Gene Symbol: Edar
Description: ectodysplasin-A receptor
Alias: ED1R, ED3, ED5, EDA-A1R, EDA3, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member EDAR, anhidrotic ectodysplasin receptor 1, downless, ectodermal dysplasia receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Edar

Top Publications

  1. Tucker A, Headon D, Schneider P, Ferguson B, Overbeek P, Tschopp J, et al. Edar/Eda interactions regulate enamel knot formation in tooth morphogenesis. Development. 2000;127:4691-700 pubmed
    tabby and downless mutant mice have apparently identical defects in teeth, hair and sweat glands. Recently, genes responsible for these spontaneous mutations have been identified...
  2. Majumder K, Shawlot W, Schuster G, Harrison W, Elder F, Overbeek P. YAC rescue of downless locus mutations in mice. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:863-8 pubmed
    Mice with mutations at the downless (dl) locus have defects in hair follicle, tooth, sweat gland, preputial gland, Meibomian gland, and tail development...
  3. Sofaer J. The teeth of the "sleek" mouse. Arch Oral Biol. 1977;22:299-301 pubmed
  4. Tucker A, Headon D, Courtney J, Overbeek P, Sharpe P. The activation level of the TNF family receptor, Edar, determines cusp number and tooth number during tooth development. Dev Biol. 2004;268:185-94 pubmed
    Mutations in members of the ectodysplasin (TNF-related) signalling pathway, EDA, EDAR, and EDARADD in mice and humans produce an ectodermal dysplasia phenotype that includes missing teeth and smaller teeth with reduced cusps...
  5. Headon D, Emmal S, Ferguson B, Tucker A, Justice M, Sharpe P, et al. Gene defect in ectodermal dysplasia implicates a death domain adapter in development. Nature. 2001;414:913-6 pubmed
    ..The crinkled mutant has an hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia phenotype identical to that of the edar (downless) and eda (Tabby) mutants...
  6. Monreal A, Ferguson B, Headon D, Street S, Overbeek P, Zonana J. Mutations in the human homologue of mouse dl cause autosomal recessive and dominant hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Nat Genet. 1999;22:366-9 pubmed
    ..indistinguishable from the X-linked forms, exist in humans and at two separate loci (crinkled, cr, and downless, dl) in mice. Dominant disorders, possibly allelic to the recessive loci, are seen in both species (ED3, Dlslk)...
  7. Jaskoll T, Zhou Y, Trump G, Melnick M. Ectodysplasin receptor-mediated signaling is essential for embryonic submandibular salivary gland development. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003;271:322-31 pubmed
    ..Abnormal phenotypes similar to HED are seen in Tabby (Eda(Ta)) and downless (Edar(dl)) mutant mice...
  8. Sofaer J. Aspects of the tabby-crinkled-downless syndrome. I. The development of tabby teeth. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1969;22:181-205 pubmed
  9. Laurikkala J, Mikkola M, Mustonen T, Aberg T, Koppinen P, Pispa J, et al. TNF signaling via the ligand-receptor pair ectodysplasin and edar controls the function of epithelial signaling centers and is regulated by Wnt and activin during tooth organogenesis. Dev Biol. 2001;229:443-55 pubmed
    ..hybridization analysis of the expression of ectodysplasin (encoded by the Tabby gene) and edar (encoded by the downless gene) during mouse tooth morphogenesis showed that they are expressed in complementary patterns exclusively in ..

More Information


  1. Drew C, Lin C, Jiang T, Blunt G, Mou C, Chuong C, et al. The Edar subfamily in feather placode formation. Dev Biol. 2007;305:232-45 pubmed
    A subgroup of the TNF receptor family, composed of Edar, Troy and Xedar, are implicated in the development of ectodermal appendages, such as hair follicles, teeth and sweat glands...
  2. Sofaer J. Aspects of the tabby-crinkled-downless syndrome. II. Observations on the reaction to changes of genetic background. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1969;22:207-27 pubmed
  3. Headon D, Overbeek P. Involvement of a novel Tnf receptor homologue in hair follicle induction. Nat Genet. 1999;22:370-4 pubmed
    ..Mice with mutations in the downless (dl) gene have defects in hair follicle induction, lack sweat glands and have malformed teeth...
