Gene Symbol: Drd3
Description: dopamine receptor D3
Alias: D3R, D(3) dopamine receptor, dopamine D3 receptor, dopamine receptor 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Drd3

Top Publications

  1. Fu D, Skryabin B, Brosius J, Robakis N. Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse dopamine D3 receptor gene: an additional intron and an mRNA variant. DNA Cell Biol. 1995;14:485-92 pubmed
    The intron-exon organization for the murine dopamine D3 receptor gene was determined. A novel intron of approximately 1 kb was identified in both rat and mouse D3 receptor genes...
  2. Carta A, Gerfen C, Steiner H. Cocaine effects on gene regulation in the striatum and behavior: increased sensitivity in D3 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. Neuroreport. 2000;11:2395-9 pubmed
    ..The behavioral response to cocaine is also increased in these mice. These findings indicate that the D3 receptor plays an inhibitory role in the action of cocaine on behavior and gene regulation in the striatum. ..
  3. Clemens S, Hochman S. Conversion of the modulatory actions of dopamine on spinal reflexes from depression to facilitation in D3 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:11337-45 pubmed
  4. Zhu H, Clemens S, Sawchuk M, Hochman S. Unaltered D1, D2, D4, and D5 dopamine receptor mRNA expression and distribution in the spinal cord of the D3 receptor knockout mouse. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2008;194:957-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports use of D3KO animals as a model to provide insight into D3 receptor dysfunction in the spinal cord. ..
  5. Rabiner E, Slifstein M, Nobrega J, Plisson C, Huiban M, Raymond R, et al. In vivo quantification of regional dopamine-D3 receptor binding potential of (+)-PHNO: Studies in non-human primates and transgenic mice. Synapse. 2009;63:782-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The midbrain is thus an excellent target region to examine D3 receptor occupancy with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO PET in vivo. ..
  6. D Agata V, Tiralongo A, Castorina A, Leggio G, Micale V, Carnazza M, et al. Parkin expression profile in dopamine d3 receptor knock-out mice brains. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in parkin isoforms' distribution pattern and in exons' expression both in wild type controls and dopamine D3 receptor's knock-out mice. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify single exons mRNA...
  7. Marcellino D, Ferre S, Casado V, Cortes A, Le Foll B, Mazzola C, et al. Identification of dopamine D1-D3 receptor heteromers. Indications for a role of synergistic D1-D3 receptor interactions in the striatum. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26016-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study shows that a main functional significance of the D(3) receptor is to obtain a stronger dopaminergic response in the striatal neurons that co-express the two receptors. ..
  8. Boyce Rustay J, Risinger F. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice and the motivational effects of ethanol. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75:373-9 pubmed
    ..D3 KO and C57 mice had similar response rates of ethanol and food as well as similar water intakes. Overall, these results indicate that elimination of D3 receptor function has little influence on ethanol reward or intake. ..
  9. Pilla M, Perachon S, Sautel F, Garrido F, Mann A, Wermuth C, et al. Selective inhibition of cocaine-seeking behaviour by a partial dopamine D3 receptor agonist. Nature. 1999;400:371-5 pubmed
    ..Converging pharmacological, human post-mortem and genetic studies implicate the dopamine D3 receptor in drug addiction...

More Information


  1. Xu M, Koeltzow T, Santiago G, Moratalla R, Cooper D, Hu X, et al. Dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice exhibit increased behavioral sensitivity to concurrent stimulation of D1 and D2 receptors. Neuron. 1997;19:837-48 pubmed
    The dopamine D3 receptor is expressed primarily in regions of the brain that are thought to influence motivation and motor functions. To specify in vivo D3 receptor function, we generated mutant mice lacking this receptor...
  2. Asico L, Ladines C, Fuchs S, Accili D, Carey R, Semeraro C, et al. Disruption of the dopamine D3 receptor gene produces renin-dependent hypertension. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:493-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, disruption of the D3 receptor increases renal renin production and produces renal sodium retention and renin-dependent hypertension. ..
