Gene Symbol: Emcn
Description: endomucin
Alias: 0610012K22Rik, AI315669, Muc14, endomucin, MUC-14, endomucin-1, endomucin-1/2, mucin 14, endothelial, mucin-14
Species: mouse
Products:     Emcn

Top Publications

  1. Böhmer R, Neuhaus B, Bühren S, Zhang D, Stehling M, Böck B, et al. Regulation of developmental lymphangiogenesis by Syk(+) leukocytes. Dev Cell. 2010;18:437-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism does not involve circulating endothelial progenitor cells and demonstrates the potential of hematopoietic cells to control developmental lymphangiogenesis. ..
  2. Schwarz Q, Vieira J, Howard B, Eickholt B, Ruhrberg C. Neuropilin 1 and 2 control cranial gangliogenesis and axon guidance through neural crest cells. Development. 2008;135:1605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that neuropilins play multiple roles in the sensory nervous system by directing cranial neural crest cells, positioning sensory neurons and organising their axonal projections. ..
  3. Vieira J, Schwarz Q, Ruhrberg C. Selective requirements for NRP1 ligands during neurovascular patterning. Development. 2007;134:1833-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NRP1 contributes to both neuronal and vascular patterning by preferentially relaying SEMA3A signals in peripheral axons and VEGF164 signals in blood vessels. ..
  4. Kinoshita M, Nakamura T, Ihara M, Haraguchi T, Hiraoka Y, Tashiro K, et al. Identification of human endomucin-1 and -2 as membrane-bound O-sialoglycoproteins with anti-adhesive activity. FEBS Lett. 2001;499:121-6 pubmed
    ..These genes, termed endomucin-1/-2, are expressed in several human tissues including heart, kidney, and lung...
  5. Francois M, Short K, Secker G, Combes A, Schwarz Q, Davidson T, et al. Segmental territories along the cardinal veins generate lymph sacs via a ballooning mechanism during embryonic lymphangiogenesis in mice. Dev Biol. 2012;364:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a new model for lymphatic vascular patterning and morphogenesis, as a basis for identifying the molecular cues governing these processes...
  6. Fantin A, Schwarz Q, Davidson K, Normando E, Denti L, Ruhrberg C. The cytoplasmic domain of neuropilin 1 is dispensable for angiogenesis, but promotes the spatial separation of retinal arteries and veins. Development. 2011;138:4185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Nrp1(cyto)(?)(/)(?) mice may therefore provide a suitable genetic model to study the aetiology of BRVO...
  7. Phng L, Potente M, Leslie J, Babbage J, Nyqvist D, Lobov I, et al. Nrarp coordinates endothelial Notch and Wnt signaling to control vessel density in angiogenesis. Dev Cell. 2009;16:70-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, loss of Nrarp, Lef1, or endothelial Ctnnb1 causes vessel regression. We suggest that the balance between Notch and Wnt signaling determines whether to make or break new vessel connections. ..
  8. Brachtendorf G, Kuhn A, Samulowitz U, Knorr R, Gustafsson E, Potocnik A, et al. Early expression of endomucin on endothelium of the mouse embryo and on putative hematopoietic clusters in the dorsal aorta. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:410-9 pubmed
    b>Endomucin is a recently identified sialomucin that is specifically expressed on endothelium of the adult mouse...
  9. Fu J, Gerhardt H, McDaniel J, Xia B, Liu X, Ivanciu L, et al. Endothelial cell O-glycan deficiency causes blood/lymphatic misconnections and consequent fatty liver disease in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3725-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies therefore demonstrate that EC O-glycans control the separation of blood and lymphatic vessels during embryonic and postnatal development, in part by regulating podoplanin expression. ..

More Information


  1. D Amico G, Jones D, Nye E, Sapienza K, Ramjuan A, Reynolds L, et al. Regulation of lymphatic-blood vessel separation by endothelial Rac1. Development. 2009;136:4043-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify Rac1 as a crucial part of the migratory machinery required for endothelial cells to separate and form lymphatic vasculature. ..
