Egr2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Egr2
Description: early growth response 2
Alias: Egr-2, Krox-20, Krox20, NGF1-B, Zfp-25, Zfp-6, E3 SUMO-protein ligase EGR2, E3 SUMO-protein transferase ERG2, early growth response protein 2, zinc finger protein Krox-20
Species: mouse
Products:     Egr2

Top Publications

  1. Kellerer S, Schreiner S, Stolt C, Scholz S, Bösl M, Wegner M. Replacement of the Sox10 transcription factor by Sox8 reveals incomplete functional equivalence. Development. 2006;133:2875-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the extent of functional equivalence depends on the tissue and that, despite their relatedness, Sox8 and Sox10 have more unique functions than previously appreciated. ..
  2. Ozkaynak E, Abello G, Jaegle M, van Berge L, Hamer D, Kegel L, et al. Adam22 is a major neuronal receptor for Lgi4-mediated Schwann cell signaling. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3857-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus reveal a novel paracrine signaling axis in peripheral nerve myelination in which Schwann cell secreted Lgi4 functions through binding of axonal Adam22 to drive the differentiation of Schwann cells. ..
  3. Awatramani R, Soriano P, Rodriguez C, Mai J, Dymecki S. Cryptic boundaries in roof plate and choroid plexus identified by intersectional gene activation. Nat Genet. 2003;35:70-5 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the roof plate and choroid plexus may be formed of functional units that are capable of differentially organizing the generation of distinct neuronal cell types at different axial levels. ..
  4. Gillian A, Svaren J. The Ddx20/DP103 dead box protein represses transcriptional activation by Egr2/Krox-20. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9056-63 pubmed
    The early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox-20) transcription factor is essential for myelination of the peripheral nervous system and segmentation of the vertebrate hindbrain...
  5. Bachiller D, Klingensmith J, Kemp C, Belo J, Anderson R, May S, et al. The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development. Nature. 2000;403:658-61 pubmed
    ..The results show that BMP antagonists in the node and its derivatives are required for head development...
  6. Zorick T, Syroid D, Brown A, Gridley T, Lemke G. Krox-20 controls SCIP expression, cell cycle exit and susceptibility to apoptosis in developing myelinating Schwann cells. Development. 1999;126:1397-406 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the loss of Krox-20 in myelinating Schwann cells arrests differentiation at the promyelinating stage, as assessed by SCIP expression, mitotic activity and susceptibility to apoptosis. ..
  7. DeSteno D, Schmauss C. Induction of early growth response gene 2 expression in the forebrain of mice performing an attention-set-shifting task. Neuroscience. 2008;152:417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a specific role of egr-2-mediated transcriptional activation in cognitive functions associated with attention. ..
  8. Finzsch M, Schreiner S, Kichko T, Reeh P, Tamm E, Bösl M, et al. Sox10 is required for Schwann cell identity and progression beyond the immature Schwann cell stage. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Schwann cells failed to develop beyond the immature stage and were unable to maintain identity. Thus, our study identifies a novel cause for peripheral neuropathies in patients with SOX10 mutations. ..
  9. Le N, Nagarajan R, Wang J, Svaren J, LaPash C, Araki T, et al. Nab proteins are essential for peripheral nervous system myelination. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:932-40 pubmed
    Mutations that disrupt Egr2 transcriptional activity cause severe demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Here we provide evidence that Nab1 and Nab2 proteins are critical transcriptional modulators of Egr2 in myelinating Schwann cells...
  10. Dupé V, Ghyselinck N, Wendling O, Chambon P, Mark M. Key roles of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta in the patterning of the caudal hindbrain, pharyngeal arches and otocyst in the mouse. Development. 1999;126:5051-9 pubmed

Detail Information

Publications96

  1. Kellerer S, Schreiner S, Stolt C, Scholz S, Bösl M, Wegner M. Replacement of the Sox10 transcription factor by Sox8 reveals incomplete functional equivalence. Development. 2006;133:2875-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the extent of functional equivalence depends on the tissue and that, despite their relatedness, Sox8 and Sox10 have more unique functions than previously appreciated. ..