  4. Mustonen T, Pispa J, Mikkola M, Pummila M, Kangas A, Pakkasjärvi L, et al. Stimulation of ectodermal organ development by Ectodysplasin-A1. Dev Biol. 2003;259:123-36 pubmed
    ..Ectodysplasin, a signaling molecule belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family, and its receptor Edar are required for normal development of several ectodermal organs in humans and mice...
  5. Rao M, Jaszczak E, Landis S. Innervation of footpads of normal and mutant mice lacking sweat glands. J Comp Neurol. 1994;346:613-25 pubmed
    ..Three mouse mutations, Tabby (Ta), crinkled (cr), and downless (dl), disrupt the interactions between the mesenchyme and epidermis that are required for normal development of ..
  6. Vauclair S, Nicolas M, Barrandon Y, Radtke F. Notch1 is essential for postnatal hair follicle development and homeostasis. Dev Biol. 2005;284:184-93 pubmed
    ..These data show that Notch1 is essential for late stages of hair follicle development during embryogenesis as well as for post-natal hair follicle development and hair homeostasis. ..
  7. Huelsken J, Vogel R, Erdmann B, Cotsarelis G, Birchmeier W. beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Cell. 2001;105:533-45 pubmed
    ..We show that beta-catenin is required genetically downstream of tabby/downless and upstream of bmp and shh in placode formation...
  8. Heath J, Langton A, Hammond N, Overbeek P, Dixon M, Headon D. Hair follicles are required for optimal growth during lateral skin expansion. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to their role in wound repair, HFs can make a significant contribution to lateral expansion of the IFE in the absence of trauma. ..
  9. Pispa J, Mustonen T, Mikkola M, Kangas A, Koppinen P, Lukinmaa P, et al. Tooth patterning and enamel formation can be manipulated by misexpression of TNF receptor Edar. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:432-40 pubmed
    Signaling by Edar, a tumor necrosis factor receptor, is required for the development of ectodermal organs. Mutations in Edar or other molecules of the same signaling pathway cause ectodermal dysplasias in humans and mice...
  10. Ruiz S, Segrelles C, Bravo A, Santos M, Perez P, Leis H, et al. Abnormal epidermal differentiation and impaired epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions in mice lacking the retinoblastoma relatives p107 and p130. Development. 2003;130:2341-53 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an essential role for p107 and p130 in the epithelial-mesenchimal interactions. ..
  11. Ahmed M, Alam M, Emelianov V, Poterlowicz K, Patel A, Sharov A, et al. MicroRNA-214 controls skin and hair follicle development by modulating the activity of the Wnt pathway. J Cell Biol. 2014;207:549-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide an important foundation for further analyses of miR-214 as a key regulator of Wnt pathway activity and stem cell functions during normal tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and aging. ..
  12. Denaxa M, Sharpe P, Pachnis V. The LIM homeodomain transcription factors Lhx6 and Lhx7 are key regulators of mammalian dentition. Dev Biol. 2009;333:324-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments demonstrate that the redundant activities of the LIM homeodomain proteins Lhx6 and Lhx7 are critical for craniofacial development and patterning of mammalian dentition. ..
  13. Fliniaux I, Mikkola M, Lefebvre S, Thesleff I. Identification of dkk4 as a target of Eda-A1/Edar pathway reveals an unexpected role of ectodysplasin as inhibitor of Wnt signalling in ectodermal placodes. Dev Biol. 2008;320:60-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Both genes colocalized with Eda-A1 receptor Edar in placodes of ectodermal organs...
  14. Naito A, Yoshida H, Nishioka E, Satoh M, Azuma S, Yamamoto T, et al. TRAF6-deficient mice display hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8766-71 pubmed
    ..Except the sebaceous gland impairment, these abnormal phenotypes are identical to those observed in Tabby (Ta), downless (dl), and crinkled (cr) mice, which are models of hypohidrotic (anhidrotic) ectodermal dysplasia in human...
  15. Kowalczyk Quintas C, Schuepbach Mallepell S, Willen L, Smith T, Huttner K, Kirby N, et al. Pharmacological stimulation of Edar signaling in the adult enhances sebaceous gland size and function. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:359-368 pubmed publisher
    Impaired ectodysplasin A (EDA) receptor (EDAR) signaling affects ectodermally derived structures including teeth, hair follicles, and cutaneous glands...