  2. Morgan S, Samulowitz U, Darley L, Simmons D, Vestweber D. Biochemical characterization and molecular cloning of a novel endothelial-specific sialomucin. Blood. 1999;93:165-75 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we suggest the name endomucin. Treatment of isolated endomucin by sialidase and O-glycosidase reduced the apparent molecular weight to 45 kD ..
  3. Ueno M, Igarashi K, Kimura N, Okita K, Takizawa M, Nobuhisa I, et al. Endomucin is expressed in embryonic dorsal aorta and is able to inhibit cell adhesion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:501-6 pubmed
    ..5 mice by a signal sequence trap method and obtained a clone encoding a sialoprotein, endomucin-1...
  4. Lan Y, He W, Li Z, Wang Y, Wang J, Gao J, et al. Endothelial Smad4 restrains the transition to hematopoietic progenitors via suppression of ERK activation. Blood. 2014;123:2161-71 pubmed publisher
  5. Wiszniak S, Mackenzie F, Anderson P, Kabbara S, Ruhrberg C, Schwarz Q. Neural crest cell-derived VEGF promotes embryonic jaw extension. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:6086-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cranial NCCs and their derivatives provide an essential source of VEGF to support blood vessel growth in the developing jaw, which in turn is essential for normal chondrocyte proliferation, and therefore jaw extension. ..
  6. Saint Geniez M, Kurihara T, D Amore P. Role of cell and matrix-bound VEGF isoforms in lens development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Abnormalities in ocular development in VEGF120/120 mice suggest a role for VEGF not only in the formation of ocular vascular beds but also in the differentiation of the lens itself. ..
  7. Dartsch N, Schulte D, Hägerling R, Kiefer F, Vestweber D. Fusing VE-cadherin to ?-catenin impairs fetal liver hematopoiesis and lymph but not blood vessel formation. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1634-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, stabilizing endothelial cell contacts by a covalent link between VE-cadherin and ?-catenin affects recruitment of hematopoietic progenitors into the fetal liver and the development of lymph but not blood vessels. ..
  8. Abedin M, Nguyen A, Jiang N, Perry C, Shelton J, Watson D, et al. Fli1 acts downstream of Etv2 to govern cell survival and vascular homeostasis via positive autoregulation. Circ Res. 2014;114:1690-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Once the program is activated in early embryos, Fli1 then takes over to sustain the process in the absence of Etv2. ..
  9. Braitsch C, Combs M, Quaggin S, Yutzey K. Pod1/Tcf21 is regulated by retinoic acid signaling and inhibits differentiation of epicardium-derived cells into smooth muscle in the developing heart. Dev Biol. 2012;368:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate a critical role for Pod1 in controlling mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation into SM and fibroblast lineages during cardiac development...
  10. Guo H, Kazadaeva Y, Ortega F, Manjunath N, Desai T. Trinucleotide repeat containing 6c (TNRC6c) is essential for microvascular maturation during distal airspace sacculation in the developing lung. Dev Biol. 2017;430:214-223 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply a complex and indirect mode of regulation of sacculation by TNRC6c, mediated in part by dynamic transcriptional repression of an inhibitor of TGF? family gene expression. ..
  11. Feng Q, Di R, Tao F, Chang Z, Lu S, Fan W, et al. PDK1 regulates vascular remodeling and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cardiac development. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3711-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results have revealed an essential role of PDK1 in cardiovascular development through activation of Akt and Snail. ..
  12. Li J, Miao L, Zhao C, Shaikh Qureshi W, Shieh D, Guo H, et al. CDC42 is required for epicardial and pro-epicardial development by mediating FGF receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane. Development. 2017;144:1635-1647 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF signaling promotes epicardium formation in vivo, and biochemical studies demonstrated that CDC42 is involved in the trafficking of FGF receptors to the cell membrane to regulate epicardium formation. ..
  13. Quétier I, Marshall J, Spencer Dene B, Lachmann S, Casamassima A, Franco C, et al. Knockout of the PKN Family of Rho Effector Kinases Reveals a Non-redundant Role for PKN2 in Developmental Mesoderm Expansion. Cell Rep. 2016;14:440-448 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that failure of the mesoderm to expand in the absence of PKN2 compromises cardiovascular integrity and development, resulting in lethality. ..
