Gene Symbol: Emx2
Description: empty spiracles homeobox 2
Alias: Pdo, homeobox protein EMX2, empty spiracles homolog 2, empty spiracles-like protein 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Emx2

Top Publications

  1. Cartry J, Nichane M, Ribes V, Colas A, Riou J, Pieler T, et al. Retinoic acid signalling is required for specification of pronephric cell fate. Dev Biol. 2006;299:35-51 pubmed
    ..Raldh2 knockout mouse embryos fail to initiate the expression of early kidney-specific genes, suggesting that implication of RA signalling in the early steps of kidney formation is evolutionary conserved in vertebrates. ..
  2. Rhodes C, Parkinson N, Tsai H, Brooker D, Mansell S, Spurr N, et al. The homeobox gene Emx2 underlies middle ear and inner ear defects in the deaf mouse mutant pardon. J Neurocytol. 2003;32:1143-54 pubmed
    ..We show that a missense mutation in the homeobox gene Emx2 is responsible for these defects, identifying a new function for this gene in the development of specific ..
  3. Taylor H, Fei X. Emx2 regulates mammalian reproduction by altering endometrial cell proliferation. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2839-46 pubmed
    ..We have previously identified the Emx2 gene as a transcriptional target of HOXA10 regulation in the reproductive tract...
  4. Grote D, Souabni A, Busslinger M, Bouchard M. Pax 2/8-regulated Gata 3 expression is necessary for morphogenesis and guidance of the nephric duct in the developing kidney. Development. 2006;133:53-61 pubmed
    ..Together, these results define Gata3 as a key regulator of nephric duct morphogenesis and guidance in the pro/mesonephric kidney. ..
  5. Gangemi R, Daga A, Muzio L, Marubbi D, Cocozza S, Perera M, et al. Effects of Emx2 inactivation on the gene expression profile of neural precursors. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:325-34 pubmed
    b>Emx2 plays a crucial role in the development of the diencephalon and dorsal telencephalon. Thus, Emx2-null mutants have abnormal cortical lamination and a reduction in size of the caudal and medial areas of the prosencephalon...
  6. Ligon K, Echelard Y, Assimacopoulos S, Danielian P, Kaing S, Grove E, et al. Loss of Emx2 function leads to ectopic expression of Wnt1 in the developing telencephalon and cortical dysplasia. Development. 2003;130:2275-87 pubmed
    ..Previous work has demonstrated that the function of Emx2, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor, is essential for development of the cortical preplate, which ..
  7. Pellegrini M, Pantano S, Fumi M, Lucchini F, Forabosco A. Agenesis of the scapula in Emx2 homozygous mutants. Dev Biol. 2001;232:149-56 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, we have found that scapula and ilium do not develop in Emx2 knock-out mice...
  8. Muzio L, Soria J, Pannese M, Piccolo S, Mallamaci A. A mutually stimulating loop involving emx2 and canonical wnt signalling specifically promotes expansion of occipital cortex and hippocampus. Cereb Cortex. 2005;15:2021-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a mutual stimulating loop, involving Emx2 and canonical Wnt signalling, specifically promotes expansion of the occipito-hippocampal anlage...
  9. Bishop K, Garel S, Nakagawa Y, Rubenstein J, O Leary D. Emx1 and Emx2 cooperate to regulate cortical size, lamination, neuronal differentiation, development of cortical efferents, and thalamocortical pathfinding. J Comp Neurol. 2003;457:345-60 pubmed
    The homeobox transcription factors Emx1 and Emx2 are expressed in overlapping patterns that include cortical progenitors in the dorsal telencephalic neuroepithelium...

More Information


  1. Cecchi C, Boncinelli E. Emx homeogenes and mouse brain development. Trends Neurosci. 2000;23:347-52 pubmed
    Mammalian homeogenes of the Emx family, Emx1 and Emx2, are expressed in the developing cerebral cortex and are involved in the patterning of the rostral brain...