  2. Ozkaynak E, Abello G, Jaegle M, van Berge L, Hamer D, Kegel L, et al. Adam22 is a major neuronal receptor for Lgi4-mediated Schwann cell signaling. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3857-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus reveal a novel paracrine signaling axis in peripheral nerve myelination in which Schwann cell secreted Lgi4 functions through binding of axonal Adam22 to drive the differentiation of Schwann cells. ..
  3. Awatramani R, Soriano P, Rodriguez C, Mai J, Dymecki S. Cryptic boundaries in roof plate and choroid plexus identified by intersectional gene activation. Nat Genet. 2003;35:70-5 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the roof plate and choroid plexus may be formed of functional units that are capable of differentially organizing the generation of distinct neuronal cell types at different axial levels. ..
  4. Gillian A, Svaren J. The Ddx20/DP103 dead box protein represses transcriptional activation by Egr2/Krox-20. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:9056-63 pubmed
    The early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox-20) transcription factor is essential for myelination of the peripheral nervous system and segmentation of the vertebrate hindbrain...
  5. Bachiller D, Klingensmith J, Kemp C, Belo J, Anderson R, May S, et al. The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development. Nature. 2000;403:658-61 pubmed
    ..The results show that BMP antagonists in the node and its derivatives are required for head development...
  6. Zorick T, Syroid D, Brown A, Gridley T, Lemke G. Krox-20 controls SCIP expression, cell cycle exit and susceptibility to apoptosis in developing myelinating Schwann cells. Development. 1999;126:1397-406 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the loss of Krox-20 in myelinating Schwann cells arrests differentiation at the promyelinating stage, as assessed by SCIP expression, mitotic activity and susceptibility to apoptosis. ..
  7. DeSteno D, Schmauss C. Induction of early growth response gene 2 expression in the forebrain of mice performing an attention-set-shifting task. Neuroscience. 2008;152:417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a specific role of egr-2-mediated transcriptional activation in cognitive functions associated with attention. ..
  8. Finzsch M, Schreiner S, Kichko T, Reeh P, Tamm E, Bösl M, et al. Sox10 is required for Schwann cell identity and progression beyond the immature Schwann cell stage. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Schwann cells failed to develop beyond the immature stage and were unable to maintain identity. Thus, our study identifies a novel cause for peripheral neuropathies in patients with SOX10 mutations. ..
  9. Le N, Nagarajan R, Wang J, Svaren J, LaPash C, Araki T, et al. Nab proteins are essential for peripheral nervous system myelination. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:932-40 pubmed
    Mutations that disrupt Egr2 transcriptional activity cause severe demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Here we provide evidence that Nab1 and Nab2 proteins are critical transcriptional modulators of Egr2 in myelinating Schwann cells...
  10. Dupé V, Ghyselinck N, Wendling O, Chambon P, Mark M. Key roles of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta in the patterning of the caudal hindbrain, pharyngeal arches and otocyst in the mouse. Development. 1999;126:5051-9 pubmed
  11. Farago A, Awatramani R, Dymecki S. Assembly of the brainstem cochlear nuclear complex is revealed by intersectional and subtractive genetic fate maps. Neuron. 2006;50:205-18 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings provide new platforms for investigating the development and evolution of auditory and cerebellar systems. ..
  12. Parkinson D, Bhaskaran A, Droggiti A, Dickinson S, D Antonio M, Mirsky R, et al. Krox-20 inhibits Jun-NH2-terminal kinase/c-Jun to control Schwann cell proliferation and death. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:385-94 pubmed
    ..Krox-20 also up-regulates the scaffold protein JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP-1). We propose this as a possible component of the mechanism by which Krox-20 regulates JNK activity during Schwann cell development. ..
