Eif2ak2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Eif2ak2
Description: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2
Alias: 2310047A08Rik, 4732414G15Rik, AI467567, AI747578, Pkr, Prkr, Tik, interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, IFN- type I-induced and dsRNA-activated kinase, IFN-induced and double-stranded RNA-activated kinase, P1/eIF-2A protein kinase, T-cell viral integration site, dsRNA-activated kinase, eIF-2 alpha, eIF-2A protein kinase 2, interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase, p68 kinase, protein kinase R, protein kinase RNA-activated, protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent, serine/threonine-protein kinase TIK, tyrosine-protein kinase EIF2AK2
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The human mutator gene homolog MSH2 and its association with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
    R Fishel
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Markey Center for Molecular Genetics University of Vermont Medical School Burlington 05405
    Cell 75:1027-38. 1993
  2. pmc Deficient signaling in mice devoid of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
    Y L Yang
    Institut für Molekularbiologie I, Universitat Zurich, Switzerland
    EMBO J 14:6095-106. 1995
  3. pmc Deficient cytokine signaling in mouse embryo fibroblasts with a targeted deletion in the PKR gene: role of IRF-1 and NF-kappaB
    A Kumar
    Department of Cancer Biology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA
    EMBO J 16:406-16. 1997
  4. ncbi Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR
    N Abraham
    Ottawa Regional Cancer Center Research Laboratories, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6
    J Biol Chem 274:5953-62. 1999
  5. ncbi Essential role for the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR in innate immunity to viral infection
    S Balachandran
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33136, USA
    Immunity 13:129-41. 2000
  6. pmc Regulation of starvation- and virus-induced autophagy by the eIF2alpha kinase signaling pathway
    Zsolt Talloczy
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:190-5. 2002
  7. pmc Activation of PKR by Bunyamwera virus is independent of the viral interferon antagonist NSs
    Hein Streitenfeld
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 77:5507-11. 2003
  8. ncbi The protein kinase PKR is required for macrophage apoptosis after activation of Toll-like receptor 4
    Li Chung Hsu
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0636, USA
    Nature 428:341-5. 2004
  9. pmc PKR-dependent and -independent mechanisms are involved in translational shutoff during Sindbis virus infection
    Rodion Gorchakov
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 78:8455-67. 2004
  10. pmc The lack of RNA-dependent protein kinase enhances susceptibility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection
    Daniel J J Carr
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Immunology 118:520-6. 2006

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

  • Kaya Yoshida
  • DANIEL J CARR
  • Iván Ventoso
  • Hiroyuki Morimoto
  • Abujiang Pataer
  • Sudip K Bandyopadhyay
  • Maciej Cabanski
  • U A Bommer
  • D A Leib
  • Khalid Sa Khabar
  • Philippos Peidis
  • Jose Pena
  • D P Cerretti
  • Bryan R G Williams
  • Takahisa Nakamura
  • Dionissios Baltzis
  • Robert H Silverman
  • Ganes C Sen
  • Randal J Kaufman
  • Antonis E Koromilas
  • Richard L Bennett
  • H L Eley
  • Christine L White
  • Xiaodong Cheng
  • Oliver Schulz
  • Gokhan S Hotamisligil
  • W Stratford May
  • Donalyn Scheuner
  • Madhurima Singh
  • Nahum Sonenberg
  • Rima Hage Hassan
  • Khaldun Al-Khatib
  • Shirin Kazemi
  • Zhaowei Zhu
  • Eleonore Ostermann
  • John C Bell
  • John K Fazakerley
  • Michael Byrne
  • Elad Stern
  • Xiangfei Liu
  • Pauline Sebby Ogolla
  • Yuan He
  • Amanda Boyd
  • Ben Lu
  • Aaron T Irving
  • Zoe Waibler
  • Lucas C Reineke
  • Ping Jun Zhu
  • Jaime D Blais
  • Adrish Sen
  • Sheetal A Thakur
  • Silvia Stockinger
  • Tricia I Lozon
  • Babal Kant Jha
  • Zhiqiang Zhang
  • Kensuke Tsushima
  • B R Williams
  • Farhad Imani
  • Julien Couturier
  • Anthony J Sadler
  • Radiah A Corn Minor
  • Adolfo Garcia-Sastre
  • Simone Backes
  • Christopher von Roretz
  • Renata M S Pereira
  • Ai Harashima
  • Rekha C Patel
  • Aïcha Daher
  • Stephanie J Child
  • K L Kuhen
  • Gerald Barry
  • Christopher S McAllister
  • M J Tisdale
  • S T Russell
  • Bianca Dauber
  • Cheol Hee Yoon
  • Heather Zwaferink
  • Lily Agranat
  • Arindam Chakrabarti
  • A Alisi
  • Kevin Goggin
  • Jothilatha Krishnamoorthy
  • Joao T Marques
  • Min Jong Kang
  • Nicholas Goplen
  • Charles E Samuel
  • Caetano Reis E Sousa
  • Zineb Mounir
  • Jennifer F Raven
  • C E Samuel

Detail Information

Publications123 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The human mutator gene homolog MSH2 and its association with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
    R Fishel
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Markey Center for Molecular Genetics University of Vermont Medical School Burlington 05405
    Cell 75:1027-38. 1993
    ..These data and reports indicating that S. cerevisiae msh2 mutations cause an instability of dinucleotide repeats like those associated with HNPCC suggest that hMSH2 is the HNPCC gene...
