Gene Symbol: Dvl2
Description: dishevelled segment polarity protein 2
Alias: segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-2, DSH homolog 2, dishevelled 2, dsh homolog, dishevelled-2
Species: mouse
Products:     Dvl2

Top Publications

  1. Tissir F, Goffinet A. Expression of planar cell polarity genes during development of the mouse CNS. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:597-607 pubmed
    ..Vangl2 and Dvl2 were preferentially expressed in ventricular zones, in keeping with their role during neural tube closure, where ..
  2. Vladar E, Bayly R, Sangoram A, Scott M, Axelrod J. Microtubules enable the planar cell polarity of airway cilia. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2203-12 pubmed publisher
  3. Sinha T, Wang B, Evans S, Wynshaw Boris A, Wang J. Disheveled mediated planar cell polarity signaling is required in the second heart field lineage for outflow tract morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;370:135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used Dvl1/2 null mice and a set of Dvl2 BAC transgenes that function in a pathway-specific fashion to demonstrate that Dvl1/2-mediated PCP signaling is ..
  4. Klingensmith J, Yang Y, Axelrod J, Beier D, Perrimon N, Sussman D. Conservation of dishevelled structure and function between flies and mice: isolation and characterization of Dvl2. Mech Dev. 1996;58:15-26 pubmed
    ..We report here the isolation of a second mouse dsh homolog, Dvl2, which maps to chromosome 11...
  5. Ho H, Susman M, Bikoff J, Ryu Y, Jonas A, Hu L, et al. Wnt5a-Ror-Dishevelled signaling constitutes a core developmental pathway that controls tissue morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4044-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Wnt5a-Ror-Dishevelled signaling constitutes a core noncanonical Wnt pathway that is conserved through evolution and is crucial during embryonic development. ..
  6. Hamblet N, Lijam N, Ruiz Lozano P, Wang J, Yang Y, Luo Z, et al. Dishevelled 2 is essential for cardiac outflow tract development, somite segmentation and neural tube closure. Development. 2002;129:5827-38 pubmed
    The murine dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Dishevelled, a member of the highly conserved Wingless/Wnt developmental pathway...
  7. Nishimura T, Honda H, Takeichi M. Planar cell polarity links axes of spatial dynamics in neural-tube closure. Cell. 2012;149:1084-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our findings demonstrate that PCP signals confer anisotropic contractility on the AJs, producing cellular forces that promote the polarized bending of the neural plate...
  8. Hashimoto M, Shinohara K, Wang J, Ikeuchi S, Yoshiba S, Meno C, et al. Planar polarization of node cells determines the rotational axis of node cilia. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dvl2 and Dvl3 proteins were found to be localized to the apical side of the node cells, and their location was polarized ..
  9. Babayeva S, Zilber Y, Torban E. Planar cell polarity pathway regulates actin rearrangement, cell shape, motility, and nephrin distribution in podocytes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F549-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations indicate that PCP signaling may play an important role both in podocyte development and FP cytoskeleton dynamics. ..

More Information


  1. Yu A, Xing Y, Harrison S, Kirchhausen T. Structural analysis of the interaction between Dishevelled2 and clathrin AP-2 adaptor, a critical step in noncanonical Wnt signaling. Structure. 2010;18:1311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocytosis and compartmentalization help determine the signaling outcome. Our previous work has shown that Dvl2 links at least one Frizzled family member (Fz4) to clathrin-mediated endocytosis by interacting with the ?2 subunit ..
  2. González Sancho J, Brennan K, Castelo Soccio L, Brown A. Wnt proteins induce dishevelled phosphorylation via an LRP5/6- independent mechanism, irrespective of their ability to stabilize beta-catenin. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4757-68 pubmed
    ..Our data also present Dvl phosphorylation as a general biochemical assay for Wnt protein function, including those Wnts that do not activate the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. ..
  3. Yang Y, Lijam N, Sussman D, Tsang M. Genomic organization of mouse Dishevelled genes. Gene. 1996;180:121-3 pubmed
    ..the isolation and characterization of two new genomic loci corresponding to the mouse Dishevelled (Dvl) genes Dvl2 and Dvl3...