  3. Joseph J, Wang Y, Miles P, Budygin E, Picetti R, Gainetdinov R, et al. Dopamine autoreceptor regulation of release and uptake in mouse brain slices in the absence of D(3) receptors. Neuroscience. 2002;112:39-49 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the D(3) receptor having a small but significant role as a dopamine autoreceptor that partially regulates secretion, but not synthesis, in the caudate-putamen. ..
  4. Xing B, Guo J, Meng X, Wei S, Li S. The dopamine D1 but not D3 receptor plays a fundamental role in spatial working memory and BDNF expression in prefrontal cortex of mice. Behav Brain Res. 2012;235:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that dopamine D1 but not D3 receptors are critical for prefrontal cortex BDNF expression which may be related to spatial working memory processes. ..
  5. McQuade J, Xu M, Woods S, Seeley R, Benoit S. Ethanol consumption in mice with a targeted disruption of the dopamine-3 receptor gene. Addict Biol. 2003;8:295-303 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the D3-R -/- mice adequately learn a CTA to ethanol and do not ham differing taste reactivity to saccharin or quinine. However, D3-R -/- mice do appear to have a slower rate of ethanol metabolism. ..
  6. Zeng C, Armando I, Luo Y, Eisner G, Felder R, Jose P. Dysregulation of dopamine-dependent mechanisms as a determinant of hypertension: studies in dopamine receptor knockout mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H551-69 pubmed
  7. Keeler B, Baran C, Brewer K, Clemens S. Increased excitability of spinal pain reflexes and altered frequency-dependent modulation in the dopamine D3-receptor knockout mouse. Exp Neurol. 2012;238:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a role for the DA D3 receptor in pain modulation and identify the D3KO as a possible model for increased nociception. ..
  8. Liu X, Mao L, Zhang G, Papasian C, Fibuch E, Lan H, et al. Activity-dependent modulation of limbic dopamine D3 receptors by CaMKII. Neuron. 2009;61:425-38 pubmed publisher
    ..show that synaptic CaMKIIalpha binds to the N-terminal region of the third intracellular loop of the limbic dopamine D3 receptor (D3R)...
  9. Le Foll B, Frances H, Diaz J, Schwartz J, Sokoloff P. Role of the dopamine D3 receptor in reactivity to cocaine-associated cues in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;15:2016-26 pubmed
    ..We have used a classical Pavlovian conditioning procedure to assess the role of the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in the expression of drug-conditioned responses...
  10. Accili D, Fishburn C, Drago J, Steiner H, Lachowicz J, Park B, et al. A targeted mutation of the D3 dopamine receptor gene is associated with hyperactivity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:1945-9 pubmed
    ..Mice heterozygous for the D3 receptor mutation show similar, albeit less pronounced, behavioral alterations. Our findings indicate that D3 receptors play an inhibitory role in the control of certain behaviors. ..
  11. Diaz J, Pilon C, Le Foll B, Gros C, Triller A, Schwartz J, et al. Dopamine D3 receptors expressed by all mesencephalic dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8677-84 pubmed
  12. Karasinska J, George S, Cheng R, O Dowd B. Deletion of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially affects spontaneous behaviour and cocaine-induced locomotor activity, reward and CREB phosphorylation. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1741-50 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, alterations in pCREB levels were associated with changes in cocaine-induced locomotor activity but not reward. ..
  13. Dowling P, Klinker F, Stadelmann C, Hasan K, Paulus W, Liebetanz D. Dopamine D3 receptor specifically modulates motor and sensory symptoms in iron-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31:70-7 pubmed publisher
    ..has been associated with RLS for some patients and there is evidence for decreased spinal dopamine D(3)-receptor (D3R) signaling in RLS, we aimed at establishing whether D3R activity and iron deficiency share common pathways within ..
  14. Koeltzow T, Xu M, Cooper D, Hu X, Tonegawa S, Wolf M, et al. Alterations in dopamine release but not dopamine autoreceptor function in dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice. J Neurosci. 1998;18:2231-8 pubmed
    ..Although D3 receptors do not seem to be significantly involved in DA autoreceptor function, they may participate in postsynaptically activated short-loop feedback modulation of DA release. ..