  13. Carpenter E, Goddard J, Chisaka O, Manley N, Capecchi M. Loss of Hox-A1 (Hox-1.6) function results in the reorganization of the murine hindbrain. Development. 1993;118:1063-75 pubmed
  14. Theil T, Ariza McNaughton L, Manzanares M, Brodie J, Krumlauf R, Wilkinson D. Requirement for downregulation of kreisler during late patterning of the hindbrain. Development. 2002;129:1477-85 pubmed
    ..In these transgenic mice, the Fgf3, Krox20, Hoxa3 and Hoxb3 genes have ectopic or prolonged expression domains in r3, indicating that it acquires molecular ..
  15. Hu T, Gimferrer I, Simmons A, WIEST D, Alberola Ila J. The Ras/MAPK pathway is required for generation of iNKT cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19890 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly our results also show that there are differences in the contributions of several of these molecules to the development of iNKT and conventional ?? T cells. ..
  16. Jones E, Lopez Anido C, Srinivasan R, Krueger C, Chang L, Nagarajan R, et al. Regulation of the PMP22 gene through an intronic enhancer. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4242-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Egr2/Krox20 is required for induction of high level expression of Pmp22 in Schwann cells but its activation elements have not ..
  17. Qiu Y, Pereira F, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Tsai S, Tsai M. Null mutation of mCOUP-TFI results in defects in morphogenesis of the glossopharyngeal ganglion, axonal projection, and arborization. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1925-37 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mCOUP-TFI possesses vital physiological functions that are distinct from mCOUP-TFII despite of their high degree of homology and extensive overlapping expression patterns. ..
  18. Gilardi P, Schneider Maunoury S, Charnay P. Krox-20: a candidate gene for the regulation of pattern formation in the hindbrain. Biochimie. 1991;73:85-91 pubmed
    ..The possible interactions between Krox-20 and homeobox containing genes as well as the search for other members of the network will be discussed. ..
  19. Helmbacher F, Pujades C, Desmarquet C, Frain M, Rijli F, Chambon P, et al. Hoxa1 and Krox-20 synergize to control the development of rhombomere 3. Development. 1998;125:4739-48 pubmed
    ..In addition, these data suggest that the control of the development of r3 may not be autonomous but dependent on interactions with Hoxa1-expressing cells. ..
  20. Harris J, Bishop K, Phillips N, Mordes J, Greiner D, Rossini A, et al. Early growth response gene-2, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is required for full induction of clonal anergy in CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:7331-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that sustained Egr-2 expression is necessary to induce a full anergic state through the actions of genes regulated by this transcription factor. ..
  21. Wassef M, Chomette D, Pouilhe M, Stedman A, Havis E, Desmarquet Trin Dinh C, et al. Rostral hindbrain patterning involves the direct activation of a Krox20 transcriptional enhancer by Hox/Pbx and Meis factors. Development. 2008;135:3369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The morphogenesis of the vertebrate hindbrain involves the generation of metameric units called rhombomeres (r), and Krox20 encodes a transcription factor that is expressed in r3 and r5 and plays a major role in this segmentation process...
  22. Levi G, Topilko P, Schneider Maunoury S, Lasagna M, Mantero S, Cancedda R, et al. Defective bone formation in Krox-20 mutant mice. Development. 1996;122:113-20 pubmed
  23. Parkinson D, Dickinson S, Bhaskaran A, Kinsella M, Brophy P, Sherman D, et al. Regulation of the myelin gene periaxin provides evidence for Krox-20-independent myelin-related signalling in Schwann cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;23:13-27 pubmed
    We investigated the role of Krox-20 (Egr2), a transcription factor that regulates myelination, in controlling the myelin-associated protein periaxin...
  24. Goddard J, Rossel M, Manley N, Capecchi M. Mice with targeted disruption of Hoxb-1 fail to form the motor nucleus of the VIIth nerve. Development. 1996;122:3217-28 pubmed
    ..These animals should therefore provide a useful animal model for these human diseases. ..
  25. Leblanc S, Jang S, Ward R, Wrabetz L, Svaren J. Direct regulation of myelin protein zero expression by the Egr2 transactivator. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5453-60 pubmed
    ..within the first intron of the Mpz gene, which contains binding sites for the early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transcription factor, a critical regulator of peripheral nerve myelination...
