Gene Symbol: Dsg3
Description: desmoglein 3
Alias: bal, desmoglein-3, 130 kDa pemphigus vulgaris antigen homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Dsg3

Top Publications

  1. Ihrie R, Marques M, Nguyen B, Horner J, Papazoglu C, Bronson R, et al. Perp is a p63-regulated gene essential for epithelial integrity. Cell. 2005;120:843-56 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Perp is a key effector in the p63 developmental program, playing an essential role in an adhesion subprogram central to epithelial integrity and homeostasis. ..
  2. Hanakawa Y, Matsuyoshi N, Stanley J. Expression of desmoglein 1 compensates for genetic loss of desmoglein 3 in keratinocyte adhesion. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:27-31 pubmed
    ..To validate this hypothesis genetically, we used desmoglein-3 knockout mice (DSG3-/-) that lose their telogen hair prematurely due to loss of adhesion between keratinocytes of the telogen hair club ..
  3. Ishikawa H, Li K, Tamai K, Sawamura D, Uitto J. Cloning of the mouse desmoglein 3 gene (Dsg3): interspecies conservation within the cadherin superfamily. Exp Dermatol. 2000;9:229-39 pubmed
    b>Desmoglein 3 is a cadherin-like calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule expressed primarily in suprabasal keratinocytes of the epidermis...
  4. Amagai M, Tsunoda K, Suzuki H, Nishifuji K, Koyasu S, Nishikawa T. Use of autoantigen-knockout mice in developing an active autoimmune disease model for pemphigus. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:625-31 pubmed
    ..Using knockout mice lacking desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), the target antigen of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), we have generated an active disease model for this ..
  5. Buxton R, Cowin P, Franke W, Garrod D, Green K, King I, et al. Nomenclature of the desmosomal cadherins. J Cell Biol. 1993;121:481-3 pubmed
  6. Shu E, Yamamoto Y, Aoyama Y, Kitajima Y. Intraperitoneal injection of pemphigus vulgaris-IgG into mouse depletes epidermal keratinocytes of desmoglein 3 associated with generation of acantholysis. Arch Dermatol Res. 2007;299:165-7 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that pemphigus vulgaris (PV)-IgG caused the formation of Dsg3-depleted desmosomes in normal human cultured keratinocytes and DJM-1, a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line...
  7. Vasioukhin V, Bowers E, Bauer C, Degenstein L, Fuchs E. Desmoplakin is essential in epidermal sheet formation. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:1076-85 pubmed
    ..DP is therefore required for assembly of functional desmosomes, maintaining cytoskeletal architecture and reinforcing membrane attachments essential for stable intercellular adhesion. ..
  8. Koch P, Mahoney M, Ishikawa H, Pulkkinen L, Uitto J, Shultz L, et al. Targeted disruption of the pemphigus vulgaris antigen (desmoglein 3) gene in mice causes loss of keratinocyte cell adhesion with a phenotype similar to pemphigus vulgaris. J Cell Biol. 1997;137:1091-102 pubmed
    In patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) cause loss of cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes in the basal and immediate suprabasal layers of stratified squamous epithelia...
  9. Koch P, Mahoney M, Cotsarelis G, Rothenberger K, Lavker R, Stanley J. Desmoglein 3 anchors telogen hair in the follicle. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 17):2529-37 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it was surprising that mice without desmoglein 3 (the autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris) not only developed mucous membrane and skin lesions like pemphigus ..

More Information


  1. Hanakawa Y, Li H, Lin C, Stanley J, Cotsarelis G. Desmogleins 1 and 3 in the companion layer anchor mouse anagen hair to the follicle. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:817-22 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that Dsg1 compensates for the loss of Dsg3 in the anagen hair follicles of these Dsg3-/- mice...
  2. Davisson M, Cook S, Johnson K, Eicher E. Balding: a new mutation on mouse chromosome 18 causing hair loss and immunological defects. J Hered. 1994;85:134-6 pubmed
  3. Ishikawa H, Silos S, Tamai K, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, et al. cDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment of the mouse gene for desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), the pemphigus vulgaris antigen. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:803-4 pubmed
  4. Lenox J, Koch P, Mahoney M, Lieberman M, Stanley J, Radice G. Postnatal lethality of P-cadherin/desmoglein 3 double knockout mice: demonstration of a cooperative effect of these cell adhesion molecules in tissue homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;114:948-52 pubmed
    ..we have generated mice deficient for both a classical cadherin, P-cadherin, and a desmosomal cadherin, desmoglein 3. In epithelial cells, P-cadherin is localized to the adherens junction, whereas desmoglein 3 is found in ..