  16. Ferron M, Boudiffa M, Arsenault M, Rached M, Pata M, Giroux S, et al. Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase B as a regulator of bone mass in mice and humans. Cell Metab. 2011;14:466-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This study defined Inpp4b as a major modulator of the osteoclast differentiation and as a gene linked to variability of bone mineral density in mice and humans. ..
  17. Mou C, Jackson B, Schneider P, Overbeek P, Headon D. Generation of the primary hair follicle pattern. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9075-80 pubmed
    ..We find that ectodysplasin receptor (Edar)-bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and transcriptional interactions are central to generation of the ..
  18. Richardson G, Fantauzzo K, Bazzi H, Määttä A, Jahoda C. Dynamic expression of Syndecan-1 during hair follicle morphogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore we show by using gene targeted mice lacking Syndecan-1 expression that Syndecan-1 is not required for follicle initiation and development. ..
  19. Huh S, Närhi K, Lindfors P, Häärä O, Yang L, Ornitz D, et al. Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles. Genes Dev. 2013;27:450-8 pubmed publisher
    ..is expressed in hair placodes and is induced by and functions downstream from epithelial ectodysplasin (Eda)/Edar and Wnt/?-Catenin signaling to initiate formation of the underlying dermal condensation...
  20. Wells K, Mou C, Headon D, Tucker A. Defects and rescue of the minor salivary glands in Eda pathway mutants. Dev Biol. 2011;349:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplementation with Fgf8 or Shh, previously reported targets of Eda signalling, leads to induction of gland like structures in a few cases, but these fail to develop into minor SGs. ..
  21. Chen D, Jarrell A, Guo C, Lang R, Atit R. Dermal ?-catenin activity in response to epidermal Wnt ligands is required for fibroblast proliferation and hair follicle initiation. Development. 2012;139:1522-33 pubmed publisher
    ..the absence of dermal Wnt signaling/?-catenin activity, patterned upregulation of epidermal ?-catenin activity and Edar expression are absent...
  22. Schmidt Ullrich R, Tobin D, Lenhard D, Schneider P, Paus R, Scheidereit C. NF-kappaB transmits Eda A1/EdaR signalling to activate Shh and cyclin D1 expression, and controls post-initiation hair placode down growth. Development. 2006;133:1045-57 pubmed
    ..between the phenotypes of c(IkappaBADeltaN) mice and mice deficient in Eda A1 (tabby) or its receptor EdaR (downless) raised the issue of whether in vivo NF-kappaB regulates or is regulated by these novel TNF family members...
  23. Kassai Y, Munne P, Hotta Y, Penttilä E, Kavanagh K, Ohbayashi N, et al. Regulation of mammalian tooth cusp patterning by ectodin. Science. 2005;309:2067-70 pubmed
    ..Unlike in normal teeth, excess BMP accelerates patterning in ectodin-deficient teeth. We propose that ectodin is critical for robust spatial delineation of enamel knots and cusps. ..
  24. Wells K, Mou C, Headon D, Tucker A. Recombinant EDA or Sonic Hedgehog rescue the branching defect in Ectodysplasin A pathway mutant salivary glands in vitro. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2674-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplementation of Edar(dlJ/dlJ) SMGs with recombinant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) also rescues the defect, whereas treatment with recombinant ..
  25. Fessing M, Sharova T, Sharov A, Atoyan R, Botchkarev V. Involvement of the Edar signaling in the control of hair follicle involution (catagen). Am J Pathol. 2006;169:2075-84 pubmed
    ..Catagen development accompanied by increased apoptosis in the outer root sheath was significantly accelerated in downless mice or after treatment of wild-type mice by a fusion protein that inhibits Edar signaling, compared with the ..
  26. Kashiwagi M, Morgan B, Georgopoulos K. The chromatin remodeler Mi-2beta is required for establishment of the basal epidermis and normal differentiation of its progeny. Development. 2007;134:1571-82 pubmed
    ..Mi-2beta is however essential for the reprogramming of basal cells to the follicular and, subsequently, hair matrix fates. ..
  27. Schmidt Ullrich R, Aebischer T, Hülsken J, Birchmeier W, Klemm U, Scheidereit C. Requirement of NF-kappaB/Rel for the development of hair follicles and other epidermal appendices. Development. 2001;128:3843-53 pubmed
    ..defective early morphogenesis of hair follicles, exocrine glands and teeth, identical to Eda (tabby) and Edar (downless) mutant mice...