  26. Leclerc N, Noh T, Khokhar A, Smith E, Frenkel B. Glucocorticoids inhibit osteocalcin transcription in osteoblasts by suppressing Egr2/Krox20-binding enhancer. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:929-39 pubmed
    ..Complex formation was competed by either an oligonucleotide containing 2 consensus Egr motifs or by anti-Egr2/Krox20 antibodies...
  27. Reiprich S, Kriesch J, Schreiner S, Wegner M. Activation of Krox20 gene expression by Sox10 in myelinating Schwann cells. J Neurochem. 2010;112:744-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox10 is believed to influence myelination in Schwann cells by directly activating myelin genes and by inducing Krox20 as a pivotal regulator of peripheral myelination...
  28. Wood H, Pall G, Morriss Kay G. Exposure to retinoic acid before or after the onset of somitogenesis reveals separate effects on rhombomeric segmentation and 3' HoxB gene expression domains. Development. 1994;120:2279-85 pubmed
  29. Irving C, Nieto M, Dasgupta R, Charnay P, Wilkinson D. Progressive spatial restriction of Sek-1 and Krox-20 gene expression during hindbrain segmentation. Dev Biol. 1996;173:26-38 pubmed
    ..We propose that the establishment and maintenance of these segmental domains may involve both a dynamic regulation of r3/r5 identity and the restriction of cell movement across rhombomere boundaries. ..
  30. Theil T, Frain M, Gilardi Hebenstreit P, Flenniken A, Charnay P, Wilkinson D. Segmental expression of the EphA4 (Sek-1) receptor tyrosine kinase in the hindbrain is under direct transcriptional control of Krox-20. Development. 1998;125:443-52 pubmed
    ..Together with evidence that Krox-20 regulates Hox gene expression, our findings reveal a mechanism by which the identity and movement of cells are coupled such that sharply restricted segmental domains are generated. ..
  31. Rijli F, Mark M, Lakkaraju S, Dierich A, Dolle P, Chambon P. A homeotic transformation is generated in the rostral branchial region of the head by disruption of Hoxa-2, which acts as a selector gene. Cell. 1993;75:1333-49 pubmed
    ..The ground pattern program appears to be modified in the mouse first arch by a Hox-independent process, whereas Hoxa-2 acts as a selector gene in the second arch. ..
  32. Garratt A, Voiculescu O, Topilko P, Charnay P, Birchmeier C. A dual role of erbB2 in myelination and in expansion of the schwann cell precursor pool. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:1035-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we employ Cre-loxP technology to introduce erbB2 mutations late in Schwann cell development, using a Krox20-cre allele...
  33. Leclerc N, Noh T, Cogan J, Samarawickrama D, Smith E, Frenkel B. Opposing effects of glucocorticoids and Wnt signaling on Krox20 and mineral deposition in osteoblast cultures. J Cell Biochem. 2008;103:1938-51 pubmed
    b>Krox20 is expressed in osteoblasts and chondrocytes, and is required for trabecular bone formation during embryogenesis...
  34. Davenne M, Maconochie M, Neun R, Pattyn A, Chambon P, Krumlauf R, et al. Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 control dorsoventral patterns of neuronal development in the rostral hindbrain. Neuron. 1999;22:677-91 pubmed
  35. Barrow J, Stadler H, Capecchi M. Roles of Hoxa1 and Hoxa2 in patterning the early hindbrain of the mouse. Development. 2000;127:933-44 pubmed
    ..From these data a model is proposed to describe how Hoxa1, Hoxa2, Hoxb1, Krox20 (Egr2) and kreisler function together to pattern the early mouse hindbrain...
  36. Maro G, Vermeren M, Voiculescu O, Melton L, Cohen J, Charnay P, et al. Neural crest boundary cap cells constitute a source of neuronal and glial cells of the PNS. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:930-8 pubmed
    ..Using various knock-in alleles of the mouse gene Egr2 (also known as Krox20), the expression of which, in trunk regions, is initially restricted to BC cells, we were able to trace BC cell ..