  14. Ola R, Lefebvre S, Braunewell K, Sainio K, Sariola H. The expression of Visinin-like 1 during mouse embryonic development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2012;12:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..g. taste buds, cochlea, thyroid, tooth, salivary and adrenal gland. The stage specific expression pattern of Vsnl1 makes it a potentially useful marker particularly in studies of cardiac and vascular morphogenesis. ..
  15. Havrilak J, Melton K, Shannon J. Endothelial cells are not required for specification of respiratory progenitors. Dev Biol. 2017;427:93-105 pubmed publisher
    ..5 Flk-/- embryos is likely due to developmental delay resulting from the insufficient delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and other factors in the absence of a vasculature. ..
  16. Liebl J, Zhang S, Moser M, Agalarov Y, Demir C, Hager B, et al. Cdk5 controls lymphatic vessel development and function by phosphorylation of Foxc2. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7274 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings show that Cdk5-Foxc2 interaction represents a critical regulator of lymphatic vessel development and the transcriptional network underlying lymphatic vascular remodeling. ..
  17. Kazenwadel J, Betterman K, Chong C, Stokes P, Lee Y, Secker G, et al. GATA2 is required for lymphatic vessel valve development and maintenance. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2979-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data unveil essential roles for GATA2 in the lymphatic vasculature and explain why a select catalogue of human GATA2 mutations results in lymphedema. ..
  18. Li X, Fang Y, Li X, Liang J, Jiang D, Geng Y, et al. Apical Secretion of FSTL1 in the Respiratory Epithelium for Normal Lung Development. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158385 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study demonstrates that tightly spatial interaction of FSTL1 and BMP signaling plays an essential role in lung development. ..
  19. Ridge L, Mitchell K, Al Anbaki A, Shaikh Qureshi W, Stephen L, Tenin G, et al. Non-muscle myosin IIB (Myh10) is required for epicardial function and coronary vessel formation during mammalian development. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007068 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies on the EHC mutant demonstrate a requirement for NMHC IIB in epicardial function and coronary vessel formation, highlighting the importance of this protein in cardiac development and ultimately, embryonic survival. ..
  20. Baumer S, Keller L, Holtmann A, Funke R, August B, Gamp A, et al. Vascular endothelial cell-specific phosphotyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) activity is required for blood vessel development. Blood. 2006;107:4754-62 pubmed
    ..No signs for enhanced endothelial apoptosis or proliferation were observed. Thus, the activity of VE-PTP is not required for the initial formation of blood vessels, yet it is essential for their maintenance and remodeling. ..
  21. McCulloch D, Le Goff C, Bhatt S, Dixon L, Sandy J, Apte S. Adamts5, the gene encoding a proteoglycan-degrading metalloprotease, is expressed by specific cell lineages during mouse embryonic development and in adult tissues. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest the major contexts in which developmental and physiological roles could be sought for this protease. ..
  22. Martino V, Sabljic T, Deschamps P, Green R, Akula M, Peacock E, et al. Conditional deletion of AP-2? in mouse cranial neural crest results in anterior segment dysgenesis and early-onset glaucoma. Dis Model Mech. 2016;9:849-61 pubmed publisher
  23. Papaioannou G, Petit E, Liu E, Baccarini M, Pritchard C, Demay M. Raf Kinases Are Essential for Phosphate Induction of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation in Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Normal Endochondral Bone Development. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:3164-3171 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further demonstrated that Raf kinases are required for phosphate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes and perform essential, but partially redundant roles in growth plate maturation. ..
  24. Wiszniak S, Scherer M, Ramshaw H, Schwarz Q. Neuropilin-2 genomic elements drive cre recombinase expression in primitive blood, vascular and neuronal lineages. Genesis. 2015;53:709-17 pubmed publisher
    ..genesis 53:709-717, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  25. McKenna C, Ojeda A, Spurlin J, Kwiatkowski S, Lwigale P. Sema3A maintains corneal avascularity during development by inhibiting Vegf induced angioblast migration. Dev Biol. 2014;391:241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study introduces cornea development as a new model for studying the mechanisms involved in vascular patterning during embryogenesis and it also provides new insights into therapeutic potential for Sema3A in neovascular diseases. ..