  2. Yoshida M, Suda Y, Matsuo I, Miyamoto N, Takeda N, Kuratani S, et al. Emx1 and Emx2 functions in development of dorsal telencephalon. Development. 1997;124:101-11 pubmed
    The genes Emx1 and Emx2 are mouse cognates of a Drosophila head gap gene, empty spiracles, and their expression patterns have suggested their involvement in regional patterning of the forebrain...
  3. Shinozaki K, Miyagi T, Yoshida M, Miyata T, Ogawa M, Aizawa S, et al. Absence of Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons associated with defects of tangential cell migration from ganglionic eminence in Emx1/2 double mutant cerebral cortex. Development. 2002;129:3479-92 pubmed
    Emx1 and Emx2, mouse orthologs of the Drosophila head gap gene, ems, are expressed during corticogenesis. Emx2 null mutants exhibit mild defects in cortical lamination...
  4. Linton J, Martin G, Reichardt L. The ECM protein nephronectin promotes kidney development via integrin alpha8beta1-mediated stimulation of Gdnf expression. Development. 2007;134:2501-9 pubmed
    ..Our results thus place nephronectin and alpha8beta1 integrin in a pathway that regulates Gdnf expression and is essential for kidney development. ..
  5. Manuel M, Georgala P, Carr C, Chanas S, Kleinjan D, Martynoga B, et al. Controlled overexpression of Pax6 in vivo negatively autoregulates the Pax6 locus, causing cell-autonomous defects of late cortical progenitor proliferation with little effect on cortical arealization. Development. 2007;134:545-55 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Pax6 levels are stabilized by autoregulation, that the proliferation of cortical progenitors is sensitive to altered Pax6 levels and that cortical arealization is not. ..
  6. Mallamaci A, Iannone R, Briata P, Pintonello L, Mercurio S, Boncinelli E, et al. EMX2 protein in the developing mouse brain and olfactory area. Mech Dev. 1998;77:165-72 pubmed
    The distribution of EMX2, the protein product of the homeobox gene Emx2, was analyzed in the developing mouse CNS by means of a polyclonal antibody we raised against it...
  7. Heins N, Cremisi F, Malatesta P, Gangemi R, Corte G, Price J, et al. Emx2 promotes symmetric cell divisions and a multipotential fate in precursors from the cerebral cortex. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2001;18:485-502 pubmed
    ..Here we describe that retroviral transduction of the transcription factor Emx2 in precursors from the cerebral cortex results in a significant increase of large clones that are generated mostly ..
  8. Simeone A, Gulisano M, Acampora D, Stornaiuolo A, Rambaldi M, Boncinelli E. Two vertebrate homeobox genes related to the Drosophila empty spiracles gene are expressed in the embryonic cerebral cortex. EMBO J. 1992;11:2541-50 pubmed
    We cloned two homeobox genes, Emx1 and Emx2, related to empty spiracles, a gene expressed in very anterior body regions during early Drosophila embryogenesis, and studied their expression in mouse embryos...
  9. Lopez Bendito G, Chan C, Mallamaci A, Parnavelas J, Molnar Z. Role of Emx2 in the development of the reciprocal connectivity between cortex and thalamus. J Comp Neurol. 2002;451:153-69 pubmed
    b>Emx2 knockout mice appear to show a shift in the areal identity in the cerebral cortex , which is matched with altered distribution of thalamocortical projections (Bishop et al. [2000] Science 288:344-349; Mallamaci et al...
  10. Miyamoto N, Yoshida M, Kuratani S, Matsuo I, Aizawa S. Defects of urogenital development in mice lacking Emx2. Development. 1997;124:1653-64 pubmed
    The homeobox gene Emx2 is a mouse homologue of a Drosophila head gap gene empty spiracles (ems) and is essential for the development of dorsal telencephalon (Yoshida, M., Suda, Y., Matsuo, I., Miyamoto, N., Takeda, N., Kuratani, S...
