Gene Symbol: Dntt
Description: deoxynucleotidyltransferase, terminal
Alias: Tdt, DNA nucleotidylexotransferase, terminal addition enzyme, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
Species: mouse
Products:     Dntt

Top Publications

  1. Mi Q, Rezanka L, Lustig A, Zhou L, Longo D, Kenny J. The M603 idiotype is lost in the response to phosphocholine in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:1139-46 pubmed
    ..mutations resulting in this invariant substitution, we analyzed the immune response to PC-PM in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) gene knockout (KO) mice...
  2. Thai T, Purugganan M, Roth D, Kearney J. Distinct and opposite diversifying activities of terminal transferase splice variants. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:457-62 pubmed
    The short splice variant of mouse terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdTS) catalyzes the addition of nontemplated nucleotides (N addition) at the coding joins of B cell and T cell antigen receptor genes...
  3. Doyen N, d Andon M, Bentolila L, Nguyen Q, Rougeon F. Differential splicing in mouse thymus generates two forms of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:1187-91 pubmed
    A new form of TdT mRNA has been identified by screening a mouse thymus cDNA library...
  4. Feeney A, Lawson B, Kono D, Theofilopoulos A. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deficiency decreases autoimmune disease in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. J Immunol. 2001;167:3486-93 pubmed
    ..much less diverse, and also very different from, the adult repertoires due to the delayed onset of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) expression in ontogeny...
  5. Robey I, Peterson M, Horwitz M, Kono D, Stratmann T, Theofilopoulos A, et al. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase deficiency decreases autoimmune disease in diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic mice and lupus-prone MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. J Immunol. 2004;172:4624-9 pubmed
    ..diversity of the T and B Ag receptor repertoires becomes even more extensive postneonatally due to the activity of TdT, which adds nontemplated N nucleotides to Ig and TCR coding ends during V(D)J recombination...
  6. Mahmoud T, Kearney J. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is required for an optimal response to the polysaccharide ?-1,3 dextran. J Immunol. 2010;184:851-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have investigated the role of the lymphoid-specific enzyme TdT in generating B cell clones responsive to alpha-1,3 dextran (DEX)...
  7. Schelonka R, Ivanov I, Vale A, Szymanska E, Zemlin M, Gartland G, et al. The CDR-H3 repertoire from TdT-deficient adult bone marrow is a close, but not exact, homologue of the CDR-H3 repertoire from perinatal liver. J Immunol. 2010;185:6075-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the extent to which these differences reflect limited perinatal TdT activity versus differences in the fetal/adult environment, we used the Hardy scheme to sort fractions B-F B ..
  8. Conde C, Weller S, Gilfillan S, Marcellin L, Martin T, Pasquali J. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deficiency reduces the incidence of autoimmune nephritis in (New Zealand Black x New Zealand White)F1 mice. J Immunol. 1998;161:7023-30 pubmed
    b>Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) enzyme activity in lymphocytes generates diversity in the Ag receptor repertoires by adding template-independent N nucleotides and disrupting homology-directed rearrangements...
  9. Gilfillan S, Dierich A, LeMeur M, Benoist C, Mathis D. Mice lacking TdT: mature animals with an immature lymphocyte repertoire. Science. 1993;261:1175-8 pubmed
    ..Receptor genes from adult mice carrying a mutation in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) gene have few N nucleotides, providing proof that this enzyme is essential for creating ..

More Information


  1. Koiwai O, Yokota T, Kageyama T, Hirose T, Yoshida S, Arai K. Isolation and characterization of bovine and mouse terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase cDNAs expressible in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:5777-92 pubmed
    We have isolated nearly full-length cDNA clones of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) from calf thymus and mouse lymphoma cDNA libraries...
  2. Benedict C, Kearney J. Increased junctional diversity in fetal B cells results in a loss of protective anti-phosphorylcholine antibodies in adult mice. Immunity. 1999;10:607-17 pubmed
    Fetal Igs are less diverse than adult Igs, largely because of the lack of N addition in the absence of Tdt. To test whether the absence of Tdt is essential, we generated Tg mice that express Tdt and add N regions in fetal B cells...
  3. Bentolila L, Wu G, Nourrit F, Fanton d Andon M, Rougeon F, Doyen N. Constitutive expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in transgenic mice is sufficient for N region diversity to occur at any Ig locus throughout B cell differentiation. J Immunol. 1997;158:715-23 pubmed
    ..regulated process in B and T cells that correlates with the differential expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)...
  4. Komori T, Okada A, Stewart V, Alt F. Lack of N regions in antigen receptor variable region genes of TdT-deficient lymphocytes. Science. 1993;261:1171-5 pubmed
    ..b>Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-deficient lymphocytes had no N regions in their variable region genes, which shows that TdT ..
