Gene Symbol: Drd2
Description: dopamine receptor D2
Alias: D2R, Drd-2, D(2) dopamine receptor, D2 receptor, dopamine D2 receptor, dopamine receptor 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Drd2

Top Publications

  1. Beaulieu J, Tirotta E, Sotnikova T, Masri B, Salahpour A, Gainetdinov R, et al. Regulation of Akt signaling by D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:881-5 pubmed
    ..inhibition of Akt by dopamine and that D3 receptors also participate in this signaling potentially by enhancing D2 receptor response...
  2. Sciamanna G, Bonsi P, Tassone A, Cuomo D, Tscherter A, Viscomi M, et al. Impaired striatal D2 receptor function leads to enhanced GABA transmission in a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;34:133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In physiological conditions, dopamine (DA) D2 receptor act presynaptically to reduce striatal GABA release...
  3. Huang Y, Qiu A, Peng Y, Liu Y, Huang H, Qiu Y. Roles of dopamine receptor subtypes in mediating modulation of T lymphocyte function. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31:782-91 pubmed
    ..D2-like receptors are involved in suppression of T helper 1 (Th1) cell function and enhancement of Th2 cell function through negative link to cAMP-CREB pathway. ..
  4. Kuchenbauer F, Theodoropoulou M, Hopfner U, Stalla J, Renner U, Tonn J, et al. Laminin inhibits lactotroph proliferation and is reduced in early prolactinoma development. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;207:13-20 pubmed
    ..pattern during prolactinoma development, which was: (a) strong in normal pituitaries from wild type or dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice, (b) lower in pituitary hyperplasia and (c) markedly reduced in prolactinomas from D2R -/- ..
  5. Kelly M, Rubinstein M, Asa S, Zhang G, Saez C, Bunzow J, et al. Pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia and chronic hyperprolactinemia in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Neuron. 1997;19:103-13 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, the mutant mice had no hyperplasia of the intermediate lobe melanotrophs. Aged female D2 receptor -/- mice developed uterine adenomyosis in response to prolonged prolactin exposure...
  6. Wang Y, Xu R, Sasaoka T, Tonegawa S, Kung M, Sankoorikal E. Dopamine D2 long receptor-deficient mice display alterations in striatum-dependent functions. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8305-14 pubmed
    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2) system has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease...
  7. Yujnovsky I, Hirayama J, Doi M, Borrelli E, Sassone Corsi P. Signaling mediated by the dopamine D2 receptor potentiates circadian regulation by CLOCK:BMAL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6386-91 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that signaling mediated by the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) enhances the transcriptional capacity of the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex...
  8. Park S, Nguyen M, Fischer A, Luke M, Affar E, Dieffenbach P, et al. Par-4 links dopamine signaling and depression. Cell. 2005;122:275-87 pubmed
    ..Here we identify Par-4 as a regulatory component in dopamine signaling. Par-4 directly interacts with the dopamine D2 receptor (D2DR) via the calmodulin binding motif in the third cytoplasmic loop...
  9. Fetsko L, Xu R, Wang Y. Alterations in D1/D2 synergism may account for enhanced stereotypy and reduced climbing in mice lacking dopamine D2L receptor. Brain Res. 2003;967:191-200 pubmed
    ..e. D1/D2 synergism) represent an important aspect of dopaminergic function and plasticity. The D2 receptor exists in two isoforms: D2L and D2S. We have generated mice that selectively lack D2L (D2L-/-)...

More Information


  1. Diaz Torga G, Feierstein C, Libertun C, Gelman D, Kelly M, Low M, et al. Disruption of the D2 dopamine receptor alters GH and IGF-I secretion and causes dwarfism in male mice. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1270-9 pubmed
    We determined the consequences of the loss of D2 receptors (D2R) on the GH-IGF-I axis using mice deficient in functional dopamine D2 receptors by targeted mutagenesis (D2R(-/-))...