  37. Grossmann K, Wende H, Paul F, Cheret C, Garratt A, Zurborg S, et al. The tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 (PTPN11) directs Neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling throughout Schwann cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16704-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrate that Shp2 is an essential component in the transduction of Nrg1/ErbB signals. ..
  38. Bermingham J, Shearin H, Pennington J, O Moore J, Jaegle M, Driegen S, et al. The claw paw mutation reveals a role for Lgi4 in peripheral nerve development. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:76-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, the abnormalities observed in clp mice are attributable to the loss of Lgi4 function, and they identify Lgi4 as a new component of Schwann cell signaling pathway(s) that controls axon segregation and myelin formation. ..
  39. Ghislain J, Desmarquet Trin Dinh C, Gilardi Hebenstreit P, Charnay P, Frain M. Neural crest patterning: autoregulatory and crest-specific elements co-operate for Krox20 transcriptional control. Development. 2003;130:941-53 pubmed
    ..b>Krox20, a transcription factor gene that plays a critical role in the development of the segmented hindbrain, is ..
  40. Serpente P, Tümpel S, Ghyselinck N, Niederreither K, Wiedemann L, Dolle P, et al. Direct crossregulation between retinoic acid receptor {beta} and Hox genes during hindbrain segmentation. Development. 2005;132:503-13 pubmed
    ..We propose that the function of this circuit is to align the initially incongruent expression of multiple RA-induced genes at a single segment boundary. ..
  41. Leblanc S, Ward R, Svaren J. Neuropathy-associated Egr2 mutants disrupt cooperative activation of myelin protein zero by Egr2 and Sox10. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3521-9 pubmed
    Dominant mutations in the early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transactivator, a critical regulator of peripheral myelin development, have been associated with peripheral myelinopathies...
  42. Arthur Farraj P, Wanek K, Hantke J, Davis C, Jayakar A, Parkinson D, et al. Mouse schwann cells need both NRG1 and cyclic AMP to myelinate. Glia. 2011;59:720-33 pubmed publisher
    ..They demonstrate unambiguously the promyelin effects of NRG1 in purified cells, and they show that the cAMP pathway determines whether NRG1 drives proliferation or induces myelin differentiation...
  43. Voiculescu O, Taillebourg E, Pujades C, Kress C, Buart S, Charnay P, et al. Hindbrain patterning: Krox20 couples segmentation and specification of regional identity. Development. 2001;128:4967-78 pubmed
    We have previously demonstrated that inactivation of the Krox20 gene led to the disappearance of its segmental expression territories in the hindbrain, the rhombomeres (r) 3 and 5...
  44. Conlon R, Rossant J. Exogenous retinoic acid rapidly induces anterior ectopic expression of murine Hox-2 genes in vivo. Development. 1992;116:357-68 pubmed
  45. Rossel M, Capecchi M. Mice mutant for both Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 show extensive remodeling of the hindbrain and defects in craniofacial development. Development. 1999;126:5027-40 pubmed
  46. Li S, Symonds A, Zhu B, Liu M, Raymond M, Miao T, et al. Early growth response gene-2 (Egr-2) regulates the development of B and T cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18498 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Egr-2 expressed in restricted stages of lymphocyte development plays a dynamic, but similar role for the development of T, NKT and B cells. ..
  47. Schneider Maunoury S, Seitanidou T, Charnay P, Lumsden A. Segmental and neuronal architecture of the hindbrain of Krox-20 mouse mutants. Development. 1997;124:1215-26 pubmed
    ..This navigational error could explain the disappearance, at around 17.5 dpc, of the trigeminal motor nucleus in Krox-20(-/-) embryos by inadequate supply of essential, possibly arch-specific survival factors. ..
  48. Benninger Y, Thurnherr T, Pereira J, Krause S, Wu X, Chrostek Grashoff A, et al. Essential and distinct roles for cdc42 and rac1 in the regulation of Schwann cell biology during peripheral nervous system development. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1051-61 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that although cdc42 is required for normal Schwann cell proliferation, rac1 regulates Schwann cell process extension and stabilization, allowing efficient radial sorting of axon bundles...