  26. Corada M, Orsenigo F, Morini M, Pitulescu M, Bhat G, Nyqvist D, et al. Sox17 is indispensable for acquisition and maintenance of arterial identity. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2609 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, Sox17 acts upstream of the Notch system and downstream of the canonical Wnt system. These data introduce Sox17 as a component of the complex signalling network that orchestrates arterial/venous specification. ..
  27. Finney B, Schweighoffer E, Navarro Nuñez L, Bénézech C, Barone F, Hughes C, et al. CLEC-2 and Syk in the megakaryocytic/platelet lineage are essential for development. Blood. 2012;119:1747-56 pubmed publisher
  28. Jones C, London N, Chen H, Park K, Sauvaget D, Stockton R, et al. Robo4 stabilizes the vascular network by inhibiting pathologic angiogenesis and endothelial hyperpermeability. Nat Med. 2008;14:448-53 pubmed publisher
  29. Stanczuk L, Martínez Corral I, Ulvmar M, Zhang Y, Laviña B, Fruttiger M, et al. cKit Lineage Hemogenic Endothelium-Derived Cells Contribute to Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels. Cell Rep. 2015;: pubmed publisher
    ..The progenitor cells identified in this study may be exploited to restore lymphatic function following cancer surgery, lymphedema, or tissue trauma. ..
  30. Sengupta A, Chakraborty S, Paik J, Yutzey K, Evans Anderson H. FoxO1 is required in endothelial but not myocardial cell lineages during cardiovascular development. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenotype of Tie2Cre;FoxO1(fl/fl) mutant embryos demonstrates that FoxO1 is required specifically in endothelial cells to regulate formation of the heart and vasculature during development. ..
  31. Zahr A, Alcaide P, Yang J, Jones A, Gregory M, dela Paz N, et al. Endomucin prevents leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and has a critical role under resting and inflammatory conditions. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10363 pubmed publisher
    b>Endomucin is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed luminally by endothelial cells that line postcapillary venules, a primary site of leukocyte recruitment during inflammation...
  32. Schwarz Q, Maden C, Davidson K, Ruhrberg C. Neuropilin-mediated neural crest cell guidance is essential to organise sensory neurons into segmented dorsal root ganglia. Development. 2009;136:1785-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the combined loss of both guidance pathways leads to ectopic invasion of the intersomitic furrows and posterior sclerotome halves, disrupting metameric NCC streaming and DRG segmentation. ..
  33. Holmfeldt P, Ganuza M, Marathe H, He B, Hall T, Kang G, et al. Functional screen identifies regulators of murine hematopoietic stem cell repopulation. J Exp Med. 2016;213:433-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified 17 regulators of HSPC repopulation: Arhgef5, Armcx1, Cadps2, Crispld1, Emcn, Foxa3, Fstl1, Glis2, Gprasp2, Gpr56, Myct1, Nbea, P2ry14, Smarca2, Sox4, Stat4, and Zfp251...
  34. Klotz L, Norman S, Vieira J, Masters M, Rohling M, Dubé K, et al. Cardiac lymphatics are heterogeneous in origin and respond to injury. Nature. 2015;522:62-7 pubmed
    ..These data prompt the re-evaluation of a century-long debate on the origin of lymphatic vessels and suggest that lymphangiogenesis may represent a therapeutic target to promote cardiac repair following injury. ..
  35. Singh B, Tahara N, Kawakami Y, Das S, Koyano Nakagawa N, Gong W, et al. Etv2-miR-130a-Jarid2 cascade regulates vascular patterning during embryogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0189010 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a critical role for Etv2-miR-130a-Jarid2 in vascular patterning both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  36. Nohata N, Uchida Y, Stratman A, Adams R, Zheng Y, Weinstein B, et al. Temporal-specific roles of Rac1 during vascular development and retinal angiogenesis. Dev Biol. 2016;411:183-194 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Rac1 and its downstream molecules may represent potential anti-angiogeneic therapeutic targets for the treatment of many human diseases that involve aberrant neovascularization and blood vessel overgrowth. ..