  4. Bryja V, Schulte G, Rawal N, Grahn A, Arenas E. Wnt-5a induces Dishevelled phosphorylation and dopaminergic differentiation via a CK1-dependent mechanism. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:586-95 pubmed
    ..However, both Wnt-3a and Wnt-5a activated Dvl2 by a CK1-dependent mechanism in a cooperative manner...
  5. Etheridge S, Ray S, Li S, Hamblet N, Lijam N, Tsang M, et al. Murine dishevelled 3 functions in redundant pathways with dishevelled 1 and 2 in normal cardiac outflow tract, cochlea, and neural tube development. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000259 pubmed publisher
    ..Three mammalian Dvl genes have been identified and the developmental roles of Dvl1 and Dvl2 were previously determined...
  6. Yu A, Rual J, Tamai K, Harada Y, Vidal M, He X, et al. Association of Dishevelled with the clathrin AP-2 adaptor is required for Frizzled endocytosis and planar cell polarity signaling. Dev Cell. 2007;12:129-41 pubmed
    ..We describe a novel interaction between Dishevelled2 (Dvl2) and micro2-adaptin, a subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-2; this interaction is required to engage activated ..
  7. Li D, Hallett M, Zhu W, Rubart M, Liu Y, Yang Z, et al. Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) is required for heart morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:303-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical analyses indicate that Daam1 does not regulate cytoskeletal organization through RhoA, Rac1 or Cdc42. Our study highlights a crucial role for Daam1 in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and tissue morphogenesis. ..
  8. Kioussi C, Briata P, Baek S, Rose D, Hamblet N, Herman T, et al. Identification of a Wnt/Dvl/beta-Catenin --> Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development. Cell. 2002;111:673-85 pubmed
  9. Phillips H, Murdoch J, Chaudhry B, Copp A, Henderson D. Vangl2 acts via RhoA signaling to regulate polarized cell movements during development of the proximal outflow tract. Circ Res. 2005;96:292-9 pubmed
  10. Lee Y, Gao Y, Wang H. Differential mediation of the Wnt canonical pathway by mammalian Dishevelleds-1, -2, and -3. Cell Signal. 2008;20:443-52 pubmed
    ..In the genomes of higher organism (including mammals), three genes encoding isoforms of Dishevelled (Dvl1, Dvl2, and Dvl3) are present...
  11. Simons M, Gloy J, Ganner A, Bullerkotte A, Bashkurov M, Krönig C, et al. Inversin, the gene product mutated in nephronophthisis type II, functions as a molecular switch between Wnt signaling pathways. Nat Genet. 2005;37:537-43 pubmed
    ..Fluid flow increases inversin levels in ciliated tubular epithelial cells and seems to regulate this crucial switch between Wnt signaling pathways during renal development. ..
  12. Wang J, Hamblet N, Mark S, Dickinson M, Brinkman B, Segil N, et al. Dishevelled genes mediate a conserved mammalian PCP pathway to regulate convergent extension during neurulation. Development. 2006;133:1767-78 pubmed
    ..Here we show, using mice with null mutations in two mammalian Dishevelled homologs, Dvl1 and Dvl2, that during neurulation a homologous mammalian PCP pathway regulates concomitant lengthening and narrowing of the ..
  13. Wang J, Mark S, Zhang X, Qian D, Yoo S, Radde Gallwitz K, et al. Regulation of polarized extension and planar cell polarity in the cochlea by the vertebrate PCP pathway. Nat Genet. 2005;37:980-5 pubmed
  14. Zeng X, Huang H, Tamai K, Zhang X, Harada Y, Yokota C, et al. Initiation of Wnt signaling: control of Wnt coreceptor Lrp6 phosphorylation/activation via frizzled, dishevelled and axin functions. Development. 2008;135:367-75 pubmed
    ..We discuss the dual roles of the axin-Gsk3 complex and signal amplification by Lrp6-axin interaction during Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. ..
  15. Torban E, Wang H, Groulx N, Gros P. Independent mutations in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52703-13 pubmed
    ..mutations identified in two independent Lp alleles associated with neural tube defects impair binding to Dvl1, Dvl2, and Dvl3. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the neural tube defect seen in Lp mice...