  11. Noonan F, Mutch D, Ann Mallon M, Goodfellow P. Characterization of the homeodomain gene EMX2: sequence conservation, expression analysis, and a search for mutations in endometrial cancers. Genomics. 2001;76:37-44 pubmed
    ..of genomic sequences for the deletion interval showed several expressed sequence tags and the homeodomain gene EMX2, a homologue of Drosophila melanogaster empty spiracles...
  12. Garel S, Yun K, Grosschedl R, Rubenstein J. The early topography of thalamocortical projections is shifted in Ebf1 and Dlx1/2 mutant mice. Development. 2002;129:5621-34 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the topography of thalamocortical projections is not strictly determined by cues located within the neocortex and may be regulated by the relative positioning of thalamic axons inside the basal ganglia. ..
  13. Bishop K, Goudreau G, O Leary D. Regulation of area identity in the mammalian neocortex by Emx2 and Pax6. Science. 2000;288:344-9 pubmed
    ..This study analyzes the roles of the regulatory genes Emx2 and Pax6, which are expressed in opposing gradients in the neocortical ventricular zone, in specifying areas...
  14. Fukuchi Shimogori T, Grove E. Emx2 patterns the neocortex by regulating FGF positional signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:825-31 pubmed
    Molecular genetic studies implicate fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), and the transcription factor Emx2, in development of the neocortical area map...
  15. Dou C, Li S, Lai E. Dual role of brain factor-1 in regulating growth and patterning of the cerebral hemispheres. Cereb Cortex. 1999;9:543-50 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that BF-1 may modulate both progenitor cell proliferation and regional patterning by regulating the expression or activity of inductive signals which act on the telencephalic neuroepithelium. ..
  16. Theil T, Alvarez Bolado G, Walter A, Ruther U. Gli3 is required for Emx gene expression during dorsal telencephalon development. Development. 1999;126:3561-71 pubmed
    ..level, disruption of dorsal telencephalon development in Xt(J)/Xt(J) embryos correlates with a loss of Emx1 and Emx2 expression. Furthermore, the expression of Fgf8 and Bmp4 in the dorsal midline of the telencephalon is altered...
  17. Hamasaki T, Leingartner A, Ringstedt T, O Leary D. EMX2 regulates sizes and positioning of the primary sensory and motor areas in neocortex by direct specification of cortical progenitors. Neuron. 2004;43:359-72 pubmed
    ..To define roles for the homeodomain transcription factor EMX2, we engineered nestin-Emx2 transgenic mice that overexpress Emx2 in cortical progenitors coincident with expression ..
  18. Garel S, Huffman K, Rubenstein J. Molecular regionalization of the neocortex is disrupted in Fgf8 hypomorphic mutants. Development. 2003;130:1903-14 pubmed
    ..Overall, our study demonstrates the role of endogenous Fgf8 in regulating early gradients of transcription factors in cortical progenitor cells and in molecular regionalization of the cortical plate. ..
  19. Zappone M, Galli R, Catena R, Meani N, De Biasi S, Mattei E, et al. Sox2 regulatory sequences direct expression of a (beta)-geo transgene to telencephalic neural stem cells and precursors of the mouse embryo, revealing regionalization of gene expression in CNS stem cells. Development. 2000;127:2367-82 pubmed
  20. Pellegrini M, Mansouri A, Simeone A, Boncinelli E, Gruss P. Dentate gyrus formation requires Emx2. Development. 1996;122:3893-8 pubmed
    ..During early embryogenesis, Emx2 is expressed in the presumptive cerebral cortex and olfactory bulbs and later, in the hippocampus proper and ..
  21. Gulisano M, Broccoli V, Pardini C, Boncinelli E. Emx1 and Emx2 show different patterns of expression during proliferation and differentiation of the developing cerebral cortex in the mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 1996;8:1037-50 pubmed
    ..We cloned four new homeo box genes, Emx1, Emx2, Otx1 and Otx2, and showed that in day 10 mouse embryos their expression domains are continuous regions of the ..
