Gene Symbol: Eef2
Description: eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2
Alias: Ef-2, elongation factor 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Eef2

Top Publications

  1. Py B, Boyce M, Yuan J. A critical role of eEF-2K in mediating autophagy in response to multiple cellular stresses. Autophagy. 2009;5:393-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence that eIF2alpha phosphorylation is required for phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) during nutrient starvation...
  2. Ishiura M, Ohashi H, Hazumi N, Uchida T, Okada Y. Simplified cosmid vectors for gene transfer to cultured mammalian cells: isolation of the gene for elongation factor 2 from the mouse. Gene. 1989;85:427-33 pubmed
    ..The mouse genome contains one copy of the functional gene for elongation factor 2 (EF2) per haploid genome and multiple copies of the EF2-related gene...
  3. Demeulder B, Zarrinpashneh E, Ginion A, Viollet B, Hue L, Rider M, et al. Differential regulation of eEF2 and p70S6K by AMPKalpha2 in heart. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:780-90 pubmed publisher
    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathways control protein synthesis and are inhibited during myocardial ischemia...
  4. Webb T, Cross S, McKie L, Edgar R, Vizor L, Harrison J, et al. Diphthamide modification of eEF2 requires a J-domain protein and is essential for normal development. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3140-5 pubmed publisher of diphtheria toxin is a modified histidine residue, diphthamide, in the translation elongation factor, eEF2 (also known as EFT1)...
  5. Jung G, Shin B, Jang Y, Sohn J, Woo S, Kim J, et al. Methylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 induced by basic fibroblast growth factor via mitogen-activated protein kinase. Exp Mol Med. 2011;43:550-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that symmetric arginine dimethylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is induced by bFGF without the change in the expression level of eEF2 in mouse embryo fibroblast ..
  6. Kraushar M, Thompson K, Wijeratne H, Viljetić B, Sakers K, Marson J, et al. Temporally defined neocortical translation and polysome assembly are determined by the RNA-binding protein Hu antigen R. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E3815-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies a crucial role for HuR in neocortical development as a translational gatekeeper for functionally related mRNA subgroups and polysomal protein specificity. ..
  7. Bohnsack M, Regener K, Schwappach B, Saffrich R, Paraskeva E, Hartmann E, et al. Exp5 exports eEF1A via tRNA from nuclei and synergizes with other transport pathways to confine translation to the cytoplasm. EMBO J. 2002;21:6205-15 pubmed
    ..initiation factors (eIF2, eIF2B, eIF3, eIF4A1, eIF5 and eIF5B), all three elongation factors (eEF1A, eEF1B and eEF2) and the termination factor eRF1 are strictly excluded from nuclei...
  8. Wang G, Balamotis M, Stevens J, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H, Berk A. Mediator requirement for both recruitment and postrecruitment steps in transcription initiation. Mol Cell. 2005;17:683-94 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that an interaction with MED23 stimulates initiation by promoter bound Pol II in addition to Pol II and GTF recruitment. ..
  9. Liu S, Bachran C, Gupta P, Miller Randolph S, Wang H, Crown D, et al. Diphthamide modification on eukaryotic elongation factor 2 is needed to assure fidelity of mRNA translation and mouse development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13817-22 pubmed publisher
    To study the role of the diphthamide modification on eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), we generated an eEF2 Gly(717)Arg mutant mouse, in which the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis is prevented...

