Gene Symbol: Dppa3
Description: developmental pluripotency-associated 3
Alias: 2410075G02Rik, PCG7, PGC7, Stella, developmental pluripotency-associated protein 3, compaction-associated protein 1, primordial germ cell 7, primordial germ cell protein 7
Species: mouse
Products:     Dppa3

Top Publications

  1. Ohinata Y, Payer B, O Carroll D, Ancelin K, Ono Y, Sano M, et al. Blimp1 is a critical determinant of the germ cell lineage in mice. Nature. 2005;436:207-13 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our genetic lineage-tracing experiments indicate that the Blimp1-positive cells originating from the proximal posterior epiblast cells are indeed the lineage-restricted primordial germ cell precursors. ..
  2. Seki Y, Yamaji M, Yabuta Y, Sano M, Shigeta M, Matsui Y, et al. Cellular dynamics associated with the genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in migrating primordial germ cells in mice. Development. 2007;134:2627-38 pubmed
    ..We suggest the possibility that active repression of an essential enzyme and subsequent unique cellular dynamics ensures successful implementation of genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in migrating PGCs. ..
  3. Nakamura T, Arai Y, Umehara H, Masuhara M, Kimura T, Taniguchi H, et al. PGC7/Stella protects against DNA demethylation in early embryogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:64-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that PGC7/Stella, a maternal factor essential for early development, protects the DNA methylation state of several imprinted loci ..
  4. Sato M, Kimura T, Kurokawa K, Fujita Y, Abe K, Masuhara M, et al. Identification of PGC7, a new gene expressed specifically in preimplantation embryos and germ cells. Mech Dev. 2002;113:91-4 pubmed
    ..During the process, we cloned a novel gene, PGC7, which was preferentially expressed in PGCs...
  5. Gu Y, Runyan C, Shoemaker A, Surani A, Wylie C. Steel factor controls primordial germ cell survival and motility from the time of their specification in the allantois, and provides a continuous niche throughout their migration. Development. 2009;136:1295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..colonization, and the roles of Steel factor, using a reporter line in which GFP is driven by the promoter of the Stella gene, whose activation accompanies the initial specification of PGCs...
  6. Nakamura T, Liu Y, Nakashima H, Umehara H, Inoue K, Matoba S, et al. PGC7 binds histone H3K9me2 to protect against conversion of 5mC to 5hmC in early embryos. Nature. 2012;486:415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously reported that the maternal factor PGC7 (also known as Dppa3, Stella) is required for the maintenance of DNA methylation in early embryogenesis, and protects 5mC from conversion to ..
  7. Payer B, Saitou M, Barton S, Thresher R, Dixon J, Zahn D, et al. Stella is a maternal effect gene required for normal early development in mice. Curr Biol. 2003;13:2110-7 pubmed
    b>stella is a novel gene specifically expressed in primordial germ cells, oocytes, preimplantation embryos, and pluripotent cells...
  8. Saitou M, Payer B, Lange U, Erhardt S, Barton S, Surani M. Specification of germ cell fate in mice. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003;358:1363-70 pubmed
    ..This repression may be a key event associated with germ cell specification. Furthermore, PGCs express Stella and other genes, such as Oct-4 that are associated with pluripotency...
  9. Takeuchi Y, Molyneaux K, Runyan C, Schaible K, Wylie C. The roles of FGF signaling in germ cell migration in the mouse. Development. 2005;132:5399-409 pubmed
    ..These data show that a major role of FGF signaling through FGFR2-IIIb is to control germ cell numbers. The data do not discriminate between direct and indirect effects of FGF signaling on germ cells, and both may be involved. ..

More Information


  1. Hara K, Kanai Azuma M, Uemura M, Shitara H, Taya C, Yonekawa H, et al. Evidence for crucial role of hindgut expansion in directing proper migration of primordial germ cells in mouse early embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;330:427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these data indicate that hindgut morphogenic movement is crucial for directing PGC movement toward the embryonic gut side, but not for their relocation from the mesoderm into the endoderm. ..