  15. Collo G, Bono F, Cavalleri L, Plebani L, Merlo Pich E, Millan M, et al. Pre-synaptic dopamine D(3) receptor mediates cocaine-induced structural plasticity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons via ERK and Akt pathways. J Neurochem. 2012;120:765-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a direct involvement of D3R and ERK/Akt pathways as critical mediators of cocaine-induced structural plasticity, suggesting their involvement ..
  16. Li T, Hou Y, Cao W, Yan C, Chen T, Li S. Role of dopamine D3 receptors in basal nociception regulation and in morphine-induced tolerance and withdrawal. Brain Res. 2012;1433:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, male mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor gene were used to investigate the function of D3 receptors in the development of morphine-induced tolerance ..
  17. Li T, Hou Y, Yan C, Chen T, Zhao Y, Li S. Dopamine D3 receptor knock-out mice display deficits in locomotor sensitization after chronic morphine administration. Neurosci Lett. 2010;485:256-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The dopamine D3 receptor has been reported to play a role in morphine addiction...
  18. Xing B, Liu P, Jiang W, Liu F, Zhang H, Cao G, et al. Effects of immobilization stress on emotional behaviors in dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice. Behav Brain Res. 2013;243:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..antidepressant-like effect in the chronic mild stress model and in the behavioral despair model, suggesting dopamine D3 receptor may be an important target for antidepressant actions...
  19. Shao W, Zhang S, Tang M, Zhang X, Zhou Z, Yin Y, et al. Suppression of neuroinflammation by astrocytic dopamine D2 receptors via ?B-crystallin. Nature. 2013;494:90-4 pubmed publisher
  20. Glickstein S, Hof P, Schmauss C. Mice lacking dopamine D2 and D3 receptors have spatial working memory deficits. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5619-29 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the sustained improvement of spatial working memory in METH-pretreated D(2) mutants is attributable to D(1) receptor-mediated mechanisms. ..
  21. Petryshen T, Kirby A, Hammer R, Purcell S, O Leary S, Singer J, et al. Two quantitative trait loci for prepulse inhibition of startle identified on mouse chromosome 16 using chromosome substitution strains. Genetics. 2005;171:1895-904 pubmed
    ..The regions contain a limited number of strong biological candidate genes that are potential risk genes for psychiatric disorders in which patients have PPI impairments. ..
  22. Zeng C, Liu Y, Wang Z, He D, Huang L, Yu P, et al. Activation of D3 dopamine receptor decreases angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in rat renal proximal tubule cells. Circ Res. 2006;99:494-500 pubmed
    ..One mechanism of hypertension may be related to increased renal expression of AT(1) receptors due decreased D(3) receptor regulation. ..
  23. Chen Y, Yang C, Zhu L, Li J, Guan F, Chen T. Depletion of D3 dopamine receptor affects methamphetamine-induced expression patterns of Pde4b and Atf3. Neurosci Lett. 2018;665:54-60 pubmed publisher
    The role of the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R) and the specific molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of D3R via the cAMP signaling pathway in methamphetamine (METH) addiction are still unclear...
  24. Karasinska J, George S, El Ghundi M, Fletcher P, O Dowd B. Modification of dopamine D(1) receptor knockout phenotype in mice lacking both dopamine D(1) and D(3) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;399:171-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, dopamine D(1) receptor, but not dopamine D(3) receptor, is involved in the ability to perform on the rotarod and spatial learning. ..
  25. Song R, Zhang H, Li X, Bi G, Gardner E, Xi Z. Increased vulnerability to cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:17675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that D(3)R deletion increases vulnerability to cocaine, and that reduced D(3)R availability in the brain may constitute a risk factor for the development of cocaine addiction. ..
  26. Leggio G, Torrisi S, Castorina A, Platania C, Impellizzeri A, Fidilio A, et al. Dopamine D3 receptor-dependent changes in alpha6 GABAA subunit expression in striatum modulate anxiety-like behaviour: Responsiveness and tolerance to diazepam. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is involved in pathophysiology of anxiety, in particular the DA receptor subtype 3 (D3R)...