  2. Bay Richter C, O Tuathaigh C, O Sullivan G, Heery D, Waddington J, Moran P. Enhanced latent inhibition in dopamine receptor-deficient mice is sex-specific for the D1 but not D2 receptor subtype: implications for antipsychotic drug action. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore examined LI in congenic DA D1 and D2 receptor knockout (D1 KO and D2 KO) mice...
  3. Araki K, Sims J, Bhide P. Dopamine receptor mRNA and protein expression in the mouse corpus striatum and cerebral cortex during pre- and postnatal development. Brain Res. 2007;1156:31-45 pubmed
    ..By analyzing D1 receptor protein expression, we show that developmental changes in mRNA expression reliably translate into changes in protein levels, at least for the D1-receptor. ..
  4. Short J, Ledent C, Borrelli E, Drago J, Lawrence A. Genetic interdependence of adenosine and dopamine receptors: evidence from receptor knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2006;139:661-70 pubmed
    ..Expression of the mRNA encoding the dopamine D2 receptor was elevated in the caudate putamen of D1, D3 and A2A receptor knockout mice; this was mirrored by an ..
  5. Hakansson K, Galdi S, Hendrick J, Snyder G, Greengard P, Fisone G. Regulation of phosphorylation of the GluR1 AMPA receptor by dopamine D2 receptors. J Neurochem. 2006;96:482-8 pubmed
    ..Administration of haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug with dopamine D2 receptor antagonistic properties, increases the phosphorylation of GluR1 at Ser845, without affecting ..
  6. Dockstader C, Rubinstein M, Grandy D, Low M, van der Kooy D. The D2 receptor is critical in mediating opiate motivation only in opiate-dependent and withdrawn mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:995-1001 pubmed
    ..of the D2 dopamine receptor subtype in mediating opiate motivation, we examined the behaviour of N5 congenic D2 receptor knockout mice and their wild-type siblings in opiate-naive and opiate-dependent and withdrawn place ..
  7. Xu M, Hu X, Cooper D, Moratalla R, Graybiel A, White F, et al. Elimination of cocaine-induced hyperactivity and dopamine-mediated neurophysiological effects in dopamine D1 receptor mutant mice. Cell. 1994;79:945-55 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the essential role of the D1 receptor in the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine and in dopamine-mediated neurophysiological effects within the nucleus accumbens. ..
  8. Hasbi A, Fan T, Alijaniaram M, Nguyen T, Perreault M, O Dowd B, et al. Calcium signaling cascade links dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to striatal BDNF production and neuronal growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21377-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the exclusive stimulation of the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer, which we identified in striatal neurons and adult rat brain by using confocal FRET, led to the ..
  9. Kobayashi M, Iaccarino C, Saiardi A, Heidt V, Bozzi Y, Picetti R, et al. Simultaneous absence of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-mediated signaling is lethal in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11465-70 pubmed
    ..To analyze the extent of such interrelationship, we have generated double D1/D2 receptor mutants...
  10. Caine S, Negus S, Mello N, Patel S, Bristow L, Kulagowski J, et al. Role of dopamine D2-like receptors in cocaine self-administration: studies with D2 receptor mutant mice and novel D2 receptor antagonists. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2977-88 pubmed
    ..self-administration behavior, and related effects of nonselective D2-like drugs, in mutant mice that lack the D2 receptor but express D3 and D4 receptors...
  11. Fishburn C, Elazar Z, Fuchs S. Differential glycosylation and intracellular trafficking for the long and short isoforms of the D2 dopamine receptor. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:29819-24 pubmed
    ..These results give rise to the suggestion that the difference observed between the two alternatively spliced isoforms of the D2 receptor may lie in their post-translational processing and intracellular trafficking.
  12. Chan C, Peterson J, Gertler T, Glajch K, Quintana R, Cui Q, et al. Strain-specific regulation of striatal phenotype in Drd2-eGFP BAC transgenic mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9124-32 pubmed publisher
    ..it was reported that one popular line of these mice--mice possessing a BAC transgene with a D(2) dopamine receptor (Drd2) promoter construct coupled to an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter--had abnormal striatal gene ..