  2. pmc Deficient signaling in mice devoid of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
    Y L Yang
    Institut für Molekularbiologie I, Universitat Zurich, Switzerland
    EMBO J 14:6095-106. 1995
    Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) has been implicated in interferon (IFN) induction, antiviral response and tumor suppression. We have generated mice devoid of functional PKR (Pkr%)...
  3. pmc Deficient cytokine signaling in mouse embryo fibroblasts with a targeted deletion in the PKR gene: role of IRF-1 and NF-kappaB
    A Kumar
    Department of Cancer Biology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA
    EMBO J 16:406-16. 1997
    The interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated Ser/Thr protein kinase (PKR) plays a role in the antiviral and antiproliferative effects of IFN...
  4. ncbi Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR
    N Abraham
    Ottawa Regional Cancer Center Research Laboratories, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6
    J Biol Chem 274:5953-62. 1999
    The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses...
  5. ncbi Essential role for the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR in innate immunity to viral infection
    S Balachandran
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33136, USA
    Immunity 13:129-41. 2000
    The double-stranded (ds) RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR is considered to play an important role in interferon's (IFN's) response to viral infection...
  6. pmc Regulation of starvation- and virus-induced autophagy by the eIF2alpha kinase signaling pathway
    Zsolt Talloczy
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:190-5. 2002
    ..The mammalian IFN-inducible eIF2alpha kinase, PKR, rescues starvation-induced autophagy in GCN2-disrupted yeast, and pkr null and Ser-51 nonphosphorylatable mutant ..
  7. pmc Activation of PKR by Bunyamwera virus is independent of the viral interferon antagonist NSs
    Hein Streitenfeld
    Abteilung Virologie, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitat Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 77:5507-11. 2003
    ..Cellular responses to dsRNA include induction of alpha/beta interferon (IFN) synthesis and activation of the enzyme PKR, which exerts its antiviral effect by phosphorylating the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF-2 alpha, thereby ..
  8. ncbi The protein kinase PKR is required for macrophage apoptosis after activation of Toll-like receptor 4
    Li Chung Hsu
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0636, USA
    Nature 428:341-5. 2004
    ..of anti- and pro-apoptotic signalling events triggered by TLR4 identified the dsRNA responsive protein kinase PKR as a critical mediator of pathogen-induced macrophage apoptosis...
  9. pmc PKR-dependent and -independent mechanisms are involved in translational shutoff during Sindbis virus infection
    Rodion Gorchakov
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 78:8455-67. 2004
    ..In this study, we used a combination of approaches, including the study of SIN replication in PKR(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts or in the presence of an excess of catalytically inactive PKR...
  10. pmc The lack of RNA-dependent protein kinase enhances susceptibility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection
    Daniel J J Carr
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Immunology 118:520-6. 2006
    Mice deficient in RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR-/-) or deficient in PKR and a functional 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) pathway (PKR/RL-/-) are more susceptible to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection than ..
  11. ncbi Enlarged spleens without enlarged lymph nodes in tlr3-/- pkr-/- mice
    Christine L White
    Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 27:6-12. 2007
    ..phenotypic studies in a mouse containing mutations in both toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and RNA-de-pendent protein kinase R (PKR) revealed comparable spleen and bone marrow cell populations in tlr3(-/)-, pkr(-/-), and tlr3(-/-)pkr(-/-..
  12. ncbi The eIF2alpha kinases PERK and PKR activate glycogen synthase kinase 3 to promote the proteasomal degradation of p53
    Dionissios Baltzis
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, McGill University, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2, Canada
    J Biol Chem 282:31675-87. 2007
    ..This role is not specific for PERK, because the eIF2alpha kinase PKR also promotes p53 degradation in response to double-stranded RNA...
  13. ncbi Activation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase by mild impairment of oxidative metabolism in neurons
    Xin Wang
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    J Neurochem 103:2380-90. 2007
    ..The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), has been well known for its anti-viral function...
  14. pmc Protein kinase R-dependent regulation of interleukin-10 in response to double-stranded RNA
    Arindam Chakrabarti
    Departments of Cancer Biology and Molecular Cardiology, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:25132-9. 2008
    The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is an important component of antiviral defense...
  15. ncbi The eIF2alpha kinases inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus replication independently of eIF2alpha phosphorylation
    Jothilatha Krishnamoorthy
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, McGill University, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Cell Cycle 7:2346-51. 2008
    ..Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from knock-out mice we show that PKR and HRI have no effects on VSV replication as opposed to PERK and GCN2, which exhibit strong inhibitory effects...