  16. Steitz S, Tsang M, Sussman D. Wnt-mediated relocalization of dishevelled proteins. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1996;32:441-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a conserved role for Dvl in Wnt/wg signal transduction. ..
  17. Nishita M, Itsukushima S, Nomachi A, Endo M, Wang Z, Inaba D, et al. Ror2/Frizzled complex mediates Wnt5a-induced AP-1 activation by regulating Dishevelled polymerization. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results indicate that Ror2/Fz receptor complex plays an important role in the Wnt5a/Rac1/AP-1 pathway by regulating the polymerization of Dvl. ..
  18. Maisonneuve C, Guilleret I, Vick P, Weber T, Andre P, Beyer T, et al. Bicaudal C, a novel regulator of Dvl signaling abutting RNA-processing bodies, controls cilia orientation and leftward flow. Development. 2009;136:3019-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, depending on its SAM domain, BicC can uncouple Dvl2 signaling from the canonical Wnt pathway, which has been implicated in antagonizing planar cell polarity (PCP)...
  19. Chen J, Stahl A, Krah N, Seaward M, Dennison R, Sapieha P, et al. Wnt signaling mediates pathological vascular growth in proliferative retinopathy. Circulation. 2011;124:1871-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate an important role of Wnt signaling in pathological vascular development in retinopathy and show a novel function of Cln5 in promoting angiogenesis. ..
  20. Suriben R, Kivimäe S, Fisher D, Moon R, Cheyette B. Posterior malformations in Dact1 mutant mice arise through misregulated Vangl2 at the primitive streak. Nat Genet. 2009;41:977-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Dact1 contributes to morphogenesis at the primitive streak by regulating Vangl2 upstream of cell adhesion and the PCP pathway. ..
  21. Trichas G, Joyce B, Crompton L, Wilkins V, Clements M, Tada M, et al. Nodal dependent differential localisation of dishevelled-2 demarcates regions of differing cell behaviour in the visceral endoderm. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001019 pubmed publisher
    ..and mixing is restricted to the VE overlying the epiblast, characterised by the enrichment of Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) to the lateral plasma membrane, a hallmark of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signalling...
  22. Mao Y, Huang X, Zhao J, Gu Z. Preliminary identification of potential PDZ-domain proteins downstream of ephrin B2 during osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells. Int J Mol Med. 2011;27:669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..7 osteoclasts. However, in a co-immunoprecipitation assay, only Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) among eight PDZ-domain proteins tested co-precipitated with ephrin B2 and vice versa, suggesting an endogenous ..
  23. Luo Z, Wang Q, Zhou J, Wang J, Luo Z, Liu M, et al. Regulation of AChR clustering by Dishevelled interacting with MuSK and PAK1. Neuron. 2002;35:489-505 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of PAK1 activity attenuates AChR clustering. These results demonstrate important roles of Dvl and PAK in Agrin/MuSK-induced AChR clustering and reveal a novel function of Dvl in synapse development. ..
  24. Yamaguchi Y, Naiki T, Irie K. Stau1 regulates Dvl2 expression during myoblast differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:427-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe that Stau1 positively regulates expression of Dvl2 gene encoding a central mediator of Wnt pathway in undifferentiated C2C12 myoblasts...
  25. Zhu Y, Shen T, Liu J, Zheng J, Zhang Y, Xu R, et al. Rab35 is required for Wnt5a/Dvl2-induced Rac1 activation and cell migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1075-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed here that Wnt5a dose dependently activated Dvl2, Rab35 and Rac1 and subsequently promoted the migration of MCF-7 cells, which was, however, abolished by knocking ..
  26. Wheeler D, Barrick S, Grubisha M, Brufsky A, Friedman P, Romero G. Direct interaction between NHERF1 and Frizzled regulates ?-catenin signaling. Oncogene. 2011;30:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results provide a novel insight into the regulation of Wnt signaling in normal and neoplastic breast tissues, and identify NHERF1 as an important regulator of the pathogenesis of breast tumors. ..
  27. Yamamoto S, Nishimura O, Misaki K, Nishita M, Minami Y, Yonemura S, et al. Cthrc1 selectively activates the planar cell polarity pathway of Wnt signaling by stabilizing the Wnt-receptor complex. Dev Cell. 2008;15:23-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Cthrc1 is a Wnt cofactor protein that selectively activates the Wnt/PCP pathway by stabilizing ligand-receptor interaction. ..