  13. Baik J, Picetti R, Saiardi A, Thiriet G, Dierich A, Depaulis A, et al. Parkinsonian-like locomotor impairment in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. Nature. 1995;377:424-8 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that D2 receptors have a key role in the dopaminergic control of nervous function. These mice have therapeutic potential as a model for investigating and correcting dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system. ..
  14. Colelli V, Fiorenza M, Conversi D, Orsini C, Cabib S. Strain-specific proportion of the two isoforms of the dopamine D2 receptor in the mouse striatum: associated neural and behavioral phenotypes. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:703-11 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variability in the proportion of the two alternative dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA splice variants, D2R-long (D2L) and D2R-short (D2S), influence corticostriatal functioning and could be implicated in liability to ..
  15. Rashid A, So C, Kong M, Furtak T, El Ghundi M, Cheng R, et al. D1-D2 dopamine receptor heterooligomers with unique pharmacology are coupled to rapid activation of Gq/11 in the striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:654-9 pubmed
    ..as a full agonist for the D1 receptor and a high-affinity partial agonist for a pertussis toxin-resistant D2 receptor within the complex...
  16. Parish C, Finkelstein D, Drago J, Borrelli E, Horne M. The role of dopamine receptors in regulating the size of axonal arbors. J Neurosci. 2001;21:5147-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that individual dopaminergic axons in D2(-/-) mice have reached maximal arbor size. We conclude that the D2 receptor may play a role in modulating the extent of the terminal arbor of SNpc neurons.
  17. Saiardi A, Bozzi Y, Baik J, Borrelli E. Antiproliferative role of dopamine: loss of D2 receptors causes hormonal dysfunction and pituitary hyperplasia. Neuron. 1997;19:115-26 pubmed
    ..These results point to prolactin as an autocrine proliferative factor in the pituitary gland. Additionally, they demonstrate an antiproliferative function for DA regulated through D2 receptor activation.
  18. Asa S, Kelly M, Grandy D, Low M. Pituitary lactotroph adenomas develop after prolonged lactotroph hyperplasia in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 1999;140:5348-55 pubmed
    ..inhibits PRL expression and secretion from the pituitary gland by the activation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) localized on lactotrophs...
  19. Garcia Tornadú I, Ornstein A, Chamson Reig A, Wheeler M, Hill D, Arany E, et al. Disruption of the dopamine d2 receptor impairs insulin secretion and causes glucose intolerance. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to evaluate dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) participation in pancreatic function...
  20. Olson P, Tkatch T, Hernandez Lopez S, Ulrich S, Ilijic E, Mugnaini E, et al. G-protein-coupled receptor modulation of striatal CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels is dependent on a Shank-binding domain. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1050-62 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that Shank promotes the assembly of a signaling complex at corticostriatal synapses that enables key GPCRs to regulate L-type Ca2+ channels and the integration of glutamatergic synaptic events...
  21. Li X, Bek M, Asico L, Yang Z, Grandy D, Goldstein D, et al. Adrenergic and endothelin B receptor-dependent hypertension in dopamine receptor type-2 knockout mice. Hypertension. 2001;38:303-8 pubmed
    ..Instead, enhanced vascular reactivity in the D(2) mutant mice may be caused by increased sympathetic and ET(B) receptor activities. ..
  22. Boulay D, Depoortere R, Perrault G, Borrelli E, Sanger D. Dopamine D2 receptor knock-out mice are insensitive to the hypolocomotor and hypothermic effects of dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonists. Neuropharmacology. 1999;38:1389-96 pubmed
    ..In order to investigate whether the DA D2 receptor is the subtype that mediates hypothermia and hypolocomotion produced by DA D2/D3 receptor agonists, we tested ..
  23. Zeng C, Armando I, Luo Y, Eisner G, Felder R, Jose P. Dysregulation of dopamine-dependent mechanisms as a determinant of hypertension: studies in dopamine receptor knockout mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H551-69 pubmed
  24. Napolitano F, Pasqualetti M, Usiello A, Santini E, Pacini G, Sciamanna G, et al. Dopamine D2 receptor dysfunction is rescued by adenosine A2A receptor antagonism in a model of DYT1 dystonia. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;38:434-45 pubmed publisher
    ..to dystonia is unclear, multiple lines of clinical evidence suggest a link between dystonia and a reduced dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability...