  37. Vieira J, Howard S, Villa del Campo C, Bollini S, Dubé K, Masters M, et al. BRG1-SWI/SNF-dependent regulation of the Wt1 transcriptional landscape mediates epicardial activity during heart development and disease. Nat Commun. 2017;8:16034 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal essential functions for chromatin-remodelling in the activation of EPDCs during cardiovascular development and repair. ..
  38. Rudat C, Norden J, Taketo M, Kispert A. Epicardial function of canonical Wnt-, Hedgehog-, Fgfr1/2-, and Pdgfra-signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Canonical Wnt-, Hh-, and Fgfr1/Fgfr2-signalling are dispensable for epicardial development, but Pdgfra-signalling is crucial for the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts from epicardium-derived cells. ..
  39. Rudat C, Grieskamp T, Röhr C, Airik R, Wrede C, Hegermann J, et al. Upk3b is dispensable for development and integrity of urothelium and mesothelium. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112112 pubmed publisher
    ..Upk3b is coexpressed with the closely related Upk3a gene in the urothelium but not in the mesothelium, leaving the possibility of a functional redundancy between the two genes in the urothelium only. ..
  40. Nandadasa S, Nelson C, Apte S. ADAMTS9-Mediated Extracellular Matrix Dynamics Regulates Umbilical Cord Vascular Smooth Muscle Differentiation and Rotation. Cell Rep. 2015;11:1519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we observed disrupted Shh signaling and perturbed orientation of the mesenchymal primary cilium. Thus, ECM dynamics is a major influence on umbilical vascular SMC fate, with ADAMTS9 acting as its principal mediator. ..
  41. Cavallero S, Shen H, Yi C, Lien C, Kumar S, Sucov H. CXCL12 Signaling Is Essential for Maturation of the Ventricular Coronary Endothelial Plexus and Establishment of Functional Coronary Circulation. Dev Cell. 2015;33:469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Failed maturation of the coronary system explains the late-gestation lethality of these mutants. ..
  42. Ferdous A, Caprioli A, Iacovino M, Martin C, Morris J, Richardson J, et al. Nkx2-5 transactivates the Ets-related protein 71 gene and specifies an endothelial/endocardial fate in the developing embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:814-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results uncover a novel functional role for Nkx2-5 and define a transcriptional network that specifies an endocardial/endothelial fate in the developing heart and embryo. ..
  43. Scheffer D, Shen J, Corey D, Chen Z. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development. J Neurosci. 2015;35:6366-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. ..
  44. Yakkundi A, Bennett R, Hernández Negrete I, Delalande J, Hanna M, Lyubomska O, et al. FKBPL is a critical antiangiogenic regulator of developmental and pathological angiogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:845-54 pubmed publisher
    ..FKBPL is an important regulator of angiogenesis, having an essential role in murine and zebrafish blood vessel development. Mouse models of angiogenesis demonstrated a proangiogenic phenotype in Fkbpl heterozygotes. ..
  45. Chen H, Chen J, Yu S, Li H, Yang P, Su C, et al. Transcriptome analysis in blastocyst hatching by cDNA microarray. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:2492-501 pubmed
    ..This work provides important information for studying the mechanisms of blastocyst hatching and implantation. These hatching-specific genes may have potential as new drug targets for controlling fertility. ..
  46. Dorner A, Wegmann F, Butz S, Wolburg Buchholz K, Wolburg H, Mack A, et al. Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is essential for early embryonic cardiac development. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3509-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CAR is required for embryonal heart development, most likely due to its function during the organization of myofibrils in cardiomyocytes. ..
  47. Debrincat M, Josefsson E, James C, Henley K, Ellis S, Lebois M, et al. Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) coordinately regulate megakaryocyte survival. Blood. 2012;119:5850-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies indicate that the combination of Bcl-x(L) and Mcl-1 is essential for the viability of the megakaryocyte lineage. ..