  22. Mallamaci A, Muzio L, Chan C, Parnavelas J, Boncinelli E. Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex of Emx2-/- mutant mice. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:679-86 pubmed
    ..the genetic control of the early steps of this process, but the distinctive expression pattern of the homeogene Emx2 in the developing cortex has prompted suggestions that it is critical in this context...
  23. Storm E, Garel S, Borello U, Hebert J, Martinez S, McConnell S, et al. Dose-dependent functions of Fgf8 in regulating telencephalic patterning centers. Development. 2006;133:1831-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Fgf8 functions to coordinate multiple patterning centers, and that modifications in the relative strength of FGF signaling can have profound effects on the relative size and nature of telencephalic subdivisions. ..
  24. Tole S, Ragsdale C, Grove E. Dorsoventral patterning of the telencephalon is disrupted in the mouse mutant extra-toes(J). Dev Biol. 2000;217:254-65 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that in dorsal telencephalon Gli3 is needed to repress ventral telencephalic identity. ..
  25. Cecchi C. Emx2: a gene responsible for cortical development, regionalization and area specification. Gene. 2002;291:1-9 pubmed
    Mouse Emx2 homeobox gene is a very good dorsal marker for the developing cerebral cortex, as it is mainly expressed in this area from the very beginning of corticogenesis...
  26. Noonan F, Goodfellow P, Staloch L, Mutch D, Simon T. Antisense transcripts at the EMX2 locus in human and mouse. Genomics. 2003;81:58-66 pubmed
    The homeodomain transcription factor EMX2 is critical for central nervous system and urogenital development. In addition, EMX2 maps to a region of allelic deletion corresponding to a putative endometrial tumor suppressor at 10q26...
  27. Muzio L, Mallamaci A. Foxg1 confines Cajal-Retzius neuronogenesis and hippocampal morphogenesis to the dorsomedial pallium. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4435-41 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, in the absence of Foxg1, additional inactivation of the medial fates promoter Emx2, although not suppressing cortical specification, conversely rescues overproduction of Reelin(on) neurons.
  28. Tole S, Gutin G, Bhatnagar L, Remedios R, Hebert J. Development of midline cell types and commissural axon tracts requires Fgfr1 in the cerebrum. Dev Biol. 2006;289:141-51 pubmed
  29. Simeone A, Acampora D, Gulisano M, Stornaiuolo A, Boncinelli E. Nested expression domains of four homeobox genes in developing rostral brain. Nature. 1992;358:687-90 pubmed
    ..We previously cloned and characterized Emx1 and Emx2, two mouse genes related to empty spiracles that are expressed in restricted regions of the developing forebrain, ..
  30. Hebert J, Lin M, Partanen J, Rossant J, McConnell S. FGF signaling through FGFR1 is required for olfactory bulb morphogenesis. Development. 2003;130:1101-11 pubmed
    ..Together the results demonstrate an essential role for Fgfr1 in patterning and morphogenesis of the telencephalon. ..
  31. Theil T, Aydin S, Koch S, Grotewold L, Ruther U. Wnt and Bmp signalling cooperatively regulate graded Emx2 expression in the dorsal telencephalon. Development. 2002;129:3045-54 pubmed
    ..We have used transgenic analysis to investigate the upstream mechanisms for regulation of Emx2 in the dorsal telencephalon...
  32. Muzio L, Di Benedetto B, DiBenedetto B, Stoykova A, Boncinelli E, Gruss P, et al. Emx2 and Pax6 control regionalization of the pre-neuronogenic cortical primordium. Cereb Cortex. 2002;12:129-39 pubmed
    It has recently been demonstrated that the transcription factor genes Emx2 and Pax6, expressed in the developing cerebral cortex along two complementary tangential gradients, are essential for the shaping of the cortical areal profile at ..