  25. Kelly M, Rubinstein M, Phillips T, Lessov C, Burkhart Kasch S, Zhang G, et al. Locomotor activity in D2 dopamine receptor-deficient mice is determined by gene dosage, genetic background, and developmental adaptations. J Neurosci. 1998;18:3470-9 pubmed
    ..the role of D2 dopamine receptors in locomotion, we generated F2 hybrid (129/Sv x C57BL/6) D2 dopamine receptor (D2R)-deficient mice by gene targeting and investigated the contribution of genetic background to open-field activity ..
  26. Cristina C, Diaz Torga G, Baldi A, Gongora A, Rubinstein M, Low M, et al. Increased pituitary vascular endothelial growth factor-a in dopaminergic D2 receptor knockout female mice. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2952-62 pubmed
    ..We investigated VEGF expression, localization, and function in pituitary hyperplasia of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-knockout female mice...
  27. Drew M, Simpson E, Kellendonk C, Herzberg W, Lipatova O, Fairhurst S, et al. Transient overexpression of striatal D2 receptors impairs operant motivation and interval timing. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7731-9 pubmed
    ..Signaling through the dopamine D2 receptor is critical for all of these processes...
  28. Tong Y, Pisani A, Martella G, Karouani M, Yamaguchi H, Pothos E, et al. R1441C mutation in LRRK2 impairs dopaminergic neurotransmission in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14622-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The introduction of the R1441C mutation also impairs dopamine D2 receptor function, as suggested by decreased responses of KI mice in locomotor activity to the inhibitory effect of ..
  29. Martella G, Madeo G, Schirinzi T, Tassone A, Sciamanna G, Spadoni F, et al. Altered profile and D2-dopamine receptor modulation of high voltage-activated calcium current in striatal medium spiny neurons from animal models of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2011;177:240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopamine modulates HVA Ca2+ channels in MSNs, thus we also analyzed the effect of D1 and D2 receptor activation...
  30. Yamaguchi H, Aiba A, Nakamura K, Nakao K, Sakagami H, Goto K, et al. Dopamine D2 receptor plays a critical role in cell proliferation and proopiomelanocortin expression in the pituitary. Genes Cells. 1996;1:253-68 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the specific role of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the pituitary and brain, we generated D2R deficient (D2R mutant) mice using the gene targeting ..
  31. Calabresi P, Saiardi A, Pisani A, Baik J, Centonze D, Mercuri N, et al. Abnormal synaptic plasticity in the striatum of mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. J Neurosci. 1997;17:4536-44 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the D2R gene function in mice results in a severe locomotor impairment...
  32. Maldonado R, Saiardi A, Valverde O, Samad T, Roques B, Borrelli E. Absence of opiate rewarding effects in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. Nature. 1997;388:586-9 pubmed
    ..This effect is specific to the drug, as mice lacking D2 receptors behaved the same as wild-type mice when food is used as reward. We conclude that the D2 receptor plays a crucial role in the motivational component of drug addiction.
  33. Usiello A, Baik J, Rouge Pont F, Picetti R, Dierich A, LeMeur M, et al. Distinct functions of the two isoforms of dopamine D2 receptors. Nature. 2000;408:199-203 pubmed
    ..By a mechanism of alternative splicing, the D2 receptor gene encodes two molecularly distinct isoforms, D2S and D2L, previously thought to have the same function...
  34. Ponnusamy R, Nissim H, Barad M. Systemic blockade of D2-like dopamine receptors facilitates extinction of conditioned fear in mice. Learn Mem. 2005;12:399-406 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that dopamine D2-mediated signaling contributes physiological inhibition of extinction, and that D2 antagonists may be useful adjuncts to behavior therapy of human anxiety disorders. ..