  28. Fagotto F, Jho E, Zeng L, Kurth T, Joos T, Kaufmann C, et al. Domains of axin involved in protein-protein interactions, Wnt pathway inhibition, and intracellular localization. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:741-56 pubmed
    ..Coexpression of hemagglutinin-tagged Dishevelled (Dsh) revealed strong colocalization with Axin, suggesting that Dsh can interact with the Axin/APC/GSK3/beta-catenin complex, and may thus modulate its activity. ..
  29. Miyasaka K, Kida Y, Sato T, Minami M, Ogura T. Csrp1 regulates dynamic cell movements of the mesendoderm and cardiac mesoderm through interactions with Dishevelled and Diversin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11274-9 pubmed
    ..Csrp1 interacts with Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) and Diversin (Div), which control cell morphology and other dynamic cell behaviors via the noncanonical ..
  30. Tanaka S, Nakane A, Yamaguchi Y, Terabayashi T, Abe T, Nakao K, et al. Dullard/Ctdnep1 modulates WNT signalling activity for the formation of primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57428 pubmed publisher
    ..was accompanied by down-regulation of WNT/?-catenin signalling activity and a reduction in the level of Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2)...
  31. Ohata S, Nakatani J, Herranz Pérez V, Cheng J, Belinson H, Inubushi T, et al. Loss of Dishevelleds disrupts planar polarity in ependymal motile cilia and results in hydrocephalus. Neuron. 2014;83:558-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Dishevelled genes (Dvls) are essential for Wnt signaling, and Dvl2 has been shown to localize to the rootlet of motile cilia...
  32. Glasco D, Sittaramane V, Bryant W, Fritzsch B, Sawant A, Paudyal A, et al. The mouse Wnt/PCP protein Vangl2 is necessary for migration of facial branchiomotor neurons, and functions independently of Dishevelled. Dev Biol. 2012;369:211-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, loss of Dvl2 function in Vangl2(Lp/+) embryos did not exacerbate the Vangl2(Lp/+) neuronal migration phenotype...
  33. Liu Y, Dan Q, Wang J, Feng Y, Chen L, Liang J, et al. Molecular basis of Wnt activation via the DIX domain protein Ccd1. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8597-608 pubmed publisher
    ..These data together suggest a molecular mechanism for Ccd1-mediated Wnt activation in that Ccd1 converts latent polymeric Dvl to a biologically active oligomer(s). ..
  34. Metcalfe C, Ibrahim A, Graeb M, de la Roche M, Schwarz Romond T, Fiedler M, et al. Dvl2 promotes intestinal length and neoplasia in the ApcMin mouse model for colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:6629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening a large tissue microarray of different staged colorectal tumors by immunohistochemistry, we found that Dvl2 has a strong tendency to be overexpressed in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, in parallel to nuclear beta-..
  35. Chen Y, Stump R, Lovicu F, Shimono A, McAvoy J. Wnt signaling is required for organization of the lens fiber cell cytoskeleton and development of lens three-dimensional architecture. Dev Biol. 2008;324:161-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Components of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway were downregulated or inhibited. Taken together this supports a role for Wnt/PCP signaling in orchestrating the complex organization and dynamics of the fiber cell cytoskeleton...
  36. McGreevy E, Vijayraghavan D, Davidson L, Hildebrand J. Shroom3 functions downstream of planar cell polarity to regulate myosin II distribution and cellular organization during neural tube closure. Biol Open. 2015;4:186-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that these pathways intersect at Dishevelled, as Shroom3 and Dishevelled 2 co-distribute and form a physical complex in cells...
  37. Ma B, Liu B, Cao W, Gao C, Qi Z, Ning Y, et al. The Wnt Signaling Antagonist Dapper1 Accelerates Dishevelled2 Degradation via Promoting Its Ubiquitination and Aggregate-induced Autophagy. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:12346-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Dpr1 promotes the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL)-mediated ubiquitination of Dvl2 and its autophagic degradation...