  28. Voutilainen M, Lindfors P, Trela E, Lönnblad D, Shirokova V, Elo T, et al. Ectodysplasin/NF-κB Promotes Mammary Cell Fate via Wnt/β-catenin Pathway. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005676 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an ex vivo culture system, we show that suppression of canonical Wnt signalling leads to a dose-dependent inhibition of supernumerary placodes in K14-Eda tissue explants. ..
  29. Aberg T, Wang X, Kim J, Yamashiro T, Bei M, Rice R, et al. Runx2 mediates FGF signaling from epithelium to mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;270:76-93 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Runx2 mediates the functions of epithelial FGF signals regulating Fgf3 expression in the dental mesenchyme and that Fgf3 may be a direct target gene of Runx2. ..
  30. Laurikkala J, Pispa J, Jung H, Nieminen P, Mikkola M, Wang X, et al. Regulation of hair follicle development by the TNF signal ectodysplasin and its receptor Edar. Development. 2002;129:2541-53 pubmed
    ..In the mouse, the genes of the spontaneous mutations Tabby (Ta) and downless (dl) were identified as homologs of ED1 and EDAR, respectively...
  31. Charles C, Pantalacci S, Tafforeau P, Headon D, Laudet V, Viriot L. Distinct impacts of Eda and Edar loss of function on the mouse dentition. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4985 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse, mutants are known for both the ligand, Eda-A1 (Tabby), and the receptor, Edar (Downless). The adult dentitions of these two mutants have classically been considered to be similar...
  32. Kamberov Y, Wang S, Tan J, Gerbault P, Wark A, Tan L, et al. Modeling recent human evolution in mice by expression of a selected EDAR variant. Cell. 2013;152:691-702 pubmed publisher
    ..This interdisciplinary approach yields unique insight into the generation of adaptive variation among modern humans. ..
  33. Sofaer J. Differences between tabby and downless mouse epidermis and dermis in culture. Genet Res. 1974;23:219-25 pubmed
  34. Pispa J, Pummila M, Barker P, Thesleff I, Mikkola M. Edar and Troy signalling pathways act redundantly to regulate initiation of hair follicle development. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3380-91 pubmed publisher
    ..organs requires signalling by ectodysplasin (Eda), a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member, its receptor Edar and downstream activation of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor...
  35. Pummila M, Fliniaux I, Jaatinen R, James M, Laurikkala J, Schneider P, et al. Ectodysplasin has a dual role in ectodermal organogenesis: inhibition of Bmp activity and induction of Shh expression. Development. 2007;134:117-25 pubmed
    ..Ectodysplasin-A (Eda), a tumour necrosis factor-like signalling molecule, and its receptor Edar are required for the development of a number of ectodermal organs in vertebrates...
  36. Everett C, Glenister P, Taylor D, Lyon M, Kratochvilova Loester J, Favor J. Mapping of six dominant cataract genes in the mouse. Genomics. 1994;20:429-34 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 4.0 cM from downless (dl), a region with homology to human 6q...
  37. Sun Y, Nakanishi M, Sato F, Oikawa K, Muragaki Y, Zhou G. Trps1 deficiency inhibits the morphogenesis of secondary hair follicles via decreased Noggin expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;456:721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sonic hedgehog expression was significantly decreased in E17.5 KO skin, whereas no changes were observed in Eda/Edar expression in E14.5 or E17.5 skins. In addition, Noggin expression was significantly decreased in E14.5 and E17...
  38. Rodrigues H, Renaud S, Charles C, Le Poul Y, Solé F, Aguilar J, et al. Roles of dental development and adaptation in rodent evolution. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2504 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that overexpression of Eda or Edar is sufficient to produce the longitudinal crests defining stephanodonty in transgenic laboratory mice...
  39. Kangas A, Evans A, Thesleff I, Jernvall J. Nonindependence of mammalian dental characters. Nature. 2004;432:211-4 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that most aspects of tooth shape have the developmental potential for correlated changes during evolution which may, if not taken into account, obscure phylogenetic history...
  40. Koppinen P, Pispa J, Laurikkala J, Thesleff I, Mikkola M. Signaling and subcellular localization of the TNF receptor Edar. Exp Cell Res. 2001;269:180-92 pubmed
    Tabby and downless mutant mice have identical phenotypes characterized by deficient development of several ectodermally derived organs such as teeth, hair, and sweat glands...