  35. Ralph R, Varty G, Kelly M, Wang Y, Caron M, Rubinstein M, et al. The dopamine D2, but not D3 or D4, receptor subtype is essential for the disruption of prepulse inhibition produced by amphetamine in mice. J Neurosci. 1999;19:4627-33 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the AMPH-induced disruption of PPI is mediated via the DA D2 receptor and not the D3 or D4 receptor subtypes...
  36. Kelly M, Low M, Rubinstein M, Phillips T. Role of dopamine D1-like receptors in methamphetamine locomotor responses of D2 receptor knockout mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This study used the combination of dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice and a D1-like antagonist to examine dopamine D1 and D2 receptor involvement in acute and ..
  37. Ralph Williams R, Lehmann Masten V, Otero Corchon V, Low M, Geyer M. Differential effects of direct and indirect dopamine agonists on prepulse inhibition: a study in D1 and D2 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9604-11 pubmed
    ..To characterize the DA receptor modulation of PPI in another species, we tested DA D1R and D2R mutant mice with direct and indirect DA agonists and with the glutamate receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801)...
  38. Trifilieff P, Feng B, Urizar E, Winiger V, Ward R, Taylor K, et al. Increasing dopamine D2 receptor expression in the adult nucleus accumbens enhances motivation. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:1025-33 pubmed publisher
    A decrease in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum is one of the most common findings in disorders that involve a dysregulation of motivation, including obesity, addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
  39. Wakida N, Kiguchi N, Saika F, Nishiue H, Kobayashi Y, Kishioka S. CC-chemokine ligand 2 facilitates conditioned place preference to methamphetamine through the activation of dopamine systems. J Pharmacol Sci. 2014;125:68-73 pubmed
    ..Novel treatments targeting this machinery may be effective for drug addiction. ..
  40. Jung M, Schmauss C. Decreased c-fos responses to dopamine D(1) receptor agonist stimulation in mice deficient for D(3) receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29406-12 pubmed
    ..The findings therefore indicate that not only D(2) but also D(3) receptors play a role in dopamine-regulated gene expression. ..
  41. Grueter B, ROBISON A, Neve R, Nestler E, Malenka R. ?FosB differentially modulates nucleus accumbens direct and indirect pathway function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1923-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that ?FosB in NAc differentially modulates synaptic properties and reward-related behaviors in a cell type- and subregion-specific fashion. ..
  42. Tsuchiya N, Iwase M, Izumizaki M, Homma I. Dopaminergic modulation of exercise hyperpnoea via D(2) receptors in mice. Exp Physiol. 2012;97:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, D(2) receptors participate in resting breathing patterns to raise f(R) and exercise hyperpnoea in the steady state, probably through behavioural control and not central motor command, at exercise onset. ..
  43. Hu Z, Oh E, Chung Y, Hong J, Oh K. Predominant D1 Receptors Involvement in the Over-expression of CART Peptides after Repeated Cocaine Administration. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;19:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The concomitant administration of both D1R and D2R antagonists, SCH 23390 (D1R selective) and raclopride (D2R selective), blocked cocaine induced-behavioral ..
  44. Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Wang C, Xu Z, Liang Q, An L, et al. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Sp9 Is Required for the Development of Striatopallidal Projection Neurons. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1431-1444 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-seq and in situ hybridization reveal that Sp9 promotes expression of Adora2a, P2ry1, Gpr6, and Grik3 in the LGE and striatum. Thus, Sp9 is crucial for the generation, differentiation, and survival of striatopallidal MSNs. ..
  45. Graham D, Durai H, Garden J, Cohen E, Echevarria F, Stanwood G. Loss of dopamine D2 receptors increases parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2015;6:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected...
  46. Biezonski D, Trifilieff P, Meszaros J, Javitch J, Kellendonk C. Evidence for limited D1 and D2 receptor coexpression and colocalization within the dorsal striatum of the neonatal mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2015;523:1175-89 pubmed publisher
    ..to map dorsal-striatal D1R and D2R expression at the promoter level in postnatal day 0 (PD0) Drd1a-tdTomato/Drd2-GFP BAC transgenic mice, and at the receptor level by costaining for native D1R and D2R in wildtype (WT) PD0 ..