  49. Pospisil V, Vargova K, Kokavec J, Rybarova J, Savvulidi F, Jonasova A, et al. Epigenetic silencing of the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster during PU.1-directed macrophage differentiation. EMBO J. 2011;30:4450-64 pubmed publisher
    ..1 induces the secondary determinant Egr2 which, in turn, directly represses miR-17-92 expression by recruiting histone demethylase Jarid1b leading to ..
  50. Wilkinson D, Bhatt S, Cook M, Boncinelli E, Krumlauf R. Segmental expression of Hox-2 homoeobox-containing genes in the developing mouse hindbrain. Nature. 1989;341:405-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Hox genes specify segment phenotype, a role analogous to that of their Drosophila homologues. ..
  51. Swiatek P, Gridley T. Perinatal lethality and defects in hindbrain development in mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the zinc finger gene Krox20. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2071-84 pubmed
    b>Krox20 is a zinc finger gene expressed in rhombomeres 3 and 5 during hindbrain development in vertebrates...
  52. Ramon H, Cejas P, Larosa D, Rahman A, Harris J, Zhang J, et al. EGR-2 is not required for in vivo CD4 T cell mediated immune responses. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12904 pubmed publisher
  53. Baloh R, Strickland A, Ryu E, Le N, Fahrner T, Yang M, et al. Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy with lethal conduction failure in mice carrying the Egr2 I268N mutation. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the engineering and characterization of a mouse carrying the I268N mutation in Egr2, observed in patients with recessively inherited Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 4E, which is predicted to ..
  54. Friedrich R, Schlierf B, Tamm E, Bösl M, Wegner M. The class III POU domain protein Brn-1 can fully replace the related Oct-6 during schwann cell development and myelination. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1821-9 pubmed
    ..Similar to Oct-6, Brn-1 down-regulated its own expression at later stages of myelination. Thus, class III POU domain proteins can fully replace each other in Schwann cell development. ..
  55. Jacquin T, Borday V, Schneider Maunoury S, Topilko P, Ghilini G, Kato F, et al. Reorganization of pontine rhythmogenic neuronal networks in Krox-20 knockout mice. Neuron. 1996;17:747-58 pubmed
    ..The newborn (PO) Krox-20-/- mice, in which apneas are ten times longer than in wild-type animals, may be a valuable model for the study of life-threatening apneas during early infancy. ..
  56. Varlet I, Collignon J, Robertson E. nodal expression in the primitive endoderm is required for specification of the anterior axis during mouse gastrulation. Development. 1997;124:1033-44 pubmed
    ..Thus we conclude that the action of nodal, a TGFbeta-related growth factor expressed in the primitive endoderm, is critical for patterning of the anterior aspects of the A-P axis. ..
  57. Zujovic V, Thibaud J, Bachelin C, Vidal M, Deboux C, Coulpier F, et al. Boundary cap cells are peripheral nervous system stem cells that can be redirected into central nervous system lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10714-9 pubmed publisher
    Boundary cap cells (BC), which express the transcription factor Krox20, participate in the formation of the boundary between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system...
  58. McKay I, Muchamore I, Krumlauf R, Maden M, Lumsden A, Lewis J. The kreisler mouse: a hindbrain segmentation mutant that lacks two rhombomeres. Development. 1994;120:2199-211 pubmed
    ..An interpretation is that the cells that would normally become specified at an early stage as r5 and r6 adopt an r4 character instead, producing an excess of r4 cells that is disposed of subsequently by cell death. ..
  59. Ding J, Yang L, Yan Y, Chen A, Desai N, Wynshaw Boris A, et al. Cripto is required for correct orientation of the anterior-posterior axis in the mouse embryo. Nature. 1998;395:702-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Cripto signalling is essential for the conversion of a proximal-distal asymmetry into an orthogonal anterior-posterior axis. ..
  60. Mechta Grigoriou F, Garel S, Charnay P. Nab proteins mediate a negative feedback loop controlling Krox-20 activity in the developing hindbrain. Development. 2000;127:119-28 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that Krox-20 positively regulates the expression of its own antagonists and raise the possibility that this negative feedback regulatory loop may play a role in the control of hindbrain development. ..