  2. Bortvin A, Eggan K, Skaletsky H, Akutsu H, Berry D, Yanagimachi R, et al. Incomplete reactivation of Oct4-related genes in mouse embryos cloned from somatic nuclei. Development. 2003;130:1673-80 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that failure to reactivate the full spectrum of these Oct4-related genes may contribute to embryonic lethality in somatic-cell clones. ..
  3. Weber S, Eckert D, Nettersheim D, Gillis A, Schäfer S, Kuckenberg P, et al. Critical function of AP-2 gamma/TCFAP2C in mouse embryonic germ cell maintenance. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..0. PGCs generated in vitro from embryonic stem cells lacking TCFAP2C displayed induction of Prdm1 and Dppa3. Upregulation of Hoxa1, Hoxb1, and T together with lack of expression of germ cell markers such Nanos3, Dazl, and ..
  4. Saitou M, Barton S, Surani M. A molecular programme for the specification of germ cell fate in mice. Nature. 2002;418:293-300 pubmed
    ..profiles, we also show that only those cells with the highest expression of fragilis subsequently express stella, a gene that we detected exclusively in lineage-restricted germ cells...
  5. Fiorenzano A, Pascale E, D Aniello C, Acampora D, Bassalert C, Russo F, et al. Cripto is essential to capture mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12589 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our studies provide novel insights into the current model of mammalian pluripotency and contribute to the understanding of the extrinsic regulation of the first cell lineage decision in the embryo. ..
  6. Gill M, Hu Y, Lin Y, Page D. Licensing of gametogenesis, dependent on RNA binding protein DAZL, as a gateway to sexual differentiation of fetal germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In C57BL/6 mice, Dazl is required for licensing. Licensing serves as a gateway from the embryonic processes shared between the sexes--germ cell specification and migration--to the sex-specific pathways of oogenesis and spermatogenesis. ..
  7. Nakatani T, Yamagata K, Kimura T, Oda M, Nakashima H, Hori M, et al. Stella preserves maternal chromosome integrity by inhibiting 5hmC-induced γH2AX accumulation. EMBO Rep. 2015;16:582-9 pubmed publisher
    In the mouse zygote, Stella/PGC7 protects 5-methylcytosine (5mC) of the maternal genome from Tet3-mediated oxidation to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC)...
  8. Douglas N, Arora R, Chen C, Sauer M, Papaioannou V. Investigating the role of tbx4 in the female germline in mice. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:148 pubmed publisher
    ..Although postnatal deletion of Tbx4 in oocytes does not obviously impair fertility, it is possible that the reduction in PGCs observed in Tbx4 homozygous null mutant embryos could affect long-term fertility in adults. ..
  9. Graf T, Stadtfeld M. Heterogeneity of embryonic and adult stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;3:480-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These cell states show a bias in their differentiation potential and correlate with specific patterns of transcription factor expression and chromatin modifications. ..
  10. Li J, Kent D, Godfrey A, Manning H, Nangalia J, Aziz A, et al. JAK2V617F homozygosity drives a phenotypic switch in myeloproliferative neoplasms, but is insufficient to sustain disease. Blood. 2014;123:3139-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The generation of a JAK2V617F allelic series of mice with a dose-dependent effect on hematopoiesis provides a powerful model for studying the consequences of mutant JAK2 homozygosity. ..
  11. Kimura T, Nakamura T, Murayama K, Umehara H, Yamano N, Watanabe S, et al. The stabilization of beta-catenin leads to impaired primordial germ cell development via aberrant cell cycle progression. Dev Biol. 2006;300:545-53 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the suppression of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a prerequisite for the normal development of PGCs. ..
  12. Huang Y, Kim J, Do D, Lee C, Penfold C, Zylicz J, et al. Stella modulates transcriptional and endogenous retrovirus programs during maternal-to-zygotic transition. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the function of the maternally inherited factor Stella (encoded by Dppa3) using single-cell/embryo approaches...