  16. pmc Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase links pathogen sensing with stress and metabolic homeostasis
    Takahisa Nakamura
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 140:338-48. 2010
    ..Here, we provide evidence that double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) can respond to nutrient signals as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and coordinate the activity of other ..
  17. pmc Protein kinase R is a novel mediator of CD40 signaling and plays a critical role in modulating immunoglobulin expression during respiratory syncytial virus infection
    Sheetal A Thakur
    Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:2060-6. 2011
    ..Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that protein kinase R (PKR) plays a crucial role in IgE responses to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in vitro...
  18. pmc Novel role of PKR in inflammasome activation and HMGB1 release
    Ben Lu
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 488:670-4. 2012
    ..release mechanisms, here we identify a role for double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR, also known as EIF2AK2) in inflammasome activation. Exposure of macrophages to inflammasome agonists induced PKR autophosphorylation...
  19. pmc TRAF family proteins link PKR with NF-kappa B activation
    Jesus Gil
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Campus Universidad Autonoma, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 24:4502-12. 2004
    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR activates NF-kappa B via the I kappa B kinase (IKK) complex, but little is known about additional molecules that may be involved in this pathway...
  20. ncbi A site on the influenza A virus NS1 protein mediates both inhibition of PKR activation and temporal regulation of viral RNA synthesis
    Ji Young Min
    Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, room 2 122, 2500 Speedway, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Virology 363:236-43. 2007
    It is not known how influenza A viruses, important human pathogens, counter PKR activation, a crucial host antiviral response. Here we elucidate this mechanism...
  21. pmc A novel function of eIF2alpha kinases as inducers of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase signaling pathway
    Shirin Kazemi
    Lady Davis Institute, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2
    Mol Biol Cell 18:3635-44. 2007
    ..Herein, we show that a conditionally active form of the eIF2alpha kinase PKR acts upstream of PI3K and turns on the Akt/PKB-FRAP/mTOR pathway leading to S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation...
  22. pmc West Nile virus-induced interferon production is mediated by the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR
    Felicia D Gilfoy
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0436, USA
    J Virol 81:11148-58. 2007
    ..Here we demonstrate that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR, which has been shown to function as a PRR in cells treated with the dsRNA mimetic poly(I:C), serves as a PRR in ..
  23. ncbi PKR regulates TLR2/TLR4-dependent signaling in murine alveolar macrophages
    Maciej Cabanski
    University of Giessen Lung Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Justus Liebig University, Klinikstrasse 36, Giessen 35392, Germany
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 38:26-31. 2008
    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated serine/threonine kinase R (PKR) is well characterized as an essential component of the innate antiviral response...
  24. pmc Influenza B virus ribonucleoprotein is a potent activator of the antiviral kinase PKR
    Bianca Dauber
    P15, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000473. 2009
    Activation of the latent kinase PKR is a potent innate defense reaction of vertebrate cells towards viral infections, which is triggered by recognition of viral double-stranded (ds) RNA and results in a translational shutdown...
  25. doi Novel role for the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR: modulation of macrophage infection by the protozoan parasite Leishmania
    Renata M S Pereira
    Laboratorio de Parasitologia Molecular, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    FASEB J 24:617-26. 2010
    ..Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR), a classic antiviral protein, is able to regulate a number of signaling pathways and macrophage ..
  26. pmc Interaction of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) with the death receptor signaling pathway in amyloid beta (Abeta)-treated cells and in APPSLPS1 knock-in mice
    Julien Couturier
    Research Group on Brain Aging, GReViC EA 3808, University of Poitiers, 6 rue de la Miletrie, BP 199, 86034 Poitiers Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 285:1272-82. 2010
    ..AD patients that translation is down-regulated by the activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)...
  27. pmc Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition
    Ping Jun Zhu
    Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cell 147:1384-96. 2011
    The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) was originally identified as a sensor of virus infection, but its function in the brain remains unknown...
  28. pmc The protein kinase PKR is required for p38 MAPK activation and the innate immune response to bacterial endotoxin
    K C Goh
    Department of Cancer Biology NB40, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    EMBO J 19:4292-7. 2000
    Protein kinase RNA-regulated (PKR) is an established component of innate antiviral immunity. Recently, PKR has been shown to be essential for signal transduction in other situations of cellular stress...
  29. ncbi Functional characterization of pkr gene products expressed in cells from mice with a targeted deletion of the N terminus or C terminus domain of PKR
    Dionissios Baltzis
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, McGill University, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Côte Ste Catherine Street, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2, Canada
    J Biol Chem 277:38364-72. 2002
    The interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase, PKR, plays an important role in messenger (m) RNA translation by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2...