More Information


  1. Im H, Nakajima A, Gong B, Xiong X, Mamiya T, Gershon E, et al. Post-training dephosphorylation of eEF-2 promotes protein synthesis for memory consolidation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7424 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel translational underpinning for protein synthesis pertinent to memory consolidation in the mammalian brain. ..
  2. Takei N, Kawamura M, Ishizuka Y, Kakiya N, Inamura N, Namba H, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances the basal rate of protein synthesis by increasing active eukaryotic elongation factor 2 levels and promoting translation elongation in cortical neurons. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26340-8 pubmed publisher
    ..BDNF specifically increased the level of the active, unphosphorylated form of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2)...
  3. Brown T, Fischer W, Collins M, De B, Scott W. Identification of a 100-kDa phosphoprotein in developing murine embryos as elongation factor 2. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994;309:105-10 pubmed
    ..was identical to the N-terminal sequence of human, hamster and rat elongation factor 2 (EF-2). Western blotting analysis confirmed that the 100 kDa protein was EF-2...
  4. Schwer C, Lehane C, Guelzow T, Zenker S, Strosing K, Spassov S, et al. Thiopental inhibits global protein synthesis by repression of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 and protects from hypoxic neuronal cell death. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77258 pubmed publisher
    ..Sensitivity to hypoxic damage was restored by pharmacologic repression of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase...
  5. Karyo R, Eskira Y, Pinhasov A, Belmaker R, Agam G, Eldar Finkelman H. Identification of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 as a novel cellular target of lithium and glycogen synthase kinase-3. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:449-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, unexpectedly eEF-2 is activated by both lithium and GSK-3, whereas, lithium treatment and inhibition of GSK-3 have opposing effects on eEF-2. ..
  6. Burnicka Turek O, Shirneshan K, Paprotta I, Grzmil P, Meinhardt A, Engel W, et al. Inactivation of insulin-like factor 6 disrupts the progression of spermatogenesis at late meiotic prophase. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that INSL6 is required for the progression of spermatogenesis. ..
  7. Ryu J, Kim H, Lee S, Chang E, Kim H, Kim H. Proteomic identification of the TRAF6 regulation of vacuolar ATPase for osteoclast function. Proteomics. 2005;5:4152-60 pubmed
    ..Our study identified V-ATPase as a TRAF6-binding protein using a proteomics strategy and proved a direct link between these two important molecules for osteoclast function. ..
  8. Satyamoorthy K, Howe C. The mouse elongation factor-2 gene: isolation and characterization of the promoter. DNA Cell Biol. 1997;16:401-12 pubmed
    b>Elongation factor 2 (EF-2) is a protein involved in peptide chain elongation in eukaryotes. We isolated the mouse EF-2 gene and characterized its promoter...
  9. Deng Z, Luo P, Lai W, Song T, Peng J, Wei H. Myostatin inhibits eEF2K-eEF2 by regulating AMPK to suppress protein synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:278-284 pubmed publisher
    ..found that high concentrations of myostatin (2 and 3 ?g/mL) inhibited protein synthesis by blocking mTOR and eEF2K-eEF2 pathway, while low concentration of myostatin (0.01, 0...
  10. Liu S, Liu J, Ma Q, Cao L, Fattah R, Yu Z, et al. Solid tumor therapy by selectively targeting stromal endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E4079-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to give repeated doses of toxins, coupled with the specific targeting of tumor endothelial cells, suggests that our strategy should be efficacious for a wide range of solid tumors. ..
  11. Chen P, Huang Y. CPEB2-eEF2 interaction impedes HIF-1? RNA translation. EMBO J. 2012;31:959-71 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB)2, interacts with the elongation factor, eEF2, to reduce eEF2/ribosome-triggered GTP hydrolysis in vitro and slow down peptide elongation of CPEB2-bound RNA in ..
  12. Liu L, Wise D, Diehl J, Simon M. Hypoxic reactive oxygen species regulate the integrated stress response and cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that although exogenous ROS inhibit mTOR, eIF2alpha, and eEF2, mTOR and eEF2 were largely refractory to ROS generated under moderate hypoxia (0.5% O(2))...
  13. González Terán B, Cortes J, Manieri E, Matesanz N, Verdugo Á, Rodriguez M, et al. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 controls TNF-? translation in LPS-induced hepatitis. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:164-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The MKK3/6-p38?/? pathway mediated an inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, which in turn promoted eEF2 activation (dephosphorylation) and subsequent TNF-? elongation...
  14. Sakagami H, Nishimura H, Saito R, Kondo H. Transient up-regulation of elongation factor-2 kinase (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III) messenger RNA in developing mouse brain. Neurosci Lett. 2002;330:41-4 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that eEF-2K may be involved in early neuronal events such as proliferation, differentiation, and establishment of synaptic connections. ..
  15. Pelosi M, De Rossi M, Barberi L, Musaro A. IL-6 impairs myogenic differentiation by downmodulation of p90RSK/eEF2 and mTOR/p70S6K axes, without affecting AKT activity. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:206026 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed that IL-6 induces the activation of the Stat3 signaling and promotes the downmodulation of the p90RSK/eEF2 and mTOR/p70S6K axes, while it does not affect the activation of AKT...