  13. Rahjouei A, Pirouz M, Di Virgilio M, Kamin D, Kessel M. MAD2L2 Promotes Open Chromatin in Embryonic Stem Cells and Derepresses the Dppa3 Locus. Stem Cell Reports. 2017;8:813-821 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the most strongly suppressed genes was Dppa3, an ESC- and germ-cell-specific gene regulating DNA methylation...
  14. Miyanari Y, Torres Padilla M. Control of ground-state pluripotency by allelic regulation of Nanog. Nature. 2012;483:470-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlight an unexpected role for allelic expression in controlling the dose of pluripotency factors in vivo, adding an extra level to the regulation of reprogramming. ..
  15. Yamaguchi Y, Tanaka S, Kumagai M, Fujimoto Y, Terabayashi T, Matsui Y, et al. Sall4 is essential for mouse primordial germ cell specification by suppressing somatic cell program genes. Stem Cells. 2015;33:289-300 pubmed publisher
  16. Lange U, Adams D, Lee C, Barton S, Schneider R, Bradley A, et al. Normal germ line establishment in mice carrying a deletion of the Ifitm/Fragilis gene family cluster. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4688-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, contrary to previous reports, Ifitm genes are not essential for PGC migration. The Ifitm family is a striking example of a conserved gene cluster which appears to be functionally redundant during development. ..
  17. Okamura D, Maeda I, Taniguchi H, Tokitake Y, Ikeda M, Ozato K, et al. Cell cycle gene-specific control of transcription has a critical role in proliferation of primordial germ cells. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2477-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CDKI gene-specific control of transcription by 7SK snRNP plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of PGC proliferation. ..
  18. Park E, Lee B, Clurman B, Lee K. NUP50 is necessary for the survival of primordial germ cells in mouse embryos. Reproduction. 2016;151:51-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that NUP50 plays an essential role in the survival of PGCs during embryonic development. ..
  19. Yamaguchi S, Kimura H, Tada M, Nakatsuji N, Tada T. Nanog expression in mouse germ cell development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:639-46 pubmed
    ..To address these issues, whole embryos and cryosections of embryos were immunostained with anti-NANOG and anti-STELLA/PGC7 antibodies. NANOG expression, repressed in colonized PGCs of E7.25-E7...
  20. Tian Zhong M, Bi C, Ying Z, Xia J, Cai Ling P, Yun Shan Z, et al. Critical role of Emx2 in the pluripotency - differentiation transition in male gonocytes via regulation of FGF9/NODAL pathway. Reproduction. 2016;151:673-81 pubmed publisher
  21. Wossidlo M, Nakamura T, Lepikhov K, Marques C, Zakhartchenko V, Boiani M, et al. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in the mammalian zygote is linked with epigenetic reprogramming. Nat Commun. 2011;2:241 pubmed publisher
    ..The maternal pronucleus seems to be largely protected against this mechanism by PGC7/Dppa3/Stella, as in PGC7 knockout zygotes 5mC also becomes accessible to oxidation into 5hmC...
  22. Iqbal K, Jin S, Pfeifer G, SZABO P. Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3642-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Tet3, but not Tet1 or Tet2, was expressed at high levels in oocytes and zygotes, with rapidly declining levels at the two-cell stage. Our results show that 5mC oxidation is part of the early life cycle of mammals...
  23. Vassiliou G, Cooper J, Rad R, Li J, Rice S, Uren A, et al. Mutant nucleophosmin and cooperating pathways drive leukemia initiation and progression in mice. Nat Genet. 2011;43:470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified recurrent integrations in known and newly discovered leukemia genes including Nf1, Bach2, Dleu2 and Nup98. Our results provide new pathogenetic insights and identify possible therapeutic targets in NPM1c+ AML. ..