  30. pmc The RNA-activated protein kinase enhances the induction of interferon-beta and apoptosis mediated by cytoplasmic RNA sensors
    Christopher S McAllister
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:1644-51. 2009
    ..PRNAs 50 nucleotides long as well as polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid activated the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and induced significant levels of IFN-beta and apoptosis, whereas shorter PRNAs and chemically synthesized dsRNAs ..
  31. ncbi The gene encoding LERK-7 (EPLG7, Epl7), a ligand for the Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases, maps to human chromosome 5 at band q21 and to mouse chromosome 17
    D P Cerretti
    Department of Molecular Biology, Immunex Corporation, Seattle, Washington, 98101, USA
    Genomics 35:376-9. 1996
    ..In addition, Southern blot analysis of DNAs from interspecific backcross mice indicated that the mouse homologue Epl7 maps to a homologous region on chromosome 17...
  32. ncbi Mouse interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase Pkr gene: cloning and sequence of the 5'-flanking region and functional identification of the minimal inducible promoter
    H Tanaka
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Gene 246:373-82. 2000
    The RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is implicated in the antiviral and antiproliferative actions of interferon (IFN)...
  33. pmc Resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection requires a functional cross talk between the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha kinases PERK and PKR
    Dionissios Baltzis
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Côte Ste Catherine St, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2, Canada
    J Virol 78:12747-61. 2004
    ..The eIF2alpha kinase PKR has been shown to play an essential role against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection...
  34. ncbi RNase L and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase exert complementary roles in islet cell defense during coxsackievirus infection
    Malin Flodstrom-Tullberg
    Department of Immunology, IMM 23, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Immunol 174:1171-7. 2005
    ..we demonstrate that 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (2-5AS), RNase L, and dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) are expressed by pancreatic islet cells and that IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma) increase the expression of 2-5AS ..
  35. pmc Protein kinase RNA/FADD/caspase-8 pathway mediates the proapoptotic activity of the RNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR)
    Christopher von Roretz
    Biochemistry Department and Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Center, McGill University, Montreal, Ontario H3G 1Y6, Canada
    J Biol Chem 285:16806-13. 2010
    ..Here, we show that this cleavage event is dependent on protein kinase RNA (PKR)...
  36. pmc HDAC pharmacological inhibition promotes cell death through the eIF2α kinases PKR and GCN2
    Philippos Peidis
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Aging (Albany NY) 2:669-77. 2010
    ..our data indicate that eIF2α phosphorylation acts in a cytoprotective manner, whereas the eIF2α kinases PKR and GCN2 promote vorinostat-induced apoptosis...
  37. doi IRF3 regulates cardiac fibrosis but not hypertrophy in mice during angiotensin II-induced hypertension
    Kensuke Tsushima
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    FASEB J 25:1531-43. 2011
    ..Thus, our present study reveals a hitherto unrecognized function of IRF3 in cardiac remodeling, providing new insight into the progression of hypertension-induced cardiac pathogenesis...
  38. doi Regulation of actin dynamics by protein kinase R control of gelsolin enforces basal innate immune defense
    Aaron T Irving
    Centre for Cancer Research, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Immunity 36:795-806. 2012
    ..Here we showed that the antiviral protein kinase R (PKR) inhibited the key actin-modifying protein gelsolin to regulate actin dynamics and control cytoskeletal ..
  39. doi Blocking the eIF2α kinase (PKR) enhances positive and negative forms of cortex-dependent taste memory
    Elad Stern
    Sagol Department of Neurobiology, Center for Gene Manipulation in the Brain, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 39105, Israel
    J Neurosci 33:2517-25. 2013
    ..eIF2α phosphorylation and improve memory consolidation, we pharmacologically inhibited one of the eIF2α kinases, PKR, which is known to be involved in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease...
  40. pmc The protein kinase double-stranded RNA-dependent (PKR) enhances protection against disease cause by a non-viral pathogen
    Pauline Sebby Ogolla
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003557. 2013
    b>PKR is well characterized for its function in antiviral immunity. Using Toxoplasma gondii, we examined if PKR promotes resistance to disease caused by a non-viral pathogen. PKR(-/-) mice infected with T...
  41. doi Inhibition of PKR impairs angiogenesis through a VEGF pathway
    Zhaowei Zhu
    Department of Cardiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China and
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 308:E518-24. 2015
    ..Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase...
  42. pmc A critical role for PKR complexes with TRBP in Immunometabolic regulation and eIF2α phosphorylation in obesity
    Takahisa Nakamura
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases and Sabri Ülker Center, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA Division of Developmental Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA Electronic address
    Cell Rep 11:295-307. 2015
    ..key factors in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, and the double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase (PKR) has been proposed to play an important role in integrating these pathways...
  43. pmc PKR inhibits the DNA damage response, and is associated with poor survival in AML and accelerated leukemia in NHD13 mice
    Xiaodong Cheng
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL and University of Florida Health Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL
    Blood 126:1585-94. 2015
    Increased expression of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) has been reported in acute leukemia and solid tumors, but the role of PKR has been unclear...