  33. Mallamaci A, Mercurio S, Muzio L, Cecchi C, Pardini C, Gruss P, et al. The lack of Emx2 causes impairment of Reelin signaling and defects of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 2000;20:1109-18 pubmed
    Neocorticogenesis in mice homozygous for an Emx2 null allele is the topic of this article...
  34. Pellegrini M, Pantano S, Lucchini F, Fumi M, Forabosco A. Emx2 developmental expression in the primordia of the reproductive and excretory systems. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1997;196:427-33 pubmed
    ..In the present work we have described the expression pattern of the homeobox-containing gene Emx2 during the development of the urogenital system in mouse embryos...
  35. Faedo A, Tomassy G, Ruan Y, Teichmann H, Krauss S, Pleasure S, et al. COUP-TFI coordinates cortical patterning, neurogenesis, and laminar fate and modulates MAPK/ERK, AKT, and beta-catenin signaling. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2117-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that COUP-TFI controls these processes by repressing Mapk/Erk, Akt, and beta-catenin signaling. ..
  36. Capellini T, Vaccari G, Ferretti E, Fantini S, He M, Pellegrini M, et al. Scapula development is governed by genetic interactions of Pbx1 with its family members and with Emx2 via their cooperative control of Alx1. Development. 2010;137:2559-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of mouse mutants for Pbx and Emx2 genes has suggested their potential roles in girdle development...
  37. Galli R, Fiocco R, De Filippis L, Muzio L, Gritti A, Mercurio S, et al. Emx2 regulates the proliferation of stem cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system. Development. 2002;129:1633-44 pubmed
    ..We report the expression of the homeobox transcription factor Emx2 within the periventricular region of the adult telencephalon...
  38. Gutin G, Fernandes M, Palazzolo L, Paek H, Yu K, Ornitz D, et al. FGF signalling generates ventral telencephalic cells independently of SHH. Development. 2006;133:2937-46 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the Fgfr1;Fgfr2 phenotype, unlike the Shh phenotype, is not rescued by loss of Gli3, further indicating that FGFs act downstream of Shh and Gli3 to generate ventral telencephalic cell types. ..
  39. Cholfin J, Rubenstein J. Frontal cortex subdivision patterning is coordinately regulated by Fgf8, Fgf17, and Emx2. J Comp Neurol. 2008;509:144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study, we applied this FC gene expression panel to examine regionalization phenotypes in Fgf8(neo/neo), Emx2-/-, and Emx2-/-;Fgf17-/- newborn mice...
  40. Majumdar A, Vainio S, Kispert A, McMahon J, McMahon A. Wnt11 and Ret/Gdnf pathways cooperate in regulating ureteric branching during metanephric kidney development. Development. 2003;130:3175-85 pubmed
  41. Xuan S, Baptista C, Balas G, Tao W, Soares V, Lai E. Winged helix transcription factor BF-1 is essential for the development of the cerebral hemispheres. Neuron. 1995;14:1141-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that BF-1 controls the morphogenesis of the telencephalon by regulating the rate of neuroepithelial cell proliferation and the timing of neuronal differentiation. ..
  42. Tole S, Remedios R, Saha B, Stoykova A. Selective requirement of Pax6, but not Emx2, in the specification and development of several nuclei of the amygdaloid complex. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2753-60 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms that regulate their development are essentially unknown. We studied the role of Pax6 and Emx2, two transcription factors that regulate regional specification and growth of the telencephalon, in the ..
  43. Torii H, Yoshida A, Katsuno T, Nakagawa T, Ito J, Omori K, et al. Septin7 regulates inner ear formation at an early developmental stage. Dev Biol. 2016;419:217-228 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SEPT7 regulates gross morphogenesis of the inner ear and maintains the size of the inner ear sensory epithelial area and exerts its effects at an early developmental stage of the inner ear. ..