  5. Pan M, Zhou Y, Li W, Zheng J. Modulation of desmoglein-3-specific T cell response and pathogenic antibody generation in mice. Immunol Lett. 2008;120:6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..of the skin and mucous membranes caused by pathogenic autoantibodies to desmosomal adhesion proteins desmoglein-3 (Dsg3) and desmoglein-1 (Dsg1). The antibody titer and the distinct isotype patterns correlated with the disease activity...
  6. Schulze K, Galichet A, Sayar B, Scothern A, Howald D, Zymann H, et al. An adult passive transfer mouse model to study desmoglein 3 signaling in pemphigus vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:346-55 pubmed publisher
    Evidence has accumulated that changes in intracellular signaling downstream of desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) may have a significant role in epithelial blistering in the autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV)...
  7. Kountikov E, Poe J, Maclver N, Rathmell J, Tedder T. A spontaneous deletion within the desmoglein 3 extracellular domain of mice results in hypomorphic protein expression, immunodeficiency, and a wasting disease phenotype. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:617-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Desmoglein 3 is a transmembrane component of desmosome complexes that mediate epidermal cell-to-cell adhesion and tissue integrity...
  8. Ohyama M, Ota T, Aoki M, Tsunoda K, Harada R, Koyasu S, et al. Suppression of the immune response against exogenous desmoglein 3 in desmoglein 3 knockout mice: an implication for gene therapy. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:610-5 pubmed
    ..This study used desmoglein 3 knockout (Dsg3-/-) mice as a disease model for a genetic defect in DSG3, to investigate whether nonviral gene ..
  9. Owens P, Bazzi H, Engelking E, Han G, Christiano A, Wang X. Smad4-dependent desmoglein-4 expression contributes to hair follicle integrity. Dev Biol. 2008;322:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Smad4 loss-associated Dsg4 depletion contributed, at least in part, to hair follicles degeneration in Smad4 deficient skin. ..
  10. Hogan M, King L, Sundberg J. Defects of pelage hairs in 20 mouse mutations. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;104:31S-32S pubmed
  11. Bierkamp C, Schwarz H, Huber O, Kemler R. Desmosomal localization of beta-catenin in the skin of plakoglobin null-mutant mice. Development. 1999;126:371-81 pubmed
    ..Our analysis underlines the central role of plakoglobin for desmosomal assembly and function during embryogenesis. ..
  12. Montagutelli X, Lalouette A, Boulouis H, Guenet J, Sundberg J. Vesicle formation and follicular root sheath separation in mice homozygous for deleterious alleles at the balding (bal) locus. J Invest Dermatol. 1997;109:324-8 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis has been confirmed by another group who demonstrated that the bal(J) mutation is due to the insertion of a thymidine in the desmoglein 3 gene, resulting in a premature stop codon.
  13. Sumigray K, Chen H, Lechler T. Lis1 is essential for cortical microtubule organization and desmosome stability in the epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:631-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals essential desmosome-associated components that control cortical microtubule organization and unexpected roles for centrosomal proteins in epidermal function...
  14. Nguyen V, Ndoye A, Shultz L, Pittelkow M, Grando S. Antibodies against keratinocyte antigens other than desmogleins 1 and 3 can induce pemphigus vulgaris-like lesions. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1467-79 pubmed
    ..We used both the Dsg3(null) mice with a targeted mutation of the Dsg3 gene and the "balding" Dsg3(bal)/Dsg3(bal) mice that ..
  15. Ciani L, Patel A, Allen N, Ffrench Constant C. Mice lacking the giant protocadherin mFAT1 exhibit renal slit junction abnormalities and a partially penetrant cyclopia and anophthalmia phenotype. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3575-82 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm a necessary role for FAT1 in the modified adhesion junctions of the renal glomerular epithelial cell and reveal hitherto unsuspected roles for FAT1 in CNS development. ..
  16. Ota T, Aoki Ota M, Tsunoda K, Simoda K, Nishikawa T, Amagai M, et al. Auto-reactive B cells against peripheral antigen, desmoglein 3, escape from tolerance mechanism. Int Immunol. 2004;16:1487-95 pubmed
    ..tolerance against natural peripheral self-antigen, we generated transgenic mice expressing IgM specific for desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) from AK7 monoclonal antibody which itself does not induce blisters...