  44. pmc Knockout of the Host Resistance Gene Pkr Fully Restores Replication of Murine Cytomegalovirus m142 and m143 Mutants In Vivo
    Eleonore Ostermann
    Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, Hamburg, Germany
    J Virol 90:1144-7. 2015
    ..They bind double-stranded RNA and prevent protein kinase R-induced protein synthesis shutoff...
  45. pmc Sustained Action of Ceramide on the Insulin Signaling Pathway in Muscle Cells: IMPLICATION OF THE DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE
    Rima Hage Hassan
    From INSERM, Unité Mixte de Recherche_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France, Sorbonne Universités, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 06, Unité Mixte de Recherche_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France, Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Unité Mixte de Recherche_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France
    J Biol Chem 291:3019-29. 2016
    ..procedures to mimic the in vivo situation and show that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is involved in the long-term effects of saturated fatty acids on IRS1...
  46. pmc The editing enzyme ADAR1 and the mRNA surveillance protein hUpf1 interact in the cell nucleus
    Lily Agranat
    Department of Genetics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5028-33. 2008
    ..This study suggests a regulatory pathway by a combination of ADAR1 A-to-I editing enzyme and RNA degradation presumably with the aid of hUpf1...
  47. pmc Doxorubicin bypasses the cytoprotective effects of eIF2α phosphorylation and promotes PKR-mediated cell death
    P Peidis
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Cell Death Differ 18:145-54. 2011
    ..Different forms of DNA damage were shown to induce eIF2α phosphorylation by using PERK, GCN2 or PKR. However, the specificity of the eIF2α kinases and the biological role of eIF2α phosphorylation pathway in the ..
  48. pmc DDX1, DDX21, and DHX36 helicases form a complex with the adaptor molecule TRIF to sense dsRNA in dendritic cells
    Zhiqiang Zhang
    Department of Immunology, Center for Cancer Immunology Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Immunity 34:866-78. 2011
    ..This sensor was localized within the cytosol, independent of the endosomes. Thus, the DDX1-DDX21-DHX36 complex represents a dsRNA sensor that uses the TRIF pathway to activate type I IFN responses in the cytosol of mDCs...
  49. pmc Adaptive changes in alphavirus mRNA translation allowed colonization of vertebrate hosts
    Iván Ventoso
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular and Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid UAM and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    J Virol 86:9484-94. 2012
    ..In vertebrate cells, the alphavirus resists the activation of antiviral RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) by the presence of a prominent RNA structure (downstream loop [DLP]) located in viral 26S transcripts, which ..
  50. pmc Large G3BP-induced granules trigger eIF2α phosphorylation
    Lucas C Reineke
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77584, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 23:3499-510. 2012
    ..fibroblasts depleted for individual eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinases, we identified protein kinase R as the principal kinase that mediates eIF2α phosphorylation by large G3BP-induced granules...
  51. pmc The protein kinase PKR is critical for LPS-induced iNOS production but dispensable for inflammasome activation in macrophages
    Yuan He
    Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Eur J Immunol 43:1147-52. 2013
    ..Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), a protein kinase activated by viral infection, has been recently shown to be required for the activation of the ..
  52. pmc PKR regulates proliferation, differentiation, and survival of murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells
    Xiangfei Liu
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology and the University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Blood 121:3364-74. 2013
    b>Protein kinase R (PKR) is an interferon (IFN)-inducible, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase that initiates apoptosis in response to cellular stress...
  53. ncbi Construction and expression of an enzymatically active human-mouse chimeric double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
    R C Patel
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195 5285
    J Interferon Res 12:389-93. 1992
    The interferon (IFN)-inducible double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (p68 kinase) is a physiologically important enzyme that regulates the rate of cellular and viral protein synthesis by phosphorylating and thereby ..
  54. ncbi Chromosomal assignment of the interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PRKR) to human chromosome 2p21-p22 and mouse chromosome 17 E2
    G N Barber
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    Genomics 16:765-7. 1993
    The genes encoding P68 and P65 (PRKR), the human and mouse interferon-inducible dsRNA-dependent protein kinases, respectively, have been mapped to a single locus on human chromosome 2 (band p21) and on mouse chromosome 17 (band E2)...
  55. ncbi Regulation of protein synthesis by heme-regulated eIF-2 alpha kinase
    J J Chen
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 20:105-8. 1995
    ..distinct mammalian eIF-2 alpha kinases that have been cloned, the double-stranded-RNA-dependent eIF-2 alpha kinase (PKR) and the heme-regulated eIF-2 alpha kinase (HRI)...
  56. ncbi Localization of the murine homolog of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (AlK) gene on mouse chromosome 17
    P Mathew
    Department of Experimental Oncology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38101 0318, USA
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 70:143-4. 1995
    ..This assignment further confirms the homology between a portion of the distal Chromosome 17 and the short arm of human chromosome 2 and extends this region in the mouse by an additional 3 cM...