  24. Kaji K, Nichols J, Hendrich B. Mbd3, a component of the NuRD co-repressor complex, is required for development of pluripotent cells. Development. 2007;134:1123-32 pubmed
  25. Borgel J, Guibert S, Li Y, Chiba H, Schübeler D, Sasaki H, et al. Targets and dynamics of promoter DNA methylation during early mouse development. Nat Genet. 2010;42:1093-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identify nonimprinted genes that inherit promoter DNA methylation from parental gametes, suggesting that escape of post-fertilization DNA methylation reprogramming is prevalent in the mouse genome. ..
  26. Saito K, Abe H, Nakazawa M, Irokawa E, Watanabe M, Hosoi Y, et al. Cloning of complementary DNAs encoding structurally related homeoproteins from preimplantation mouse embryos: their involvement in the differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, it was concluded that these transcripts encoding homeoproteins are capable of regulating the maintenance and/or differentiation of mouse ES cells and likely regulate that of preimplantation embryos. ..
  27. Olive V, Wagner N, Chan S, Kastner P, Vannetti C, Cuzin F, et al. PU.1 (Sfpi1), a pleiotropic regulator expressed from the first embryonic stages with a crucial function in germinal progenitors. Development. 2007;134:3815-25 pubmed
    ..of several germinal markers, including vasa (Mvh, Ddx4), Oct4 (Pou5f1), Dazl and Taf4b, were detected, whereas stella (PGC7, Dppa3) was not. Germ cells of PU...
  28. Shin S, Vogt E, Jimenez Movilla M, Baibakov B, Dean J. Cytoplasmic cleavage of DPPA3 is required for intracellular trafficking and cleavage-stage development in mice. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1643 pubmed publisher
    ..DPPA3/Stella/PGC7, encoded by a maternal effect gene, is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of zygotes and has been ..
  29. Krentz A, Murphy M, Zhang T, Sarver A, Jain S, Griswold M, et al. Interaction between DMRT1 function and genetic background modulates signaling and pluripotency to control tumor susceptibility in the fetal germ line. Dev Biol. 2013;377:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the strong evidence for involvement of DMRT1 in human TGCT, the downstream genes and pathways identified in this study provide potentially useful candidates for roles in the human disease. ..
  30. Bowles J, Teasdale R, James K, Koopman P. Dppa3 is a marker of pluripotency and has a human homologue that is expressed in germ cell tumours. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2003;101:261-5 pubmed
    ..11M2 corresponds to a recently reported gene variously known as PGC7, STELLA or DPPA3...
  31. Waghray A, Saiz N, Jayaprakash A, Freire A, Papatsenko D, Pereira C, et al. Tbx3 Controls Dppa3 Levels and Exit from Pluripotency toward Mesoderm. Stem Cell Reports. 2015;5:97-110 pubmed publisher
    ..In-depth transcriptome analysis of this mESC state reveals Dppa3 as a direct downstream target of Tbx3...
  32. Arakawa T, Nakatani T, Oda M, Kimura Y, Sekita Y, Kimura T, et al. Stella controls chromocenter formation through regulation of Daxx expression in 2-cell embryos. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;466:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that Stella (also known as PGC7 and Dppa3) deficiency led to developmental arrest at the preimplantation stage, accompanied by ..
  33. Hatano S, Tada M, Kimura H, Yamaguchi S, Kono T, Nakano T, et al. Pluripotential competence of cells associated with Nanog activity. Mech Dev. 2005;122:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the activity of Nanog is tightly correlated with an undifferentiated state of cells even in nuclear reprogrammed somatic cells. Nanog may function as a key regulator for sustaining pluripotency in a dose-dependent manner...
  34. Bortvin A, Goodheart M, Liao M, Page D. Dppa3 / Pgc7 / stella is a maternal factor and is not required for germ cell specification in mice. BMC Dev Biol. 2004;4:2 pubmed
    ..The function of Dppa3 (also known as Pgc7 or stella), a gene expressed in primordial germ cells at the time of their emergence in gastrulating embryos, is unknown, ..