  27. Halberstadt A, Geyer M. Habituation and sensitization of acoustic startle: opposite influences of dopamine D1 and D2-family receptors. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;92:243-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Jones C, Bartee J, Leite Browning M, Blackshear M. Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization: are dopamine d3 receptors involved?. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2007;53:15-22 pubmed
    ..However, chronic administration of these drugs did not alter the locomotor effects of METH (p > 0.05). These findings support in-part the hypothesis that dopamine D3 receptors are downregulated in METH-IND sensitization. ..
  29. Glickstein S, Desteno D, Hof P, Schmauss C. Mice lacking dopamine D2 and D3 receptors exhibit differential activation of prefrontal cortical neurons during tasks requiring attention. Cereb Cortex. 2005;15:1016-24 pubmed
    ..The study illustrates that dopamine differentially modulates prefrontal cortical activity during tasks requiring attention depending upon the type of D2-like receptor that is activated. ..
  30. Huang H, Matevossian A, Whittle C, Kim S, Schumacher A, Baker S, et al. Prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia involves mixed-lineage leukemia 1-regulated histone methylation at GABAergic gene promoters. J Neurosci. 2007;27:11254-62 pubmed
  31. Moraga Amaro R, Gonzalez H, Pacheco R, Stehberg J. Dopamine receptor D3 deficiency results in chronic depression and anxiety. Behav Brain Res. 2014;274:186-93 pubmed publisher
    ..of depression with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the antidepressant effects of the DA receptor subtype 3 (D3R) agonist pramipexole. The present study assesses the role of D3R in depression...
  32. Kim Y, Wang W, Comte I, Pastrana E, Tran P, Brown J, et al. Dopamine stimulation of postnatal murine subventricular zone neurogenesis via the D3 receptor. J Neurochem. 2010;114:750-60 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the expression and role of the dopamine receptor 3 (D3R) in postnatal mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). In situ hybridization detected selective D3R mRNA expression in the SVZ...
  33. Chen L, Xu M. Dopamine D1 and D3 receptors are differentially involved in cue-elicited cocaine seeking. J Neurochem. 2010;114:530-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that D1 and D3 receptors differentially contribute to learned association between cues and the rewarding properties of cocaine by regulating, at least in part, ERK activation in specific areas of the brain. ..
  34. Lao C, Lu C, Chen J. Dopamine D3 receptor activation promotes neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation through AKT and ERK1/2 pathways and expands type-B and -C cells in adult subventricular zone. Glia. 2013;61:475-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we demonstrate that D(3) R activation induces NSC/NPC proliferation through Akt and ERK1/2 signaling and increases the numbers of type-B and -C NSC/NPCs in the adult SVZ. ..
  35. Fishburn C, David C, Carmon S, Fuchs S. The effect of haloperidol on D2 dopamine receptor subtype mRNA levels in the brain. FEBS Lett. 1994;339:63-6 pubmed
    ..This rise was restricted to the striatum, showing that the effect of haloperidol on dopamine receptor mRNA is both subtype- and tissue-specific. ..
  36. Brewer K, Baran C, Whitfield B, Jensen A, Clemens S. Dopamine D3 receptor dysfunction prevents anti-nociceptive effects of morphine in the spinal cord. Front Neural Circuits. 2014;8:62 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the D3KO mouse may serve as a model to study the onset of morphine resistance at the spinal cord level, the primary processing site of the nociceptive pathway. ..
  37. Mizuo K, Narita M, Miyatake M, Suzuki T. Enhancement of dopamine-induced signaling responses in the forebrain of mice lacking dopamine D3 receptor. Neurosci Lett. 2004;358:13-6 pubmed
    ..The present data provide direct evidence that a deletion of central dopamine D(3) receptor enhances the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor-mediated intracellular signaling. ..