  48. Koo B, Coe D, Dixon L, Somerville R, Nelson C, Wang L, et al. ADAMTS9 is a cell-autonomously acting, anti-angiogenic metalloprotease expressed by microvascular endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data identify ADAMTS9 as a novel, constitutive, endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that operates cell-autonomously in ECs via molecular mechanisms that are distinct from those used by ADAMTS1. ..
  49. Saint Geniez M, Kurihara T, Sekiyama E, Maldonado A, D Amore P. An essential role for RPE-derived soluble VEGF in the maintenance of the choriocapillaris. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18751-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are reminiscent of geographic atrophy (GA) and point to a role for RPE-derived VEGF in the maintenance of the choriocapillaris. ..
  50. Moik D, Janbandhu V, Fassler R. Loss of migfilin expression has no overt consequences on murine development and homeostasis. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the roles of migfilin are functionally redundant during mouse development and tissue homeostasis. ..
  51. Costello P, Sargent M, Maurice D, Esnault C, Foster K, Anjos Afonso F, et al. MRTF-SRF signaling is required for seeding of HSC/Ps in bone marrow during development. Blood. 2015;125:1244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Srf-null HSC/Ps exhibit substantial deficits in cytoskeletal gene expression. MRTF-SRF signaling is thus critical for expression of genes required for the response to chemokine signaling during hematopoietic development. ..
  52. Rossdeutsch A, Smart N, Dubé K, Turner M, Riley P. Essential role for thymosin ?4 in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell development and vessel wall stability. Circ Res. 2012;111:e89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for understanding congenital anomalies that may be causative for adult-onset vascular instability. ..
  53. Nedvetsky P, Zhao X, Mathivet T, Aspalter I, Stanchi F, Metzger R, et al. cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulates angiogenesis by modulating tip cell behavior in a Notch-independent manner. Development. 2016;143:3582-3590 pubmed
    ..Although these effects of PKA inhibition were highly reminiscent of Notch inhibition effects, our data demonstrate that PKA and Notch independently regulate tip and stalk cell formation and behavior. ..
  54. Bowles J, Secker G, Nguyen C, Kazenwadel J, Truong V, Frampton E, et al. Control of retinoid levels by CYP26B1 is important for lymphatic vascular development in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2014;386:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify a genetic pathway that underpins the architecture of the developing lymphatics and define CYP26B1 as a novel modulator of lymphatic vascular patterning. ..
  55. Graupera M, Guillermet Guibert J, Foukas L, Phng L, Cain R, Salpekar A, et al. Angiogenesis selectively requires the p110alpha isoform of PI3K to control endothelial cell migration. Nature. 2008;453:662-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide the first in vivo evidence for p110-isoform selectivity in endothelial PI3K signalling during angiogenesis. ..
  56. Foster K, Sheridan J, Veiga Fernandes H, Roderick K, Pachnis V, Adams R, et al. Contribution of neural crest-derived cells in the embryonic and adult thymus. J Immunol. 2008;180:3183-9 pubmed
    ..In the adult organ at 3 mo of age, these NC-derived perivascular cells continue to be associated with the vasculature, providing structural support to the blood vessels and possibly regulating endothelial cell function. ..
  57. Langen U, Pitulescu M, Kim J, Enriquez Gasca R, Sivaraj K, Kusumbe A, et al. Cell-matrix signals specify bone endothelial cells during developmental osteogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:189-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work outlines fundamental principles of vessel formation and endothelial cell differentiation in the developing skeletal system. ..
  58. Tischfield M, Robson C, Gilette N, Chim S, Sofela F, DeLisle M, et al. Cerebral Vein Malformations Result from Loss of Twist1 Expression and BMP Signaling from Skull Progenitor Cells and Dura. Dev Cell. 2017;42:445-461.e5 pubmed publisher
  59. Janardhan H, Milstone Z, Shin M, Lawson N, Keaney J, Trivedi C. Hdac3 regulates lymphovenous and lymphatic valve formation. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:4193-4206 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results identify Hdac3 as a key epigenetic modifier that maintains blood-lymph separation and integrates both extrinsic forces and intrinsic cues to regulate lymphatic valve development. ..