  5. Doyen N, Boulé J, Rougeon F, Papanicolaou C. Evidence that the long murine terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase isoform plays no role in the control of V(D)J junctional diversity. J Immunol. 2004;172:6764-7 pubmed
    Two TdT isoforms have been found in the mouse. The short isoform is known to add N regions to gene segment junctions during V(D)J recombination, but the role of the long (TdTL) isoform is controversial...
  6. Molano I, Redmond S, Sekine H, Zhang X, Reilly C, Hutchison F, et al. Effect of genetic deficiency of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase on autoantibody production and renal disease in MRL/lpr mice. Clin Immunol. 2003;107:186-97 pubmed
    b>Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) places non-template-coded nucleotides (N additions) in the VH CDR3 of T cell receptors and immunoglobulins...
  7. Nguyen H, Zemlin M, Ivanov I, Andrasi J, Zemlin C, Vu H, et al. Heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus infection requires a properly diversified antibody repertoire. J Virol. 2007;81:9331-8 pubmed
    ..further evidence for the role of Abs in HSI using transgenic mice lacking terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase (TdT), which adds N nucleotides to V-D and D-J junctions of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) (TdT(-/-)) and ..
  8. Dao T, Guo D, Ploss A, Stolzer A, Saylor C, Boursalian T, et al. Development of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in the mouse thymus. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:3542-52 pubmed
    ..A unique and complete dependency for development on Fyn, a Src family kinase member, also distinguishes the NKT cell and conventional T cell populations. ..
  9. Nakajima P, Kiefer K, Price A, Bosma G, Bosma M. Two distinct populations of H chain-edited B cells show differential surrogate L chain dependence. J Immunol. 2009;182:3583-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the unique CDR3 region of the tg-encoded muH chain is responsible for the lambda5 independence of tg-expressing B cells...
  10. Mutt E, Sowdhamini R. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Structural Analysis to Decipher Functional Impact of a Twenty Residue Insert in the Ternary Complex of Mus musculus TdT Isoform. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157286 pubmed publisher
    ..a distal insert, which influences the function and stability of a unique DNA polymerase, called terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). TdT (EC:2.7.7...
  11. Delarue M, Boulé J, Lescar J, Expert Bezançon N, Jourdan N, Sukumar N, et al. Crystal structures of a template-independent DNA polymerase: murine terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. EMBO J. 2002;21:427-39 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the catalytic core of murine terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) at 2.35 A resolution reveals a typical DNA polymerase beta-like fold locked in a closed form...
  12. Zhang J, Yuan Y, Liu Q, Yang D, Liu M, Shen L, et al. Differentially expressed genes in the testicular tissues of adenylyl cyclase 3 knockout mice. Gene. 2017;602:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data would help elucidate the general understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sterility in AC3-/- male mice. ..
  13. Haeryfar S, Hickman H, Irvine K, Tscharke D, Bennink J, Yewdell J. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase establishes and broadens antiviral CD8+ T cell immunodominance hierarchies. J Immunol. 2008;181:649-59 pubmed
    The action of TdT on mouse TCR genes accounts for approximately 90% of T cell repertoire diversity...
  14. PENA DE ORTIZ S, Colon M, Carrasquillo Y, Padilla B, Arshavsky Y. Experience-dependent expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in mouse brain. Neuroreport. 2003;14:1141-4 pubmed
    b>Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), a template-independent DNA polymerase, contributes to antigen receptor diversity in lymphocytes...
  15. Bentolila L, Fanton d Andon M, Nguyen Q, Martinez O, Rougeon F, Doyen N. The two isoforms of mouse terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase differ in both the ability to add N regions and subcellular localization. EMBO J. 1995;14:4221-9 pubmed
    Two alternatively spliced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase transcripts, TdTS and TdTL which code respectively for proteins of 509 and 529 amino acids have been previously identified in the mouse thymus...
  16. Terszowski G, Müller S, Bleul C, Blum C, Schirmbeck R, Reimann J, et al. Evidence for a functional second thymus in mice. Science. 2006;312:284-7 pubmed
    ..The identification of a regular second thymus in the mouse may provide evolutionary links to thymus organogenesis in other vertebrates and suggests a need to reconsider the effect of thoracic thymectomy on de novo T cell production. ..
  17. Gardner J, Wildenberg S, Keiper N, Novak E, Rusiniak M, Swank R, et al. The mouse pale ear (ep) mutation is the homologue of human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9238-43 pubmed
    ..These results establish an animal model of HPS and will facilitate biochemical and molecular analyses of the functions of this protein in the membranes of specialized intracellular organelles. ..
  18. Weller S, Conde C, Knapp A, Levallois H, Gilfillan S, Pasquali J, et al. Autoantibodies in mice lacking terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase: evidence for a role of N region addition in the polyreactivity and in the affinities of anti-DNA antibodies. J Immunol. 1997;159:3890-8 pubmed
    The generation of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase knockout mice (TdT0) has demonstrated that TdT is the only major activity involved in N region addition...