  17. Wada N, Nishifuji K, Yamada T, Kudoh J, Shimizu N, Matsumoto M, et al. Aire-dependent thymic expression of desmoglein 3, the autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris, and its role in T-cell tolerance. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:410-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the expression of desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), the autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris (PV), in mouse thymus and the involvement of Aire in tolerance to ..
  18. Cirillo N, Al Jandan B. Desmosomal adhesion and pemphigus vulgaris: the first half of the story. Cell Commun Adhes. 2013;20:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Cloning of the DSG3 gene, generation DSG3 knock-out mice and isolation of monoclonal anti-Dsg3 IgG have aided to clarify the pathogenic ..
  19. Nishimura H, Strominger J. Involvement of a tissue-specific autoantibody in skin disorders of murine systemic lupus erythematosus and autoinflammatory diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3292-7 pubmed
    ..Tissue-specific autoantigens may also be involved in tissue inflammation. In this study, desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), a major component of epidermal desmosomes, was identified as a skin-specific autoantigen...
  20. Den Z, Cheng X, Merched Sauvage M, Koch P. Desmocollin 3 is required for pre-implantation development of the mouse embryo. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:482-9 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, homozygous mutants show a pre-implantation lethal phenotype. In fact, most mutants die even before mature desmosomes are formed in the embryo, suggesting a new and unexpected role of Dsc3 during early development. ..
  21. Shimizu A, Ishiko A, Ota T, Tsunoda K, Koyasu S, Amagai M, et al. Ultrastructural changes in mice actively producing antibodies to desmoglein 3 parallel those in patients with pemphigus vulgaris. Arch Dermatol Res. 2002;294:318-23 pubmed
    ..autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against the desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins 1 and 3 (Dsg1, Dsg3) of which Dsg3 plays a major pathogenic role...
  22. Culton D, McCray S, Park M, Roberts J, Li N, Zedek D, et al. Mucosal pemphigus vulgaris anti-Dsg3 IgG is pathogenic to the oral mucosa of humanized Dsg3 mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:1590-1597 pubmed publisher
    ..The mPV subset exhibits anti-human desmoglein (Dsg) 3 autoantibodies that fail to recognize murine Dsg3 (mDsg3); thus, passive transfer experiments of mPV IgG into wild-type (WT) mice have been unsuccessful at inducing ..
  23. Rötzer V, Hartlieb E, Winkler J, Walter E, Schlipp A, Sardy M, et al. Desmoglein 3-Dependent Signaling Regulates Keratinocyte Migration and Wound Healing. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:301-10 pubmed publisher
    The desmosomal transmembrane adhesion molecules desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) and desmocollin 3 (Dsc3) are required for strong keratinocyte cohesion...
  24. Vielmuth F, Rötzer V, Hartlieb E, Hirneiß C, Waschke J, Spindler V. Pemphigus Autoantibodies Induce Blistering in Human Conjunctiva. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:4442-4449 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we applied a mouse model depleted of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), the primary autoantigen in PV...
  25. Tsunoda K, Ota T, Saito M, Hata T, Shimizu A, Ishiko A, et al. Pathogenic relevance of IgG and IgM antibodies against desmoglein 3 in blister formation in pemphigus vulgaris. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:795-806 pubmed publisher
    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease caused by IgG antibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3)...
  26. Ota T, Aoki Ota M, Tsunoda K, Nishikawa T, Koyasu S, Amagai M. Autoreactive B-cell elimination by pathogenic IgG specific for the same antigen: implications for peripheral tolerance. Int Immunol. 2008;20:1351-60 pubmed publisher
    Harmful pathogenic IgG auto-antibodies are produced against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in pemphigus vulgaris, an autoimmune blistering disease...
  27. Anzai H, Fujii Y, Nishifuji K, Aoki Ota M, Ota T, Amagai M, et al. Conformational epitope mapping of antibodies against desmoglein 3 in experimental murine pemphigus vulgaris. J Dermatol Sci. 2004;35:133-42 pubmed
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a blistering skin disease caused by IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3)...
  28. Shimizu A, Ishiko A, Ota T, Tsunoda K, Amagai M, Nishikawa T. IgG binds to desmoglein 3 in desmosomes and causes a desmosomal split without keratin retraction in a pemphigus mouse model. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:1145-53 pubmed
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3)...
  29. Shimizu A, Ishiko A, Ota T, Saito H, Oka H, Tsunoda K, et al. In vivo ultrastructural localization of the desmoglein 3 adhesive interface to the desmosome mid-line. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:984-9 pubmed
    ..To solve this controversy, we performed immunoelectron microscopy to map the Dsg3 epitopes in desmosomes...