  61. Vitobello A, Ferretti E, Lampe X, Vilain N, Ducret S, Ori M, et al. Hox and Pbx factors control retinoic acid synthesis during hindbrain segmentation. Dev Cell. 2011;20:469-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a feed-forward mechanism linking Hox-Pbx-dependent RA synthesis during early axial patterning with the establishment of spatially restricted Hox-Pbx activity in the developing hindbrain. ..
  62. Nishino J, Saunders T, Sagane K, Morrison S. Lgi4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of glial lineage cells throughout the developing peripheral nervous system. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15228-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a new mechanism regulating enteric gliogenesis as well as novel functions for Lgi4 regulating the proliferation and maturation of glial lineage cells throughout the PNS. ..
  63. Garel S, Garcia Dominguez M, Charnay P. Control of the migratory pathway of facial branchiomotor neurones. Development. 2000;127:5297-307 pubmed
    ..Specific combinations of these markers are associated with each migratory phase in r4, r5 and r6. In Krox20 and kreisler mutant mouse embryos, both of which lack r5, fbm neurones migrate dorsally into the anteriorly ..
  64. Wassarman K, Lewandoski M, Campbell K, Joyner A, Rubenstein J, Martinez S, et al. Specification of the anterior hindbrain and establishment of a normal mid/hindbrain organizer is dependent on Gbx2 gene function. Development. 1997;124:2923-34 pubmed
    ..These data provide genetic evidence for a link between patterning of the anterior hindbrain and the establishment of the mid/hindbrain organizer, and identify Gbx2 as a gene required for these processes to occur normally. ..
  65. Oury F, Murakami Y, Renaud J, Pasqualetti M, Charnay P, Ren S, et al. Hoxa2- and rhombomere-dependent development of the mouse facial somatosensory map. Science. 2006;313:1408-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, Hoxa2- and rhombomere 3-dependent cues determine the whisker area map and are required for the assembly of the whisker-to-barrel somatosensory circuit. ..
  66. De S, Shuler C, Turman J. The ontogeny of Krox-20 expression in brainstem and cerebellar neurons. J Chem Neuroanat. 2003;25:213-26 pubmed
  67. Leblanc S, Srinivasan R, Ferri C, Mager G, Gillian Daniel A, Wrabetz L, et al. Regulation of cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic genes by Egr2/Krox20 during peripheral nerve myelination. J Neurochem. 2005;93:737-48 pubmed
    ..myelination process, we have investigated the developmental relationship between early growth response 2 (Egr2)/Krox20--a pivotal regulator of peripheral nerve myelination--and the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) ..
  68. Chatonnet F, del Toro E, Voiculescu O, Charnay P, Champagnat J. Different respiratory control systems are affected in homozygous and heterozygous kreisler mutant mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;15:684-92 pubmed
    During embryonic development, restricted expression of the regulatory genes Krox20 and kreisler are involved in segmentation and antero-posterior patterning of the hindbrain neural tube...
  69. Leonard L, Horton C, Maden M, Pizzey J. Anteriorization of CRABP-I expression by retinoic acid in the developing mouse central nervous system and its relationship to teratogenesis. Dev Biol. 1995;168:514-28 pubmed
    ..The role that CRABP-I may play in normal development of the hindbrain and in teratogenesis and the similarity of these results to those obtained with various Hox genes are discussed. ..
  70. Maricich S, Xia A, Mathes E, Wang V, Oghalai J, Fritzsch B, et al. Atoh1-lineal neurons are required for hearing and for the survival of neurons in the spiral ganglion and brainstem accessory auditory nuclei. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the Cre-loxP system and two Cre-driver lines (Egr2(Cre) and Hoxb1(Cre)) to delete Atoh1 from different regions of the cochlear nucleus (CN) and accessory auditory ..
  71. Zhu B, Symonds A, Martin J, Kioussis D, Wraith D, Li S, et al. Early growth response gene 2 (Egr-2) controls the self-tolerance of T cells and prevents the development of lupuslike autoimmune disease. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2295-307 pubmed publisher
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