  35. Nakashima H, Kimura T, Kaga Y, Nakatani T, Seki Y, Nakamura T, et al. Effects of dppa3 on DNA methylation dynamics during primordial germ cell development in mice. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:125 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that Dppa3, also known as Stella and PGC7, protects the maternal genome from tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 3 (Tet3)-mediated conversion of 5-..
  36. Liu H, Wang W, Chew S, Lee S, Li J, Vassiliou G, et al. Stella-Cre mice are highly efficient Cre deleters. Genesis. 2011;49:689-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report generation and characterization of a new Cre line, Stella-Cre, where Cre expression cassette was targeted to the 3' UTR of the Stella locus...
  37. Lange U, Saitou M, Western P, Barton S, Surani M. The fragilis interferon-inducible gene family of transmembrane proteins is associated with germ cell specification in mice. BMC Dev Biol. 2003;3:1 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, its evolutionary conservation suggests that it probably plays a critical role in all mammals. Detailed analysis of these genes may also elucidate the role of interferons as signalling molecules during development. ..
  38. Laird D, Altshuler Keylin S, Kissner M, Zhou X, Anderson K. Ror2 enhances polarity and directional migration of primordial germ cells. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002428 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results indicate that Ror2 acts autonomously to permit the polarized response of PGCs to KitL. We propose a model by which Wnt5a potentiates PGC chemotaxis toward secreted KitL by redistribution of Ror2 within the cell. ..
  39. Chen L, Faire M, Kissner M, Laird D. Primordial germ cells and gastrointestinal stromal tumors respond distinctly to a cKit overactivating allele. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:313-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a cell-context-dependent response to the cKit(V558?) mutation. We propose that AKT overload protection and JNK-mediated survival comprise PGC-specific mechanisms for regulating cKit signaling. ..
  40. Wolfe A, Rodriguez A, Downs K. STELLA collaborates in distinct mesendodermal cell subpopulations at the fetal-placental interface in the mouse gastrula. Dev Biol. 2017;425:44-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of recent studies in the mouse have reported that STELLA (DPPA-3, PGC7) co-localizes with PRDM1 (BLIMP1), the bimolecular signature of putative primordial germ cells (PGCs)..
  41. Hirota T, Ohta H, Shigeta M, Niwa H, Saitou M. Drug-inducible gene recombination by the Dppa3-MER Cre MER transgene in the developmental cycle of the germ cell lineage in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..estrogen receptor (MER Cre MER [MCM]) under the control of the regulatory elements of the Dppa3 (also known as Stella or Pgc7) gene...
  42. Hayashi K, de Sousa Lopes S, Tang F, Lao K, Surani M. Dynamic equilibrium and heterogeneity of mouse pluripotent stem cells with distinct functional and epigenetic states. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;3:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..stem cells (ESCs) are apparently homogeneous self-renewing cells, but we observed heterogeneous expression of Stella in ESCs, which is a marker of pluripotency and germ cells...
  43. Luo Y, Schimenti J. MCM9 deficiency delays primordial germ cell proliferation independent of the ATM pathway. Genesis. 2015;53:678-84 pubmed publisher
    ..genesis 53:678-684, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  44. Mikedis M, Downs K. STELLA-positive subregions of the primitive streak contribute to posterior tissues of the mouse gastrula. Dev Biol. 2012;363:201-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have asked whether the STELLA-positive cells found within this region, thought to be specified PGCs, are actually part of the ACD and to what ..
  45. Han D, Tapia N, Joo J, Greber B, Arauzo Bravo M, Bernemann C, et al. Epiblast stem cell subpopulations represent mouse embryos of distinct pregastrulation stages. Cell. 2010;143:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the rare ability of EpiSCs to contribute to chimeras is due to the presence of the minor EpiSC fraction representing the early epiblast. ..