  41. Prochazka J, Pantalacci S, Churava S, Rothova M, Lambert A, Lesot H, et al. Patterning by heritage in mouse molar row development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights how rudiments of lost structures can stay integrated and participate in morphogenesis of functional organs and help in understanding their evolution, as Darwin suspected long ago. ..
  42. Womack J, Auerbach S. An acid phosphatase locus expressed in mouse kidney (Apk) and its genetic location on chromosome 10. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:239-45 pubmed
    ..Codominant expression was observed in F1 hybrids of M. m. molossinus and inbred strains. Apk was mapped on Chr 10, near the neurological mutant waltzer (v). ..
  43. Pangrazio A, Poliani P, Megarbane A, Lefranc G, Lanino E, Di Rocco M, et al. Mutations in OSTM1 (grey lethal) define a particularly severe form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis with neural involvement. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:1098-105 pubmed
    ..The fact that central nervous system involvement is also present in the gl mouse mutant suggests that this mouse is a good model to test possible therapies. ..
  44. Azar A, Piccinelli C, Brown H, Headon D, Cheeseman M. Ectodysplasin signalling deficiency in mouse models of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia leads to middle ear and nasal pathology. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:3564-3577 pubmed publisher
    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) results from mutation of the EDA, EDAR or EDARADD genes and is characterized by reduced or absent eccrine sweat glands, hair follicles and teeth, and defective formation of salivary, mammary and ..
  45. Hashimoto T, Cui C, Schlessinger D. Repertoire of mouse ectodysplasin-A (EDA-A) isoforms. Gene. 2006;371:42-51 pubmed
    ..Other isoforms, EDA-A5 and A5', for example, activated NF-kappaB through receptors EDAR and XEDAR. These properties make new isoforms candidates for modulators of EDA function.
  46. Sennett R, Rezza A, Dauber K, Clavel C, Rendl M. Cxcr4 is transiently expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of nascent hair follicles but is not required for follicle formation. Exp Dermatol. 2014;23:748-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Cxcr4 expression and chemokine signaling through this receptor in embryonic mouse skin is dispensable for HF formation. ..
  47. Mohri Y, Kato S, Umezawa A, Okuyama R, Nishimori K. Impaired hair placode formation with reduced expression of hair follicle-related genes in mice lacking Lgr4. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..that Lgr4K5 KO mice had sparse head hair and focal alopecia behind their ears, as observed in tabby (Eda) and downless (Edar) mice, which are models of the human genetic disorder hypohidrotic (anhidrotic) ectodermal dysplasia (HED)...
  48. Green M, Durham D, Mayer T, Hoppe P. Evidence from chimaeras for the pattern of proliferation of epidermis in the mouse. Genet Res. 1977;29:279-84 pubmed
  49. Keil K, Mehta V, Abler L, Joshi P, Schmitz C, Vezina C. Visualization and quantification of mouse prostate development by in situ hybridization. Differentiation. 2012;84:232-9 pubmed publisher
    ..identified prostatic bud markers, wingless-related MMTV integration site 10b (Wnt10b) and ectodysplasin-A receptor (Edar)...
  50. Pispa J, Mikkola M, Mustonen T, Thesleff I. Ectodysplasin, Edar and TNFRSF19 are expressed in complementary and overlapping patterns during mouse embryogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:675-9 pubmed
    Ectodysplasin (Eda), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and its receptor Edar are necessary components of ectodermal organ development...
  51. Garcin C, Huttner K, Kirby N, Schneider P, Hardman M. Ectodysplasin A Pathway Contributes to Human and Murine Skin Repair. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1022-1030 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, targeted manipulation of the EDA/EDA receptor pathway has clear therapeutic potential for the future treatment of human pathological wound healing. ..
  52. Shawlot W, Siciliano M, Stallings R, Overbeek P. Insertional inactivation of the downless gene in a family of transgenic mice. Mol Biol Med. 1989;6:299-307 pubmed
    The mouse downless (dl) gene is a morphogenetic gene that plays a role in dermal-epidermal interaction and regulation of hair follicle induction during fetal development...
  53. Adhikari K, Reales G, Smith A, Konka E, Palmen J, Quinto Sánchez M, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci for variation in human ear morphology. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7500 pubmed publisher
    ..Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage development...