  44. Fernandez A, Pieau C, Reperant J, Boncinelli E, Wassef M. Expression of the Emx-1 and Dlx-1 homeobox genes define three molecularly distinct domains in the telencephalon of mouse, chick, turtle and frog embryos: implications for the evolution of telencephalic subdivisions in amniotes. Development. 1998;125:2099-111 pubmed
    ..Homologies between forebrain subdivisions are proposed based on the conservation and divergence of these gene expression patterns. ..
  45. Suda Y, Nakabayashi J, Matsuo I, Aizawa S. Functional equivalency between Otx2 and Otx1 in development of the rostral head. Development. 1999;126:743-57 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Otx2 may have evolved new functions required for establishment of anterior neuroectoderm that Otx1 cannot perform. ..
  46. Kudo L, Karsten S, Chen J, Levitt P, Geschwind D. Genetic analysis of anterior posterior expression gradients in the developing mammalian forebrain. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2108-22 pubmed
    ..These data provide an important set of new candidates for studies of cortical patterning and maturation. ..
  47. Fujimoto Y, Tanaka S, Yamaguchi Y, Kobayashi H, Kuroki S, Tachibana M, et al. Homeoproteins Six1 and Six4 regulate male sex determination and mouse gonadal development. Dev Cell. 2013;26:416-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of Fog2 induces Sry expression in male sex determination, and the regulation of Nr5a1 in gonadal precursor formation determines gonadal size. ..
  48. Boualia S, Gaitan Y, Tremblay M, Sharma R, Cardin J, Kania A, et al. A core transcriptional network composed of Pax2/8, Gata3 and Lim1 regulates key players of pro/mesonephros morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2013;382:555-66 pubmed publisher
  49. Li J, Mo M, Chen Z, Chen Z, Sheng Q, Mu H, et al. Adenoviral delivery of the EMX2 gene suppresses growth in human gastric cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45970 pubmed publisher
    b>EMX2 is a human orthologue of the Drosophila empty spiracles homeobox gene that has been implicated in embryogenesis...
  50. Brancaccio M, Pivetta C, Granzotto M, Filippis C, Mallamaci A. Emx2 and Foxg1 inhibit gliogenesis and promote neuronogenesis. Stem Cells. 2010;28:1206-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to disentangle the kinetic and histogenetic roles exerted by two of these genes, Emx2 and Foxg1, in cortico-cerebral precursors. For this purpose, we set up a new integrated in vitro assay design...
  51. Loebel D, Hor A, Bildsoe H, Jones V, Chen Y, Behringer R, et al. Regionalized Twist1 activity in the forelimb bud drives the morphogenesis of the proximal and preaxial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2012;362:132-40 pubmed publisher
  52. Tateya T, Sakamoto S, Imayoshi I, Kageyama R. In vivo overactivation of the Notch signaling pathway in the developing cochlear epithelium. Hear Res. 2015;327:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, an appropriate level of Notch signaling is needed for the normal extension of the cochlear epithelium and for differentiation of both hair cells and supporting cells. ..
  53. Simeone A, D Apice M, Nigro V, Casanova J, Graziani F, Acampora D, et al. Orthopedia, a novel homeobox-containing gene expressed in the developing CNS of both mouse and Drosophila. Neuron. 1994;13:83-101 pubmed
    ..Here, we compare the Otp-, Distal-less homeobox 1-(DIx1-), Orthodenticle homolog 1-(Otx1-), Otx2-, and Empty spiracles homolog 2-expressing domains...
  54. Kusaka M, Katoh Fukui Y, Ogawa H, Miyabayashi K, Baba T, Shima Y, et al. Abnormal epithelial cell polarity and ectopic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression induced in Emx2 KO embryonic gonads. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5893-904 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the early gonadal development remains poorly understood. Mice lacking the paired-like homeobox gene Emx2 display gonadal dysgenesis...