  38. Contreras F, Prado C, Gonzalez H, Franz D, Osorio Barrios F, Osorio F, et al. Dopamine Receptor D3 Signaling on CD4+ T Cells Favors Th1- and Th17-Mediated Immunity. J Immunol. 2016;196:4143-9 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) expressed on CD4(+) T cells is required to promote neuroinflammation in a murine model of Parkinson's disease. However, how DRD3 signaling affects T cell-mediated immunity remains unknown...
  39. Frances H, Le Foll B, Diaz J, Smirnova M, Sokoloff P. Role of DRD3 in morphine-induced conditioned place preference using drd3-knockout mice. Neuroreport. 2004;15:2245-9 pubmed
    The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) mediates expression of conditioned effects of psychostimulants, but conflicting results have been obtained with opiates...
  40. Caldwell B, Ustione A, Piston D. Dopamine Receptor Signaling in MIN6 ?-Cells Revealed by Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy. Biophys J. 2016;111:609-618 pubmed publisher
    ..research has shown that this inhibition is mediated primarily by activation of the dopamine receptor D3 subtype (DRD3), even though both DRD2 and DRD3 are expressed in ?-cells...
  41. Collo G, Zanetti S, Missale C, Spano P. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonists increase dendrite arborization of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons via extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1231-40 pubmed publisher
    Clinical improvements in Parkinson's disease produced by dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonists have been related to their neuroprotective actions and, more recently, to their neuroregenerative properties...
  42. Zhan L, Liu B, Jose Lafuente M, Chibalina M, Grierson A, Maclean A, et al. ALG-2 interacting protein AIP1: a novel link between D1 and D3 signalling. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, coexpression of AIP1 with D1 resulted in > 50% reduction in binding capacity of D1 to its antagonist. Finally, AIP1 up-regulates D1 and D3 expression and appears to be important for their stability and trafficking. ..
  43. Bender K, Ford C, Trussell L. Dopaminergic modulation of axon initial segment calcium channels regulates action potential initiation. Neuron. 2010;68:500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway represents a new mechanism to inhibit neurons by specifically regulating Ca(2+) channels directly involved in action potential initiation...
  44. Short J, Ledent C, Borrelli E, Drago J, Lawrence A. Genetic interdependence of adenosine and dopamine receptors: evidence from receptor knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2006;139:661-70 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the existence of functional interactions between dopaminergic and purinergic systems in these reward and motor-related brain regions. ..
  45. Ustione A, Piston D. Dopamine synthesis and D3 receptor activation in pancreatic ?-cells regulates insulin secretion and intracellular [Ca(2+)] oscillations. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1928-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Because blocking dopaminergic negative feedback increases insulin secretion, expanding the knowledge of this pathway in ?-cells might offer a potential new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  46. Wang X, Escano C, Asico L, Jones J, Barte A, Lau Y, et al. Upregulation of renal D5 dopamine receptor ameliorates the hypertension in D3 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. Hypertension. 2013;62:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..any compensatory mechanisms in the kidney are involved in the regulation of blood pressure with disruption of Drd3, we measured the renal protein expression of all dopamine receptor subtypes (D1R, D2R, D4R, and D5R) in D3R ..
  47. Bellucci A, Collo G, Sarnico I, Battistin L, Missale C, Spano P. Alpha-synuclein aggregation and cell death triggered by energy deprivation and dopamine overload are counteracted by D2/D3 receptor activation. J Neurochem. 2008;106:560-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes may be counteracted by the block of DA uptake and by dopaminergic agonist treatment. ..
  48. Liu P, Xing B, Chu Z, Liu F, Lei G, Zhu L, et al. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner. J Neurosci Res. 2017;95:1438-1445 pubmed publisher
    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception...
  49. Song R, Zhang H, Peng X, Su R, Yang R, Li J, et al. Dopamine D(3) receptor deletion or blockade attenuates cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2013;72:82-7 pubmed publisher
    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has received much attention in medication development for treatment of addiction. However, the functional role of the D3R in drug reward and addiction has been a matter of debate...
  50. Fishburn C, Bedford M, Lonai P, Fuchs S. Early expression of D3 dopamine receptors in murine embryonic development. FEBS Lett. 1996;381:257-61 pubmed
    ..The early appearance of the D3 subtype in murine development and its predominance over the D2 subtype suggest that the D3 receptor may have a functional role in prenatal development. ..