  30. Luo J, Zhang L, Stenn K, Prouty S, Parimoo S. Desmoglein genes are up-regulated in the pk mutant mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:64-9 pubmed
    ..Northern Blot analysis of wild-type and pk mutant mice indicates that expression of both desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) and desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) is up-regulated in the skin of mutant pk mice.
  31. Hata T, Nishifuji K, Shimoda K, Sasaki T, Yamada T, Nishikawa T, et al. Transgenic rescue of desmoglein 3 null mice with desmoglein 1 to develop a syngeneic mouse model for pemphigus vulgaris. J Dermatol Sci. 2011;63:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..active disease mouse model of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) was developed using the adoptive transfer of splenocytes from Dsg3(-/-) mice with a mixed C57BL/6J (B6) and 129/Sv genetic background into B6-Rag2(-/-) mice...
  32. Hata T, Nishimoto S, Nagao K, Takahashi H, Yoshida K, Ohyama M, et al. Ectopic expression of epidermal antigens renders the lung a target organ in paraneoplastic pemphigus. J Immunol. 2013;191:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To mimic autoimmunity in PNP, we grafted wild-type skin onto Dsg3(-/-) mice, which resulted in graft rejection and generation of anti-Dsg3 IgG and Dsg3-specific T cells...
  33. Semb H, Christofori G. The tumor-suppressor function of E-cadherin. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;63:1588-93 pubmed
  34. Whittock N. Genomic sequence analysis of the mouse desmoglein cluster reveals evidence for six distinct genes: characterization of mouse DSG4, DSG5, and DSG6. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:970-80 pubmed
    ..Using mouse tissue cDNA we have demonstrated that mouse desmogleins 4, 5, and 6 are all expressed in the epidermis but are expressed during different times of mouse development. ..
  35. Collins J, Lorimer J, Garrod D, Pidsley S, Buxton R, Fleming T. Regulation of desmocollin transcription in mouse preimplantation embryos. Development. 1995;121:743-53 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the presence of a contact-free cell surface activates DSC2 transcription in the mouse early embryo. ..
  36. Saito H, Shimizu A, Tsunoda K, Amagai M, Ishiko A. Subcellular localization of desmosomal components is different between desmoglein3 knockout mice and pemphigus vulgaris model mice. J Dermatol Sci. 2009;55:108-15 pubmed publisher
    The desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) knockout mouse and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) mouse model present a similar type of supra-basal acantholysis, even though the subcellular mechanism is considered to be completely different...
  37. Mao N, Steingrimsson E, Duhadaway J, Wasserman W, Ruiz J, Copeland N, et al. The murine Bin1 gene functions early in myogenesis and defines a new region of synteny between mouse chromosome 18 and human chromosome 2. Genomics. 1999;56:51-8 pubmed
    ..Since the human gene was mapped previously to chromosome 2q14, the location of Bin1 defines a previously unrecognized region of synteny between human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 18. ..
  38. Griffith A, Burgess D, Kohrman D, Yu J, Blaschak J, Blanton S, et al. Localization of the homolog of a mouse craniofacial mutant to human chromosome 18q11 and evaluation of linkage to human CLP and CPO. Genomics. 1996;34:299-303 pubmed
    ..Obligatory recombinants were observed in 8 of the families, and negative lod scores from the other families indicated that these disorders are not linked to the chromosome 18 loci. ..
  39. Takahashi H, Kouno M, Nagao K, Wada N, Hata T, Nishimoto S, et al. Desmoglein 3-specific CD4+ T cells induce pemphigus vulgaris and interface dermatitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..It is caused by autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), an adhesion molecule critical for maintaining epithelial integrity in the skin, oral mucosa, and ..
  40. Tsunoda K, Ota T, Suzuki H, Ohyama M, Nagai T, Nishikawa T, et al. Pathogenic autoantibody production requires loss of tolerance against desmoglein 3 in both T and B cells in experimental pemphigus vulgaris. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:627-33 pubmed
    Mechanisms of tolerance break against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) producing pathogenic anti-Dsg3 IgG autoantibodies are unclear...
  41. King I, Angst B, Hunt D, Kruger M, Arnemann J, Buxton R. Hierarchical expression of desmosomal cadherins during stratified epithelial morphogenesis in the mouse. Differentiation. 1997;62:83-96 pubmed
    ..DSC3 message was expressed before that of DSG3 in the dental and lingual epithelium where its spatial distribution matched that of DSG2, but after DSG3 in the non-..