  46. Liu Y, Nakamura T, Nakano T. Essential role of DPPA3 for chromatin condensation in mouse oocytogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed the role of DPPA3 (also known as PGC7/Stella) in this transition using Dppa3-null oocytes...
  47. Luo Y, Hartford S, Zeng R, Southard T, Shima N, Schimenti J. Hypersensitivity of primordial germ cells to compromised replication-associated DNA repair involves ATM-p53-p21 signaling. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004471 pubmed publisher
    ..Progressive loss of germ cells in adult males also occurs, overlaid with an elevated level of meiotic DNA damage. Genetic studies indicated that ATM-p53-p21 signaling is partially responsible for the germ cell deficiency. ..
  48. Sugimoto M, Abe K. X chromosome reactivation initiates in nascent primordial germ cells in mice. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e116 pubmed
    ..5 PGCs, indicating that X reactivation in developing PGCs occurs over a prolonged period. These results set the reactivation timing much earlier than previously thought and suggest that X reactivation may involve slow passive steps. ..
  49. Wu G, Han D, Gong Y, Sebastiano V, Gentile L, Singhal N, et al. Establishment of totipotency does not depend on Oct4A. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1089-97 pubmed publisher
  50. Xu X, Smorag L, Nakamura T, Kimura T, Dressel R, Fitzner A, et al. Dppa3 expression is critical for generation of fully reprogrammed iPS cells and maintenance of Dlk1-Dio3 imprinting. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6008 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that germ-cell marker Dppa3 is present only in lg-iPSCs and hg-iPSCs, and that induction with exogenous Dppa3 enhances reprogramming kinetics, ..
  51. Tanaka S, Yamaguchi Y, Steiner K, Nakano T, Nishinakamura R, Kwan K, et al. Loss of Lhx1 activity impacts on the localization of primordial germ cells in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2851-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Lhx1 therefore may influence the localization of PGCs by modulating Ifitm1-mediated repulsive activity. ..
  52. Mikedis M, Downs K. PRDM1/BLIMP1 is widely distributed to the nascent fetal-placental interface in the mouse gastrula. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:50-71 pubmed publisher
    ..While PRDM1 and STELLA colocalized predominantly within the hindgut, where putative PGCs reside, other colocalizing cells were found in ..
  53. Okamura D, Mochizuki K, Taniguchi H, Tokitake Y, Ikeda M, Yamada Y, et al. REST and its downstream molecule Mek5 regulate survival of primordial germ cells. Dev Biol. 2012;372:190-202 pubmed publisher
  54. Bosman E, Lawson K, Debruyn J, Beek L, Francis A, Schoonjans L, et al. Smad5 determines murine amnion fate through the control of bone morphogenetic protein expression and signalling levels. Development. 2006;133:3399-409 pubmed
    ..These ectopic Oct4(+), AP(+) cells appear to be Stella negative and hence cannot be called bona fide PGCs...
  55. Lin Y, Page D. Dazl deficiency leads to embryonic arrest of germ cell development in XY C57BL/6 mice. Dev Biol. 2005;288:309-16 pubmed
    ..By E14.5, expression of germ cell markers (Mvh, Oct4, Dppa3/Stella, GCNA and MVH protein) was reduced in XY Dazl-/- gonads. By E15...
  56. Campolo F, Gori M, Favaro R, Nicolis S, Pellegrini M, Botti F, et al. Essential role of Sox2 for the establishment and maintenance of the germ cell line. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1408-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox2 also stimulates the expression of Zfp148, which is required for normal development of fetal germ cells, and Rif1, a potential regulator of PGC pluripotency. ..
  57. Cinelli P, Casanova E, Uhlig S, Lochmatter P, Matsuda T, Yokota T, et al. Expression profiling in transgenic FVB/N embryonic stem cells overexpressing STAT3. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:57 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of them, Pem/Rhox5 and Pramel7, when overexpressed in ES cells are able to maintain the embryonic stem cells in a pluripotent state in a LIF independent manner as STAT3 or Nanog. ..