  51. Klinker F, Hasan K, Dowling P, Paulus W, Liebetanz D. Dopamine D(3) receptor deficiency sensitizes mice to iron deficiency-related deficits in motor learning. Behav Brain Res. 2011;220:358-61 pubmed publisher
    ..ID alone had no effect on motor learning in this study, whereas combined ID and dopamine D(3) receptor (D3R)-deficiency significantly interfered with the acquisition of motor skills...
  52. Castorina A, D Amico A, Scuderi S, Leggio G, Drago F, D Agata V. Dopamine D3 receptor deletion increases tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2013;250:546-56 pubmed publisher
    ..However, specific roles in this process for the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet to be fully characterized...
  53. Vallone D, Pignatelli M, Grammatikopoulos G, Ruocco L, Bozzi Y, Westphal H, et al. Activity, non-selective attention and emotionality in dopamine D2/D3 receptor knock-out mice. Behav Brain Res. 2002;130:141-8 pubmed
    ..Genetically engineered mice mutants have been used that carry normal, partial or no expression of D2R, D3R, or both D2R/D3R (double mutants) DA receptor subtypes. Adult male mice were exposed for 30 min to a Làte-maze...
  54. Marzagalli R, Leggio G, Bucolo C, Pricoco E, Keay K, Cardile V, et al. Genetic blockade of the dopamine D3 receptor enhances hippocampal expression of PACAP and receptors and alters their cortical distribution. Neuroscience. 2016;316:279-95 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the impact of D3R ablation on the PACAPergic system in regions critical for the formation of new memories remains unexplored...
  55. Demotes Mainard J, Henry C, Jeantet Y, Arsaut J, Arnauld E. Postnatal ontogeny of dopamine D3 receptors in the mouse brain: autoradiographic evidence for a transient cortical expression. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;94:166-74 pubmed
    ..These developmental findings, and particularly the transient cortical expression of functional receptors, point to the involvement of D3 receptors in ontogenic processes. ..
  56. Jung M, Schmauss C. Decreased c-fos responses to dopamine D(1) receptor agonist stimulation in mice deficient for D(3) receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29406-12 pubmed
    ..The findings therefore indicate that not only D(2) but also D(3) receptors play a role in dopamine-regulated gene expression. ..
  57. Narita M, Mizuo K, Mizoguchi H, Sakata M, Narita M, Tseng L, et al. Molecular evidence for the functional role of dopamine D3 receptor in the morphine-induced rewarding effect and hyperlocomotion. J Neurosci. 2003;23:1006-12 pubmed
  58. Xing B, Kong H, Meng X, Wei S, Xu M, Li S. Dopamine D1 but not D3 receptor is critical for spatial learning and related signaling in the hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..D(1) receptor-mediated signaling, associated with activation of NR1, CaMKII, ERK and CREB, is highly involved in the encoding of spatial learning and memory. ..
  59. Xing B, Meng X, Wei S, Li S. Influence of dopamine D3 receptor knockout on age-related decline of spatial memory. Neurosci Lett. 2010;481:149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that blockade of D(3) receptors ameliorates age-related memory decline and that D(3) receptor-regulated CREB signaling in the hippocampus may be involved in these age-associated alterations. ..
  60. Chourbaji S, Brandwein C, Vogt M, Dormann C, Mueller R, Drescher K, et al. Dopamine receptor 3 (D3) knockout mice show regular emotional behaviour. Pharmacol Res. 2008;58:302-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, these results do not indicate an evident involvement of the D3 receptor in the development of a depression-like syndrome in mice for now. This does, however, not exclude the D3 receptor as a potential target for pharmacotherapy. ..
  61. Li Z, Schmauss C, Cuenca A, Ratcliffe E, Gershon M. Physiological modulation of intestinal motility by enteric dopaminergic neurons and the D2 receptor: analysis of dopamine receptor expression, location, development, and function in wild-type and knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2798-807 pubmed
    ..Because motility is abnormal when D2 is absent, the net inhibitory DA effect on motility is physiologically significant. The early expression of DA receptors is also consistent with the possibility that DA affects ENS development. ..