  57. ncbi Mechanism of interferon action sequence of the human interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) deduced from genomic clones
    K L Kuhen
    Interdepartmental Graduate Program of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara 93106, USA
    Gene 178:191-3. 1996
    The pkr gene encoding the interferon-inducible, RNA-dependent protein kinase was isolated as lambda phage and P1 phage clones from human genomic DNA and characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blot analysis, and nucleotide ..
  58. pmc The laminin alpha chains: expression, developmental transitions, and chromosomal locations of alpha1-5, identification of heterotrimeric laminins 8-11, and cloning of a novel alpha3 isoform
    J H Miner
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Cell Biol 137:685-701. 1997
    ..Together, these results reveal remarkable diversity in BL composition and complexity in BL development...
  59. ncbi Cloning, expression and genetic mapping of the mouse SH3 domain protein, SH3D2B
    T Torrey
    Laboratory of Immunopathology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Mamm Genome 9:74-5. 1998
  60. ncbi Interferon action in triply deficient mice reveals the existence of alternative antiviral pathways
    A Zhou
    The Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Virology 258:435-40. 1999
    ..In particular, PKR, RNase L, and Mx are considered to be the principal proteins through which IFNs mount an antiviral state...
  61. ncbi Negative regulation of CD8+ T cell function by the IFN-induced and double-stranded RNA-activated kinase PKR
    S Kadereit
    Departments of Cancer Biology and Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Immunol 165:6896-901. 2000
    The IFN-induced and dsRNA-activated kinase (PKR) mediates the antiviral and antiproliferative effects of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. Despite these findings, PKR:(-/-) mice have no overt immunological phenotype...
  62. ncbi Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, down-regulates CDC2/cyclin B1 and induces apoptosis in non-transformed but not in v-mos transformed cells
    Y Dagon
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel
    Oncogene 20:8045-56. 2001
    The interferon (IFN)-induced, double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated serine/threonine kinase, PKR, is a potent negative regulator of cell growth when overexpressed in yeast or mammalian cells...
  63. ncbi Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (pkr) is essential for thermotolerance, accumulation of HSP70, and stabilization of ARE-containing HSP70 mRNA during stress
    Meijuan Zhao
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:44539-47. 2002
    We have investigated the role of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase gene (pkr) in the regulation of the heat shock response...
  64. ncbi Absence of PKR attenuates the anti-HSV-1 activity of an adenoviral vector expressing murine IFN-beta
    Khaldun Al-Khatib
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 22:861-71. 2002
    ..The expression of IFN beta-responsive genes, including protein kinase R (PKR) and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), were significantly elevated in the Ad:IFN-beta-transduced ..
  65. ncbi RNase L mediates transient control of the interferon response through modulation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR
    Khalid S A Khabar
    Department of Biological and Medical Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia
    J Biol Chem 278:20124-32. 2003
    ..of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha, eIF2alpha, by the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, constitutes a means of inhibiting viral replication...
  66. ncbi C114 is a novel IL-11-inducible nuclear double-stranded RNA-binding protein that inhibits protein kinase R
    Zhan Yin
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4965, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:22838-45. 2003
    ..C). Similar to other dsRNA-binding proteins, C114 binds to the dsRNA-activated protein kinase, protein kinase R (PKR), via dsRNA-binding domains of PKR and the N-terminal region of the C114 protein...
  67. ncbi PKR's protective role in viral myocarditis
    Michael J Stewart
    Department of Microbiology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Virology 314:92-100. 2003
    ..IFN-beta induces a number of genes with antiviral activities, including the dsRNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. Once bound to viral dsRNA, PKR becomes activated and phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor-2 alpha (eIF2 ..
  68. pmc Activation of NF-kappaB in cells productively infected with HSV-1 depends on activated protein kinase R and plays no apparent role in blocking apoptosis
    Brunella Taddeo
    The Marjorie B Kovler Viral Oncology Laboratories, University of Chicago, 910 East 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12408-13. 2003
    ..In this report we show that activation of NF-kappaB in infected cells is linked to the activation of protein kinase R (PKR)...
  69. ncbi Interferon-alpha inhibits interleukin-3-induced proliferation of Ba/F3 cells in a protein kinase R-dependent manner
    Katrin Schröder
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rostock, E Heydemann Str 6, 18057 Rostock, Germany
    Cell Signal 16:167-74. 2004
    ..Here, we have characterised the role of protein kinase R (PKR), an IFN-alpha-inducible enzyme, in the mediation of IL-3-antagonistic IFN-alpha effects...
  70. ncbi The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates viral-induced encephalitis
    Donalyn Scheuner
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Virology 317:263-74. 2003
    The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important role in control of viral infections and cell growth...
  71. pmc Activating transcription factor 3 is integral to the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase stress response
    Hao Yuan Jiang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:1365-77. 2004
    ....