  38. Chang B, Tessneer K, McManus J, Liu X, Hahn S, Pasula S, et al. Epsin is required for Dishevelled stability and Wnt signalling activation in colon cancer development. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6380 pubmed publisher
    ..against colon cancer by significantly reducing the stability of the crucial Wnt signalling effector, dishevelled (Dvl2), and impairing Wnt signalling. Consistently, epsins and Dvl2 are correspondingly upregulated in colon cancer...
  39. Huang X, McGann J, Liu B, Hannoush R, Lill J, Pham V, et al. Phosphorylation of Dishevelled by protein kinase RIPK4 regulates Wnt signaling. Science. 2013;339:1441-5 pubmed publisher
    ..RIPK4 interacted constitutively with the adaptor protein DVL2 and, after Wnt3a stimulation, with the co-receptor LRP6...
  40. Orelio C, Dzierzak E. Identification of 2 novel genes developmentally regulated in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. Blood. 2003;101:2246-9 pubmed
    ..The identification of differentially expressed genes in the AGM region should yield further insights into the development of this tissue and into the emergence and regulation of HSCs...
  41. Kuss P, Kraft K, Stumm J, Ibrahim D, Vallecillo García P, Mundlos S, et al. Regulation of cell polarity in the cartilage growth plate and perichondrium of metacarpal elements by HOXD13 and WNT5A. Dev Biol. 2014;385:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitant we observed mislocalization of core planar cell polarity (PCP) components DVL2 and PRICKLE1 in spdh metacarpals indicating a defect in the WNT/PCP pathway...
  42. Zhang Y, Wang F, Han L, Wu Y, Li S, Yang X, et al. GABARAPL1 negatively regulates Wnt/?-catenin signaling by mediating Dvl2 degradation through the autophagy pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;27:503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that GABARAPL1 (GABA(A) receptor-associated protein like 1, GABARAPL1) interacts with Dvl2 by both yeast two-hybrid screening and immunoprecipitation experiments...
  43. Ma L, Wang Y, Malbon C, Wang H. Dishevelled-3 C-terminal His single amino acid repeats are obligate for Wnt5a activation of non-canonical signaling. J Mol Signal. 2010;5:19 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway regulates the activation of NF-AT) is mediated by three mammalian Dishevelleds (Dvl1, Dvl2, and Dvl3) and the role of the C-terminal region unique to Dvl3 was interrogated...
  44. Sparrow D, Guillen Navarro E, Fatkin D, Dunwoodie S. Mutation of Hairy-and-Enhancer-of-Split-7 in humans causes spondylocostal dysostosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3761-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of mutation in the human HES7 gene, and provides further evidence for the importance of the Notch signaling pathway in the correct patterning of the axial skeleton...
  45. Capelluto D, Kutateladze T, Habas R, Finkielstein C, He X, Overduin M. The DIX domain targets dishevelled to actin stress fibres and vesicular membranes. Nature. 2002;419:726-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that partitioning of Dvl into cytoskeletal and vesicular pools by the DIX domain represents a point of divergence in Wnt signalling. ..
  46. Gegg M, Böttcher A, Burtscher I, Hasenoeder S, Van Campenhout C, Aichler M, et al. Flattop regulates basal body docking and positioning in mono- and multiciliated cells. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..In these cells, the core PCP molecule Dishevelled 2, the BB/spindle positioning protein Dlg3, and Fltp localize directly adjacent to the apical plasma membrane, ..
  47. Schwarz Romond T, Fiedler M, Shibata N, Butler P, Kikuchi A, Higuchi Y, et al. The DIX domain of Dishevelled confers Wnt signaling by dynamic polymerization. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:484-92 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the DIX domain of Dvl2 mediates dynamic polymerization, which is essential for the signaling activity of Dvl2...
  48. Takagishi M, Sawada M, Ohata S, Asai N, Enomoto A, Takahashi K, et al. Daple Coordinates Planar Polarized Microtubule Dynamics in Ependymal Cells and Contributes to Hydrocephalus. Cell Rep. 2017;20:960-972 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate an important role for Daple in planar polarity in motile cilia and provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms and functions of planar polarization in the ependymal cells. ..