  62. Jung M, Skryabin B, Arai M, Abbondanzo S, Fu D, Brosius J, et al. Potentiation of the D2 mutant motor phenotype in mice lacking dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. Neuroscience. 1999;91:911-24 pubmed
  63. Castorina A, Leggio G, Giunta S, Magro G, Scapagnini G, Drago F, et al. Neurofibromin and amyloid precursor protein expression in dopamine D3 receptor knock-out mice brains. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:426-34 pubmed publisher
  64. Bender K, Uebele V, Renger J, Trussell L. Control of firing patterns through modulation of axon initial segment T-type calcium channels. J Physiol. 2012;590:109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the axon initial segment is a key site, and dopamine a key regulator, of spontaneous bursting activity. ..
  65. McCormick P, Fletcher P, Wilson V, Browne J, Nobrega J, Remington G. Low dose pramipexole causes D3 receptor-independent reduction of locomotion and responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Neuropharmacology. 2015;89:225-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of our findings for the understanding of pramipexole's behavioural and clinical effects are discussed. ..
  66. Milosevic J, Schwarz S, Maisel M, Poppe Wagner M, Dieterlen M, Storch A, et al. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor stimulation fails to promote dopaminergic neurogenesis of murine and human midbrain-derived neural precursor cells in vitro. Stem Cells Dev. 2007;16:625-35 pubmed
    ..Our data question the relevance of neuroregenerative effects of dopamine agonists for human predopaminergic cells as well as patients with Parkinson's disease. ..
  67. Wong J, Clifford J, Massalas J, Finkelstein D, Horne M, Waddington J, et al. Neurochemical changes in dopamine D1, D3 and D1/D3 receptor knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;472:39-47 pubmed
    Neurochemical changes were examined in dopamine D1 receptor knockout (D1(-/-)), dopamine D3 receptor knockout (D3(-/-)) and dopamine D1/D3 receptor double knockout (D1(-/-)D3(-/-)) mice...
  68. Leggio G, Camillieri G, Platania C, Castorina A, Marrazzo G, Torrisi S, et al. Dopamine D3 receptor is necessary for ethanol consumption: an approach with buspirone. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014;39:2017-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that D3R gene deletion or the D3R pharmacological blockade inhibits ethanol preference in mice...
  69. Xue L, Geng Y, Li M, Jin Y, Ren H, Li X, et al. The effects of D3R on TLR4 signaling involved in the regulation of METH-mediated mast cells activation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016;36:187-198 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating studies have revealed that the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) plays an important role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. However, the action of D3R on METH-mediated immune response and the underlying mechanism remain unclear...
  70. Baik J, Picetti R, Saiardi A, Thiriet G, Dierich A, Depaulis A, et al. Parkinsonian-like locomotor impairment in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. Nature. 1995;377:424-8 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that D2 receptors have a key role in the dopaminergic control of nervous function. These mice have therapeutic potential as a model for investigating and correcting dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system. ..
  71. Ralph R, Varty G, Kelly M, Wang Y, Caron M, Rubinstein M, et al. The dopamine D2, but not D3 or D4, receptor subtype is essential for the disruption of prepulse inhibition produced by amphetamine in mice. J Neurosci. 1999;19:4627-33 pubmed
    ..Uncovering the neural mechanisms involved in PPI will further our understanding of the substrates of sensorimotor gating and could lead to better therapeutics to treat gating disorders, such as schizophrenia. ..
  72. Beaulieu J, Tirotta E, Sotnikova T, Masri B, Salahpour A, Gainetdinov R, et al. Regulation of Akt signaling by D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:881-5 pubmed
  73. Chen Y, Ni Y, Liu J, Lü J, Wang F, Wu X, et al. Dopamine receptor 3 might be an essential molecule in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity. BMC Neurosci. 2013;14:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that the D3 receptor might be an essential molecule in MPTP-induced PD and provides a new molecular mechanism for MPTP neurotoxicity. ..
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