Bowling A, et al. A comparative gene map of the horse (Equus caballus). Genome Res. 1999;9:1239-49 pubmed..The equine type I markers developed in this study provide an important resource for the future development of the horse linkage and physical genome maps. ..
- Anderson C, Williams V, Moyon B, Daubas P, Tajbakhsh S, Buckingham M, et al. Sonic hedgehog acts cell-autonomously on muscle precursor cells to generate limb muscle diversity. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2103-17 pubmed publisher..Thus, Shh production in the limb ZPA is essential for the spatiotemporal control of myogenesis and coordinates muscle and skeletal development by acting directly to regulate the formation of specific ventral muscles. ..
- Rash B, Grove E. Shh and Gli3 regulate formation of the telencephalic-diencephalic junction and suppress an isthmus-like signaling source in the forebrain. Dev Biol. 2011;359:242-50 pubmed publisher..That optional signaling centers are actively repressed in normal development is a striking new insight into the processes of vertebrate brain development. ..
- Liu Y, Miao Q, Yuan J, Han S, Zhang P, Li S, et al. Ascl1 Converts Dorsal Midbrain Astrocytes into Functional Neurons In Vivo. J Neurosci. 2015;35:9336-55 pubmed publisher..Thus, a single transcription factor, Ascl1, is sufficient to convert brain astrocytes into functional neurons, and GFAP-AAV is an efficient vector for generating iN cells from astrocytes in vivo. ..
- Genestine M, Lin L, Durens M, Yan Y, Jiang Y, Prem S, et al. Engrailed-2 (En2) deletion produces multiple neurodevelopmental defects in monoamine systems, forebrain structures and neurogenesis and behavior. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:5805-27 pubmed publisher..Human genetic and mouse behavioral analyses suggest that ENGRAILED-2 (EN2) contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder...
- McClive P, Pall G, Newton K, Lee M, Mullins J, Forrester L. Gene trap integrations expressed in the developing heart: insertion site affects splicing of the PT1-ATG vector. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:267-76 pubmed..One of these exon integrations results in a lethal neonatal phenotype. ..
- Chen Z, Behringer R. twist is required in head mesenchyme for cranial neural tube morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1995;9:686-99 pubmed..These results suggest that twist regulates the cellular phenotype and behavior of head mesenchyme cells that are essential for the subsequent formation of the cranial neural tube. ..
- Mock B, Nordan R, Justice M, Kozak C, Jenkins N, Copeland N, et al. The murine Il-6 gene maps to the proximal region of chromosome 5. J Immunol. 1989;142:1372-6 pubmed..The syntenic relationships of Il-6 and En-2 in mouse and man, as well as the potential role of IL-6 in tumorigenesis, are discussed. ..