  72. pmc Distinctive roles for 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R in the in vivo antiviral effect of an adenoviral vector expressing murine IFN-beta
    Khaldun Al-Khatib
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    J Immunol 172:5638-47. 2004
    ..elevation of the IFN-induced antiviral gene 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1a) but not dsRNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion (TG)...
  73. ncbi Toll-like receptor 3 promotes cross-priming to virus-infected cells
    Oliver Schulz
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Lincoln s Inn Fields Laboratories, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Nature 433:887-92. 2005
    ..Thus, TLR3 may have evolved to permit cross-priming of CTLs against viruses that do not directly infect dendritic cells...
  74. ncbi Critical role for the oligoadenylate synthetase/RNase L pathway in response to IFN-beta during acute ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 infection
    Bobbie Ann Austin
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Biomedical Sciences Building, 608 Stanton L Young Boulevard, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    J Immunol 175:1100-6. 2005
    ..However, protein kinase R mRNA was not up-regulated in the eye...
  75. pmc Encephalomyocarditis virus induces PKR-independent mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in macrophages
    Jason M Moran
    Edward A Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1402 South Grand Boulevard, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA
    J Virol 79:10226-36. 2005
    In this study, we provide evidence that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is not required for virus-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or the activation of specific signaling pathways in ..
  76. ncbi Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase is required for bone calcification in MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro
    Kaya Yoshida
    Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3 18 15, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770 8504, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 311:117-25. 2005
    In this study, we demonstrated that double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is required for the calcification of osteoblasts via the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1alpha (STAT1alpha) signaling in vitro...
  77. pmc PKR and RNase L contribute to protection against lethal West Nile Virus infection by controlling early viral spread in the periphery and replication in neurons
    Melanie A Samuel
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:7009-19. 2006
    ..Mice lacking both the interferon-induced, double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and the endoribonuclease of the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-RNase L system (PKR(-/-) x RL(-/-)) were highly ..
  78. ncbi Distinct roles of protein kinase R and toll-like receptor 3 in the activation of astrocytes by viral stimuli
    Pamela A Carpentier
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Interdepartmental Immunobiology Center, Northwestern University Institute for Neuroscience, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Glia 55:239-52. 2007
    ..We found that the cytoplasmic dsRNA-activated kinase PKR is important for innate immune responses to TMEV infection, but has no role in their induction by poly I:C ..
  79. pmc Antitumor NK activation induced by the Toll-like receptor 3-TICAM-1 (TRIF) pathway in myeloid dendritic cells
    Takashi Akazawa
    Department of Immunology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Nakamichi 1 3 2, Higashinari ku, Osaka 537 8511, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:252-7. 2007
    ..regression did not occur in TICAM-1(-/-) or IFNAR(-/-) mice, whereas a normal NK antitumor response was induced in PKR(-/-), MyD88(-/-), IFN-beta(-/-), and wild-type mice...
  80. ncbi Identification of Cys385 in the isolated kinase insertion domain of heme-regulated eIF2 alpha kinase (HRI) as the heme axial ligand by site-directed mutagenesis and spectral characterization
    Kyoko Hirai
    Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8577, Japan
    J Inorg Biochem 101:1172-9. 2007
    ..Based on these spectroscopic findings, we conclude that Cys385 is an axial ligand of isolated KI...
  81. ncbi A phosphosite screen identifies autocrine TGF-beta-driven activation of protein kinase R as a survival-limiting factor for eosinophils
    Nicholas Goplen
    National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    J Immunol 180:4256-64. 2008
    ..The molecules that were differentially regulated include STATs and protein kinase R (PKR)...
  82. doi Role of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in the attenuation of protein loss from muscle by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
    H L Eley
    Nutritional Biomedicine, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
    Mol Cell Biochem 313:63-9. 2008
    ..of eIF2alpha, by inhibiting the activation (autophosphorylation) of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) by induction of protein phosphatase 1...
  83. pmc Cigarette smoke selectively enhances viral PAMP- and virus-induced pulmonary innate immune and remodeling responses in mice
    Min Jong Kang
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    J Clin Invest 118:2771-84. 2008
    ..induction of IL-12/IL-23 p40 and IFN-gamma, and the activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF2alpha)...
  84. pmc The role of PACT in mediating gene induction, PKR activation, and apoptosis in response to diverse stimuli
    Joao T Marques
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 28:469-76. 2008
    PACT, the protein activator of the double-stranded (ds)RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) has been shown to strongly interact with and activate PKR in cultured cells and in vitro...
  85. pmc TRBP control of PACT-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase R is reversed by stress
    Aïcha Daher
    Virus Cell Interactions Laboratory, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 29:254-65. 2009
    The TAR RNA binding Protein, TRBP, inhibits the activity of the interferon-induced protein kinase R (PKR), whereas the PKR activator, PACT, activates its function...
  86. pmc Binding and relocalization of protein kinase R by murine cytomegalovirus
    Stephanie J Child
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Virol 83:1790-9. 2009
    Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to evade the repression of translation mediated by protein kinase R (PKR)...