  47. Bäckman C, Malik N, Zhang Y, Shan L, Grinberg A, Hoffer B, et al. Characterization of a mouse strain expressing Cre recombinase from the 3' untranslated region of the dopamine transporter locus. Genesis. 2006;44:383-90 pubmed
    ..This knockin mouse can be used for generating tissue specific knockouts in mice carrying genes flanked by loxP sites, and will facilitate the analysis of gene function in dopaminergic neurons. ..
  48. Garcia Tornadú I, Diaz Torga G, Risso G, Silveyra P, Cataldi N, Ramirez M, et al. Hypothalamic orexin, OX1, alphaMSH, NPY and MCRs expression in dopaminergic D2R knockout mice. Neuropeptides. 2009;43:267-74 pubmed publisher
    In 5-month-old male and female dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) knockout mice food intake per animal was unaltered while food per g BW was increased...
  49. Kennedy J, Vicari A, Saylor V, Zurawski S, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. A molecular analysis of NKT cells: identification of a class-I restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM). J Leukoc Biol. 2000;67:725-34 pubmed
    ..LPTN and CRTAM exhibit the same expression pattern in T cells, suggesting the existence of a gene expression program common to class I-MHC-restricted T cells. ..
  50. Cunningham C, Howard M, Gill S, Rubinstein M, Low M, Grandy D. Ethanol-conditioned place preference is reduced in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000;67:693-9 pubmed
    ..To determine whether reduced ethanol intake reflects a reduction in ethanol reward, D2 receptor-deficient [knockout (KO)] mice were compared to heterozygous (HET) and wild-type (WT; C57BL/6xDBA/2 F2 hybrid) ..
  51. Tomé M, Jiménez A, Richter H, Vio K, Bermúdez Silva F, Rodriguez E, et al. The subcommissural organ expresses D2, D3, D4, and D5 dopamine receptors. Cell Tissue Res. 2004;317:65-77 pubmed
  52. Mansikka H, Erbs E, Borrelli E, Pertovaara A. Influence of the dopamine D2 receptor knockout on pain-related behavior in the mouse. Brain Res. 2005;1052:82-7 pubmed
    We studied the role of the dopamine D2 receptor in physiological regulation of pain-related behavior. The experiments were performed in dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice and in their wild-type controls...
  53. Sgadò P, Ferretti E, Grbec D, Bozzi Y, Simon H. The atypical homeoprotein Pbx1a participates in the axonal pathfinding of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Neural Dev. 2012;7:24 pubmed publisher
  54. Chen R, Zhang Q, Duan X, York P, Chen G, Yin P, et al. The 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) Reader UHRF2 Is Required for Normal Levels of 5hmC in Mouse Adult Brain and Spatial Learning and Memory. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:4533-4543 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study supports UHRF2 as a bona fide 5hmC reader and further demonstrates a role for 5hmC in neuronal function. ..
  55. Radl D, Chiacchiaretta M, Lewis R, Brami Cherrier K, Arcuri L, Borrelli E. Differential regulation of striatal motor behavior and related cellular responses by dopamine D2L and D2S isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:198-203 pubmed publisher
    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a major component of the dopamine system. D2R-mediated signaling in dopamine neurons is involved in the presynaptic regulation of dopamine levels. Postsynaptically, i.e...
  56. Risinger F, Freeman P, Rubinstein M, Low M, Grandy D. Lack of operant ethanol self-administration in dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;152:343-50 pubmed
    ..This experiment examined operant ethanol self-administration in dopamine D2 receptor knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice using a continuous access procedure...
  57. Ze Y, Hu R, Wang X, Sang X, Ze X, Li B, et al. Neurotoxicity and gene-expressed profile in brain-injured mice caused by exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014;102:470-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these genes may be potential biomarkers of brain toxicity caused by TiO2 NPs exposure, and the application of TiO2 NPs should be carried out cautiously. ..