  42. Kljuic A, Bazzi H, Sundberg J, Martinez Mir A, O Shaughnessy R, Mahoney M, et al. Desmoglein 4 in hair follicle differentiation and epidermal adhesion: evidence from inherited hypotrichosis and acquired pemphigus vulgaris. Cell. 2003;113:249-60 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that desmoglein 4 is a key mediator of keratinocyte cell adhesion in the hair follicle, where it coordinates the transition from proliferation to differentiation. ..
  43. Elias P, Matsuyoshi N, Wu H, Lin C, Wang Z, Brown B, et al. Desmoglein isoform distribution affects stratum corneum structure and function. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:243-9 pubmed
    ..To address this issue, we engineered transgenic mice with desmoglein 3 under the control of the involucrin promoter...
  44. Spindler V, Endlich A, Hartlieb E, Vielmuth F, Schmidt E, Waschke J. The extent of desmoglein 3 depletion in pemphigus vulgaris is dependent on Ca(2+)-induced differentiation: a role in suprabasal epidermal skin splitting?. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:1905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of Dsg3 is a critical mechanism in PV pathogenesis...
  45. Yokoyama T, Matsuda S, Takae Y, Wada N, Nishikawa T, Amagai M, et al. Antigen-independent development of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppressing autoantibody production in experimental pemphigus vulgaris. Int Immunol. 2011;23:365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..the development of polyclonal Tregs in pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoimmune blistering disease caused by anti-desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) IgG antibodies, as a model system...
  46. Pulkkinen L, Choi Y, Simpson A, Montagutelli X, Sundberg J, Uitto J, et al. Loss of cell adhesion in Dsg3bal-Pas mice with homozygous deletion mutation (2079del14) in the desmoglein 3 gene. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:1237-43 pubmed
    ..with circulating pathogenic autoantibodies recognizing several proteins, including the desmosomal cadherin, desmoglein 3. Targeted disruption of the Dsg3 gene by homologous recombination (Dsg3tm1stan) in mouse results in fragility ..
  47. Kanno M, Isa Y, Aoyama Y, Yamamoto Y, Nagai M, Ozawa M, et al. P120-catenin is a novel desmoglein 3 interacting partner: identification of the p120-catenin association site of desmoglein 3. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine which region is involved in the association between Dsg3 and p120ctn, we constructed mutant Dsg3 proteins, in which various cytoplasmic subdomains were removed...
  48. Koch P, de Viragh P, Scharer E, Bundman D, Longley M, Bickenbach J, et al. Lessons from loricrin-deficient mice: compensatory mechanisms maintaining skin barrier function in the absence of a major cornified envelope protein. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:389-400 pubmed
  49. Hartlieb E, Rötzer V, Radeva M, Spindler V, Waschke J. Desmoglein 2 compensates for desmoglein 3 but does not control cell adhesion via regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:17043-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown previously that Dsg2 is less important for keratinocyte cohesion compared with Dsg3 and that the latter forms a complex with p38 MAPK...
  50. Ferone G, Mollo M, Thomason H, Antonini D, Zhou H, Ambrosio R, et al. p63 control of desmosome gene expression and adhesion is compromised in AEC syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:531-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced mechanical strength resulting from p63 mutations can be alleviated pharmacologically by increasing desmosome adhesion with possible therapeutic implications...
  51. Baron S, Hoang A, Vogel H, Attardi L. Unimpaired skin carcinogenesis in Desmoglein 3 knockout mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50024 pubmed publisher
    ..Because mice lacking the desmosomal cadherin Desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) have revealed a crucial role for Dsg3 in cell-cell adhesion in stratified epithelia, we investigate the ..
  52. Ohyama M, Amagai M, Tsunoda K, Ota T, Koyasu S, Hata J, et al. Immunologic and histopathologic characterization of an active disease mouse model for pemphigus vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118:199-204 pubmed
    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes that is caused by anti-desmoglein 3 IgG autoantibodies...
  53. Griffith A, Radice G, Burgess D, Kohrman D, Hansen G, Justice M, et al. Location of the 9257 and ataxia mutations on mouse chromosome 18. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:417-9 pubmed
    ..Two polymorphic microsatellite markers for proximal Chr 18 are described, D18Umi1 and D18Umi2. The Lama3 locus encoding the alpha 3 subunit of nicein was mapped distal to ataxia and did not recombine with Tg9257. ..