  54. Kunisada M, Cui C, Piao Y, Ko M, Schlessinger D. Requirement for Shh and Fox family genes at different stages in sweat gland development. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide a framework for the further analysis of phased down-stream regulation of gene action, possibly by a signaling cascade, in response to Eda. ..
  55. Tsai S, Sennett R, Rezza A, Clavel C, Grisanti L, Zemla R, et al. Wnt/?-catenin signaling in dermal condensates is required for hair follicle formation. Dev Biol. 2014;385:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data reveal a functional role of Wnt signaling in DP precursors for embryonic hair follicle formation and identify Fgf and Activin signaling as potential effectors of Wnt signaling-regulated events. ..
  56. Wang X, Suomalainen M, Jorgez C, Matzuk M, Wankell M, Werner S, et al. Modulation of activin/bone morphogenetic protein signaling by follistatin is required for the morphogenesis of mouse molar teeth. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:98-108 pubmed
    ..We propose that finely tuned antagonistic effects between follistatin and TGF beta superfamily signals are critical for enamel knot formation and function, as well as for patterning of tooth cusps. ..
  57. Adhikari K, Fontanil T, Cal S, Mendoza Revilla J, Fuentes Guajardo M, Chacón Duque J, et al. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10815 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. ..
  58. Cui C, Yin M, Sima J, Childress V, Michel M, Piao Y, et al. Involvement of Wnt, Eda and Shh at defined stages of sweat gland development. Development. 2014;141:3752-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sweat gland development shows a relay of regulatory steps initiated by Wnt/β-catenin - itself modulated by Dkk4 - with subsequent participation of Eda and Shh pathways. ..
  59. Sofaer J. Hair follicle initiation in reciprocal recombinations of downless homozygote and heterozygote mouse tail epidermis and dermis. Dev Biol. 1973;34:289-96 pubmed
  60. Närhi K, Järvinen E, Birchmeier W, Taketo M, Mikkola M, Thesleff I. Sustained epithelial beta-catenin activity induces precocious hair development but disrupts hair follicle down-growth and hair shaft formation. Development. 2008;135:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..of beta-catenin resulted in precocious and excessive induction of hair follicles even in the absence of Eda/Edar signaling, a pathway essential for primary hair placode formation...
  61. Zhang Y, Tomann P, Andl T, Gallant N, Huelsken J, Jerchow B, et al. Reciprocal requirements for EDA/EDAR/NF-kappaB and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways in hair follicle induction. Dev Cell. 2009;17:49-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is absolutely required for NF-kappaB activation, and that Edar is a direct Wnt target gene...
  62. Crocker M, Cattanach B. The genetics of Sleek: a possible regulatory mutation of the tabby-crinkled-downless syndrome. Genet Res. 1979;34:231-8 pubmed
  63. Shirokova V, Jussila M, Hytönen M, Perälä N, Drogemuller C, Leeb T, et al. Expression of Foxi3 is regulated by ectodysplasin in skin appendage placodes. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to hair and teeth, Foxi3 may have a role in nail, eye, and mammary, sweat, and salivary gland development. ..
  64. Boyle A, Feltquite D, Dracopoli N, Housman D, Ward D. Rapid physical mapping of cloned DNA on banded mouse chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genomics. 1992;12:106-15 pubmed
    ..Clones hybridizing to each murine chromosome have been identified, thus providing a panel of marker probes to assist in chromosome identification. ..
  65. Järvinen E, Salazar Ciudad I, Birchmeier W, Taketo M, Jernvall J, Thesleff I. Continuous tooth generation in mouse is induced by activated epithelial Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18627-32 pubmed
    ..These results may implicate Wnt signaling in tooth renewal, a capacity that was all but lost when mammals evolved progressively more complicated tooth shapes. ..
  66. Rogers S, Gahring L. Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during tooth morphogenesis reveals functional pleiotropy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36467 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ. ..
  67. Häärä O, Fujimori S, Schmidt Ullrich R, Hartmann C, Thesleff I, Mikkola M. Ectodysplasin and Wnt pathways are required for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:2681-91 pubmed publisher
    ..and unlike in developing hair follicles and teeth, canonical Wnt signaling activity did not colocalize with Edar/NF-?B in salivary gland epithelium...