  55. Mariani J, Favaro R, Lancini C, Vaccari G, Ferri A, Bertolini J, et al. Emx2 is a dose-dependent negative regulator of Sox2 telencephalic enhancers. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:6461-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Emx2 is also critical for hippocampal development and NSC self-renewal...
  56. Manuel M, Martynoga B, Molinek M, Quinn J, Kroemmer C, Mason J, et al. The transcription factor Foxg1 regulates telencephalic progenitor proliferation cell autonomously, in part by controlling Pax6 expression levels. Neural Dev. 2011;6:9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Foxg1 exerts control over telencephalic progenitor proliferation by cell autonomous mechanisms that include the regulation of Pax6, which itself is known to regulate proliferation cell autonomously in a regional manner. ..
  57. Schmidt Ott K, Masckauchan T, Chen X, Hirsh B, Sarkar A, Yang J, et al. beta-catenin/TCF/Lef controls a differentiation-associated transcriptional program in renal epithelial progenitors. Development. 2007;134:3177-90 pubmed
    ..manner, a subset of the transcripts associated with epithelialization, including Pax8, cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) and Emx2. This is associated with anti-apoptotic and proliferative effects in epithelial progenitors, whereas cells with ..
  58. Hallonet M, Hollemann T, Wehr R, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Pieler T, et al. Vax1 is a novel homeobox-containing gene expressed in the developing anterior ventral forebrain. Development. 1998;125:2599-610 pubmed
    ..Vax1 chromosomal location is mapped at the distal end of the mouse chromosome 19, linked with that of Emx2. These two genes may have arisen by tandem duplication...
  59. Fossat N, Jones V, Khoo P, Bogani D, Hardy A, Steiner K, et al. Stringent requirement of a proper level of canonical WNT signalling activity for head formation in mouse embryo. Development. 2011;138:667-76 pubmed publisher
  60. Spigoni G, Gedressi C, Mallamaci A. Regulation of Emx2 expression by antisense transcripts in murine cortico-cerebral precursors. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8658 pubmed publisher
    b>Emx2 encodes for a transcription factor expressed in the embryonic intermediate mesoderm and central nervous system (CNS)...
  61. Ang S, Jin O, Rhinn M, Daigle N, Stevenson L, Rossant J. A targeted mouse Otx2 mutation leads to severe defects in gastrulation and formation of axial mesoderm and to deletion of rostral brain. Development. 1996;122:243-52 pubmed
  62. Brennan J, Capel B. One tissue, two fates: molecular genetic events that underlie testis versus ovary development. Nat Rev Genet. 2004;5:509-21 pubmed
  63. Taylor M, Poppleton H, Fuller C, Su X, Liu Y, Jensen P, et al. Radial glia cells are candidate stem cells of ependymoma. Cancer Cell. 2005;8:323-35 pubmed
  64. Tateya T, Imayoshi I, Tateya I, Ito J, Kageyama R. Cooperative functions of Hes/Hey genes in auditory hair cell and supporting cell development. Dev Biol. 2011;352:329-40 pubmed publisher
  65. Backman M, Machon O, Mygland L, van den Bout C, Zhong W, Taketo M, et al. Effects of canonical Wnt signaling on dorso-ventral specification of the mouse telencephalon. Dev Biol. 2005;279:155-68 pubmed
    ..beta-catenin in the telencephalon before neurogenesis results in downregulated expression of dorsal markers Emx1, Emx2 and Ngn2, and in ectopic up-regulation of ventral markers Gsh2, Mash1 and Dlx2 in the pallium...
  66. Grego Bessa J, Bloomekatz J, Castel P, Omelchenko T, Baselga J, Anderson K. The tumor suppressor PTEN and the PDK1 kinase regulate formation of the columnar neural epithelium. elife. 2016;5:e12034 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that appropriate levels of membrane-associated PDPK1 are required for stabilization of apical junctions, which promotes cell elongation, during epithelial morphogenesis. ..