  58. Perez Millan M, Luque G, Ramirez M, Noain D, Ornstein A, Rubinstein M, et al. Selective disruption of dopamine D2 receptors in pituitary lactotropes increases body weight and adiposity in female mice. Endocrinology. 2014;155:829-39 pubmed publisher
    ..elevated prolactin levels increase food intake, but in some hyperprolactinemic states such as in the global dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) knockout mouse, food intake is not increased...
  59. de Leeuw van Weenen J, Parlevliet E, Schröder van der Elst J, van den Berg S, Willems Van Dijk K, Romijn J, et al. Pharmacological modulation of dopamine receptor D2-mediated transmission alters the metabolic phenotype of diet induced obese and diet resistant C57Bl6 mice. Exp Diabetes Res. 2011;2011:928523 pubmed publisher
    ..DR) rodents, Diet Induced Obese (DIO) rodents are insulin resistant and have a reduced dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) mediated tone...
  60. Ito M, Numachi Y, Ohara A, Sora I. Hyperthermic and lethal effects of methamphetamine: roles of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Neurosci Lett. 2008;438:327-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both D1 and D2 receptors play roles in the lethal toxic effects of methamphetamine, and mainly the D2 receptor is involved in the elevation of body temperature.
  61. Oishi Y, Suzuki Y, Takahashi K, Yonezawa T, Kanda T, Takata Y, et al. Activation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons produces wakefulness through dopamine D2-like receptors in mice. Brain Struct Funct. 2017;222:2907-2915 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the activation of VTA dopamine neurons promotes wakefulness via D2/D3 receptors. ..
  62. Yoon S, Baik J. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation through a disintegrin and metalloprotease regulates dopaminergic neuron development via extracellular signal-related kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28435-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation plays an important role in the development of dopaminergic mesencephalic neurons...
  63. Milosevic J, Schwarz S, Maisel M, Poppe Wagner M, Dieterlen M, Storch A, et al. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor stimulation fails to promote dopaminergic neurogenesis of murine and human midbrain-derived neural precursor cells in vitro. Stem Cells Dev. 2007;16:625-35 pubmed
    ..Our data question the relevance of neuroregenerative effects of dopamine agonists for human predopaminergic cells as well as patients with Parkinson's disease. ..
  64. Zhao Shea R, Cohen B, Just H, McClure Begley T, Whiteaker P, Grady S, et al. Dopamine D2-receptor activation elicits akinesia, rigidity, catalepsy, and tremor in mice expressing hypersensitive {alpha}4 nicotinic receptors via a cholinergic-dependent mechanism. FASEB J. 2010;24:49-57 pubmed publisher
  65. Elmer G, Pieper J, Levy J, Rubinstein M, Low M, Grandy D, et al. Brain stimulation and morphine reward deficits in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;182:33-44 pubmed
    ..various natural rewards, and several drugs of abuse are attenuated by D1 or D2 dopamine receptor (D1R or D2R) antagonists...
  66. Kim S, Choi K, Chang M, Kim M, Kim S, Na Y, et al. The dopamine D2 receptor regulates the development of dopaminergic neurons via extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Nurr1 activation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:4567-76 pubmed
    ..In mice lacking the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R-/-), stereological cell counting analysis showed that the number of mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase ..
  67. Danjo T, Yoshimi K, Funabiki K, Yawata S, Nakanishi S. Aversive behavior induced by optogenetic inactivation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons is mediated by dopamine D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6455-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of DA neurons in the VTA was thus indispensable for inducing aversive responses and learning through dopamine D2 receptors in the NAc. ..
  68. Corbin J, Gaiano N, Machold R, Langston A, Fishell G. The Gsh2 homeodomain gene controls multiple aspects of telencephalic development. Development. 2000;127:5007-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data support a model in which Gsh2, in response to sonic hedgehog signaling, plays a crucial role in multiple aspects of telencephalic development. ..
  69. Kim S, Nam J, Kim K. Aluminum exposure decreases dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in mouse brain. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26:741-6 pubmed
    ..6H2O at 2 h intervals), expression of the dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors (DRD1, DRD2) was examined in the cortex and striatum of mouse brain at bregma levels of 1.10, -0.10 and -1.34 mm...