  87. doi PKR-mediated degradation of STAT1 regulates osteoblast differentiation
    Kaya Yoshida
    Department of Fundamental Oral Health Science, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770 8504, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 315:2105-14. 2009
    The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) plays a critical role in various biological responses including antiviral defense, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis...
  88. pmc Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase regulates early innate immune responses during respiratory syncytial virus infection
    Radiah A Corn Minor
    North Carolina A and T University, Greensboro, North Carolina
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 30:263-72. 2010
    ..The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) functions to inhibit viral replication and participates in several signaling pathways associated with innate ..
  89. doi Mechanism of activation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in muscle atrophy
    H L Eley
    Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Cell Signal 22:783-90. 2010
    The role of Ca(2+) in the activation of PKR (double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase), which leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, has been investigated in murine myotubes using the cell-permeable Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA/AM (1,2-bis (o-..
  90. pmc Translation control by protein kinase R restricts minute virus of mice infection: role in parvovirus oncolysis
    Iván Ventoso
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain
    J Virol 84:5043-51. 2010
    ..were resistant to MVMp infection, but 3T3 fibroblasts derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) knockout mice (PKR(o/o)) behaved in a manner that was highly permissive to productive MVMp replication...
  91. pmc Protein kinase R contributes to immunity against specific viruses by regulating interferon mRNA integrity
    Oliver Schulz
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Cell Host Microbe 7:354-61. 2010
    ..However, other cytoplasmic RNA sensors, including the double-stranded RNA-binding protein kinase R (PKR), have been implicated in IFN-alpha/beta production, although their relative contribution and mechanism ..
  92. pmc Phosphorylation of the NFAR proteins by the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR constitutes a novel mechanism of translational regulation and cellular defense
    Ai Harashima
    Department of Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33136, USA
    Genes Dev 24:2640-53. 2010
    ..Activation of the dsRNA-activated protein kinase PKR by viral RNA enabled phosphorylation of NFAR1 and NFAR2 on Thr 188 and Thr 315, an event found to be evolutionarily ..
  93. pmc PKR-dependent CHOP induction limits hyperoxia-induced lung injury
    Tricia I Lozon
    Center for Lung Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 300:L422-9. 2011
    ..the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), we evaluated the role of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), a non-UPR-associated eIF2α kinase...
  94. pmc The early interferon response to rotavirus is regulated by PKR and depends on MAVS/IPS-1, RIG-I, MDA-5, and IRF3
    Adrish Sen
    Department of Microbiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5101, USA
    J Virol 85:3717-32. 2011
    ..Interestingly, absence of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR led to a profound defect in the capacity of host cells to secrete IFN-β in response to virus...
  95. pmc Dengue virus modulates the unfolded protein response in a time-dependent manner
    Jose Pena
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, and Graduate Group in Microbiology, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7354, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:14226-36. 2011
    ..These results demonstrate that time-dependent activation of the unfolded protein response by DENV-2 can override inhibition of translation, prevent apoptosis, and prolong the viral life cycle...
  96. pmc Inhibition of RNase L and RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) by sunitinib impairs antiviral innate immunity
    Babal Kant Jha
    Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:26319-26. 2011
    RNase L and RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) are effectors of the interferon antiviral response that share homology in their pseudokinase and protein kinase domains, respectively...
  97. pmc Interleukin 3 stimulates protein synthesis by regulating double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
    T Ito
    Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD 21231
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:7455-9. 1994
    ..line, IL-3 deprivation resulted in increased autophosphorylation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) that has been reported to inhibit protein synthesis by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation ..
  98. ncbi Homeobox genes and connective tissue patterning
    G Oliver
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    Development 121:693-705. 1995
    ..Six 1 and Six 2 also are expressed in skeletal and smooth muscle, respectively. These genes may participate in the patterning of the distal tendons of the limb phalanges by setting positional values along the limb axes...
  99. ncbi The eIF-2 alpha protein kinases, regulators of translation in eukaryotes from yeasts to humans
    C E Samuel
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara 93106
    J Biol Chem 268:7603-6. 1993
  100. ncbi Mapping of the flaky skin (fsn) mutation on distal mouse chromosome 17
    S C Pelsue
    Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609 1500, USA
    Mamm Genome 6:758. 1995
  101. ncbi Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase mediates c-Myc suppression induced by type I interferons
    T Raveh
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    J Biol Chem 271:25479-84. 1996
    ..We report in this work that interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) is one of the specific mediators of the antiproliferative effects of the cytokine...

Research Grants4

  1. NEUROIMMUNOLOGY OF AED IN OCULAR HSV-1 INFECTION
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Anti-Viral Gene Delivery in the Nervous System
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. The Role of CXCL9 in Genital HSV-2 Infection
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g., vaccine or gene transfer) to reduce the incidence of infection or reduce the capacity of latent virus to reactivate. ..
  4. Bacterial artificial chromosomes for HSV genomics
    David Leib; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..