  49. Roarty K, Pfefferle A, Creighton C, Perou C, Rosen J. Ror2-mediated alternative Wnt signaling regulates cell fate and adhesion during mammary tumor progression. Oncogene. 2017;36:5958-5968 pubmed publisher
    ..Family Member A (RhoA) and Rho-Associated Coiled-Coil Kinase 1 (ROCK1) activity downstream of Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2)...
  50. Wei W, Li M, Wang J, Nie F, Li L. The E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH negatively regulates canonical Wnt signaling by targeting dishevelled protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3903-12 pubmed publisher
    ..the PPXY motif and the DEP domain of Dvl are critical for its interaction with ITCH, as mutation in the PPXY motif (Dvl2-Y568F) or deletion of the DEP domain led to reduced affinity for ITCH...
  51. Sipe C, Liu L, Lee J, Grimsley Myers C, Lu X. Lis1 mediates planar polarity of auditory hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization. Development. 2013;140:1785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that Lis1 mediates the planar polarity of hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization downstream of the tissue polarity pathway. ..
  52. Siletti K, Tarchini B, Hudspeth A. Daple coordinates organ-wide and cell-intrinsic polarity to pattern inner-ear hair bundles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E11170-E11179 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the primary cilium or an associated structure influences the domain of cell-intrinsic signals that shape the hair bundle. Daple is therefore essential to orient and pattern sensory hair bundles. ..
  53. Pan W, Choi S, Wang H, Qin Y, Volpicelli Daley L, Swan L, et al. Wnt3a-mediated formation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate regulates LRP6 phosphorylation. Science. 2008;321:1350-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, PtdIns (4,5)P2 regulated phosphorylation of LRP6 at Thr1479 and Ser1490. Therefore, our study reveals a signaling mechanism for Wnt to regulate LRP6 phosphorylation. ..
  54. Goggolidou P, Hadjirin N, Bak A, Papakrivopoulou E, Hilton H, Norris D, et al. Atmin mediates kidney morphogenesis by modulating Wnt signaling. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:5303-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of a novel modulator of Wnt signaling has important implications for understanding the pathobiology of renal disease. ..
  55. Hocevar B, Mou F, Rennolds J, Morris S, Cooper J, Howe P. Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by disabled-2 (Dab2). EMBO J. 2003;22:3084-94 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that Dab2 functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling by stabilizing the beta-catenin degradation complex, which may contribute to its proposed role as a tumor suppressor. ..
  56. Zhao T, Gan Q, Stokes A, Lassiter R, Wang Y, Chan J, et al. ?-catenin regulates Pax3 and Cdx2 for caudal neural tube closure and elongation. Development. 2014;141:148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?-catenin signaling is required for caudal neural tube closure and elongation, acting through the transcriptional regulation of key target genes in the PNP. ..
  57. Liu W, Sato A, Khadka D, Bharti R, Diaz H, Runnels L, et al. Mechanism of activation of the Formin protein Daam1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:210-5 pubmed
    ..Our studies together define the importance of a carboxyl-terminal binding partner, Dvl, that leads to the activation of Daam1. ..
  58. Matsuyama M, Aizawa S, Shimono A. Sfrp controls apicobasal polarity and oriented cell division in developing gut epithelium. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000427 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Sfrp regulation of Wnt5a signaling controls oriented cell division and apicobasal polarity in the epithelium of developing gut. ..
  59. Schwarz Romond T, Metcalfe C, Bienz M. Dynamic recruitment of axin by Dishevelled protein assemblies. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2402-12 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that the DIX domain of mammalian Dvl2 allows it to form dynamic protein assemblies...
  60. Nagy I, Xu Q, Naillat F, Ali N, Miinalainen I, Samoylenko A, et al. Impairment of Wnt11 function leads to kidney tubular abnormalities and secondary glomerular cystogenesis. BMC Dev Biol. 2016;16:30 pubmed publisher
    ..Also Dvl2, an important PCP pathway component, was downregulated by more than 90 % due to Wnt11 deficiency in both the E16...
  61. Millar S, Willert K, Salinas P, Roelink H, Nusse R, Sussman D, et al. WNT signaling in the control of hair growth and structure. Dev Biol. 1999;207:133-49 pubmed
    ..A putative effector molecule for WNT3 signaling, the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled 2 (DVL2), is normally present at high levels in a subset of cells in the outer root sheath and in precursor ..