  60. Pollizzi K, Malinowska Kolodziej I, Doughty C, Betz C, Ma J, Goto J, et al. A hypomorphic allele of Tsc2 highlights the role of TSC1/TSC2 in signaling to AKT and models mild human TSC2 alleles. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Tsc2-del3 mice also serve as a model for hypomorphic TSC2 missense mutations reported in TSC patients. ..
  61. Delalande J, Natarajan D, Vernay B, Finlay M, Ruhrberg C, Thapar N, et al. Vascularisation is not necessary for gut colonisation by enteric neural crest cells. Dev Biol. 2014;385:220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, in miRet(51) mice, which lack ENS in the hindgut, the vascular network in this region appeared to be normal suggesting that in early development both networks form independently of each other. ..
  62. van Bueren K, Papangeli I, Rochais F, Pearce K, Roberts C, Calmont A, et al. Hes1 expression is reduced in Tbx1 null cells and is required for the development of structures affected in 22q11 deletion syndrome. Dev Biol. 2010;340:369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Hes1 acts downstream of Tbx1 in the morphogenesis of pharyngeal-derived structures. ..
  63. Prahst C, Kasaai B, Moraes F, Jahnsen E, Larrivee B, Villegas D, et al. The H2.0-like homeobox transcription factor modulates yolk sac vascular remodeling in mouse embryos. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:1468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We find HLX is regulated by shear stress and a subtle defect in vascular remodeling is present in knockout embryos. ..
  64. Hare L, Schwarz Q, Wiszniak S, Gurung R, Montgomery K, Mitchell C, et al. Heterozygous expression of the oncogenic Pik3ca(H1047R) mutation during murine development results in fatal embryonic and extraembryonic defects. Dev Biol. 2015;404:14-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results confirm the lethality associated with heterozygous expression of the Pik3ca(H1047R) mutation during development and likely explain the lack of inherited germline PIK3CA mutations in humans. ..
  65. Karpanen T, Padberg Y, van de Pavert S, Dierkes C, Morooka N, Peterson Maduro J, et al. An Evolutionarily Conserved Role for Polydom/Svep1 During Lymphatic Vessel Formation. Circ Res. 2017;120:1263-1275 pubmed publisher
  66. Ma A, Wang L, Gao Y, Chang Z, Peng H, Zeng N, et al. Tsc1 deficiency-mediated mTOR hyperactivation in vascular endothelial cells causes angiogenesis defects and embryonic lethality. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:693-705 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulated that disruption of normal angiogenic pathways through hyperactive mTOR signaling maybe the mechanism that lead to deranged vascular pathogenesis in the tuberous sclerosis complex. ..
  67. Deng Y, Larrivee B, Zhuang Z, Atri D, Moraes F, Prahst C, et al. Endothelial RAF1/ERK activation regulates arterial morphogenesis. Blood. 2013;121:3988-96, S1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that endothelial ERK signaling is critical for both arteriogenesis and arterial-venous patterning and that RAF1 Ser(259) phosphorylation plays a critical role in preventing unopposed ERK activation. ..
  68. Hägerling R, Pollmann C, Andreas M, Schmidt C, Nurmi H, Adams R, et al. A novel multistep mechanism for initial lymphangiogenesis in mouse embryos based on ultramicroscopy. EMBO J. 2013;32:629-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we present a significantly more detailed view and novel model of early lymphatic development. ..
  69. Azizoglu D, Chong D, Villasenor A, Magenheim J, Barry D, Lee S, et al. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas. Dev Biol. 2016;420:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. ..
  70. Ben Shoham A, Rot C, Stern T, Krief S, Akiva A, Dadosh T, et al. Deposition of collagen type I onto skeletal endothelium reveals a new role for blood vessels in regulating bone morphology. Development. 2016;143:3933-3943 pubmed
    ..These data reveal the unique composition of the endothelium in developing bones and indicate that vascular patterning plays a role in determining bone shape by forming a template for deposition of bone matrix. ..
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