  62. Wen J, Chiang Y, Gao C, Xue H, Xu J, Ning Y, et al. Loss of Dact1 disrupts planar cell polarity signaling by altering dishevelled activity and leads to posterior malformation in mice. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..An increased amount of Dvl2 tends to be accumulated in the cortical regions of the cells, especially at the primitive streak ectoderm close to ..
  63. Lee J, Ishimoto A, Yanagawa S. Characterization of mouse dishevelled (Dvl) proteins in Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21464-70 pubmed
    ..These results are direct evidence that Dsh family proteins mediate a set of conserved biochemical processes in the Wnt/Wg signaling pathway. ..
  64. Luo W, Zou H, Jin L, Lin S, Li Q, Ye Z, et al. Axin contains three separable domains that confer intramolecular, homodimeric, and heterodimeric interactions involved in distinct functions. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5054-60 pubmed
    ..Our findings have thus provided a structural basis of conformational changes in Axin, which may underlie the diversity of Axin functions. ..
  65. Greco T, Sussman D, Camper S. Dishevelled-2 maps to human chromosome 17 and distal to Wnt3a and vestigial tail (vt) on mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:475-6 pubmed
  66. Moeller H, Jenny A, Schaeffer H, Schwarz Romond T, Mlodzik M, Hammerschmidt M, et al. Diversin regulates heart formation and gastrulation movements in development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15900-5 pubmed
    ..Our data thus demonstrate that Diversin and Dishevelled function together in a mutually dependent fashion in zebrafish gastrulation and organ formation. ..
  67. Endo Y, Wolf V, Muraiso K, Kamijo K, Soon L, Uren A, et al. Wnt-3a-dependent cell motility involves RhoA activation and is specifically regulated by dishevelled-2. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:777-86 pubmed
    ..Specific knock-down of Dvl-2 expression markedly reduced Wnt-3a-dependent changes in cell shape and movement, suggesting that this Dvl isoform had a predominant role in mediating Wnt-3a-dependent motility in Chinese hamster ovary cells. ..
  68. Gruber P, Epstein J. Development gone awry: congenital heart disease. Circ Res. 2004;94:273-83 pubmed
    ..In this review, we summarize some of the more clinically significant forms of congenital heart disease, and we highlight relevant genetic and developmental pathways. ..
  69. Sipe C, Lu X. Kif3a regulates planar polarization of auditory hair cells through both ciliary and non-ciliary mechanisms. Development. 2011;138:3441-9 pubmed publisher
  70. Lee K, Johmura Y, Yu L, Park J, Gao Y, Bang J, et al. Identification of a novel Wnt5a-CK1?-Dvl2-Plk1-mediated primary cilia disassembly pathway. EMBO J. 2012;31:3104-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report unexpected roles of Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) and interphase polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) in primary cilia disassembly...
  71. Lee P, Ohtake T, Zaiou M, Murakami M, Rudisill J, Lin K, et al. Expression of an additional cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide protects against bacterial skin infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3750-5 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that targeted gene transfer of a xenobiotic cathelicidin confers resistance against infection and suggests the benefit of duplication and divergence in the evolution of antimicrobial peptides. ..
  72. Tarchini B, Jolicoeur C, Cayouette M. A molecular blueprint at the apical surface establishes planar asymmetry in cochlear hair cells. Dev Cell. 2013;27:88-102 pubmed publisher
    ..G?i is additionally required for lateral orientation of cochlear hair cells, providing a possible mechanism to couple the emergence of asymmetric stereocilia bundles with planar cell polarity. ..
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    ..Our results indicate that WWOX is a novel inhibitor of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. WWOX would act, at least in part, by preventing the nuclear import of the Dvl proteins. ..
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    ..Here we show that, in the mammalian auditory epithelium, Ptk7 is not required for membrane recruitment of Dishevelled 2; Ptk7 and Frizzled3/Frizzled6 receptors act in parallel and have opposing effects on hair cell PCP...
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    ..Thus, the function of Foxj1 in vertebrate organs of asymmetry is conserved, and Noto regulates node morphogenesis and the posterior localization of cilia on node cells independently of Foxj1. ..