  19. Watanabe T, Sakai Y, Miyawaki S, Shimizu A, Koiwai O, Ohno K. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 19, including the lpr, Ly-44, and Tdt genes. Biochem Genet. 1991;29:325-35 pubmed
    ..x MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr using the genes Ly-44 (lymphocyte differentiation antigen-44) and Tdt (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase) as markers...
  20. Makino Y, Kanno R, Koseki H, Taniguchi M. Development of Valpha4+ NK T cells in the early stages of embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:6516-20 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this demonstrates for the first time that a T lymphocyte subset develops in extrathymic tissues during the early stages of embryogenesis. ..
  21. Murray A, Simm B, Beagley K. Cytokine gene expression in murine fetal intestine: potential for extrathymic T cell development. Cytokine. 1998;10:337-45 pubmed
    ..factor gene expression, recombinase-activating gene RAG-1 and RAG-2 gene expression and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) gene expression in mouse fetal intestine and fetal thymus and liver, two known ..
  22. Texido G, Jacobs H, Meiering M, Kuhn R, Roes J, Muller W, et al. Somatic hypermutation occurs in B cells of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-, CD23-, interleukin-4-, IgD- and CD30-deficient mouse mutants. Eur J Immunol. 1996;26:1966-9 pubmed
  23. Glaser T, Matthews K, Hudson J, Seth P, Housman D, Crerar M. Localization of the muscle, liver, and brain glycogen phosphorylase genes on linkage maps of mouse chromosomes 19, 12, and 2, respectively. Genomics. 1989;5:510-21 pubmed
    ..However, muscle phosphorylase gene structure and expression appear to be unaltered in mdf/mdf mice, indicating that this mutation is not an animal model for the human genetic disorder McArdle's disease. ..
  24. Schelonka R, Ivanov I, Vale A, Dimmitt R, Khaled M, Schroeder H. Absence of N addition facilitates B cell development, but impairs immune responses. Immunogenetics. 2011;63:599-609 pubmed publisher
    ..and immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoires exhibit reduced junctional diversity due to physiologic terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) insufficiency...
  25. Appasamy P, Weng Y, Kenniston T, DeLeo A, Tang L. Expression of diverse and functional TCR gamma and Ig heavy chain transcripts in fetal liver cells cultured with interleukin-7. Mol Immunol. 1995;32:805-17 pubmed
    ..presumably in response to IL-7, because fresh (uncultured) FL cells do not produce detectable terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mRNA or protein...
  26. Landau N, St John T, Weissman I, Wolf S, Silverstone A, Baltimore D. Cloning of terminal transferase cDNA by antibody screening. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:5836-40 pubmed
    ..Only a small amount of genomic DNA hybridized to the longest available clone, indicating that the sequence is virtually unique in the mouse genome. ..
  27. Koiwai O, Kaneda T, Morishita R. Analysis of human terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase cDNA expressible in mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987;144:185-90 pubmed
    ..Nearly full-length human terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) cDNA was cloned using a fragment of bovine TdT cDNA as a probe...
  28. Benovic J, Onorato J, Arriza J, Stone W, Lohse M, Jenkins N, et al. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2. A new member of the receptor kinase family. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:14939-46 pubmed
    ..These data suggest the existence of a "family" of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function. ..
  29. Cabaniols J, Fazilleau N, Casrouge A, Kourilsky P, Kanellopoulos J. Most alpha/beta T cell receptor diversity is due to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1385-90 pubmed
    ..T cell receptor (TCR)alpha/beta repertoire in mice bearing a null mutation on both alleles of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt) gene...
  30. Aono A, Enomoto H, Yoshida N, Yoshizaki K, Kishimoto T, Komori T. Forced expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in fetal thymus resulted in a decrease in gammadelta T cells and random dissemination of Vgamma3Vdelta1 T cells in skin of newborn but not adult mice. Immunology. 2000;99:489-97 pubmed
    ..of processes, including the template-independent addition of nucleotides (N regions) by means of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)...
  31. Yang Feng T, Landau N, Baltimore D, Francke U. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase gene is located on human chromosome 10 (10q23----q24) and on mouse chromosome 19. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1986;43:121-6 pubmed
    Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) is a DNA polymerase expressed in immature lymphocytes of the thymus and bone marrow, as well as certain leukemic cells...
  32. Boule -, Rougeon -, Papanicolaou -. Comparison of the two murine terminal deoxynucleo- tidyltransferase isoforms. A 20-amino acid insertion in the highly conserved carboxyl-terminal region modifies the thermosensitivity but not the catalytic activity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33184 pubmed
  33. Watanabe Fukunaga R, Brannan C, Itoh N, Yonehara S, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. The cDNA structure, expression, and chromosomal assignment of the mouse Fas antigen. J Immunol. 1992;148:1274-9 pubmed
    ..Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the gene coding for the Fas antigen is in the distal region of mouse chromosome 19. ..
  34. Volpe G, Clarke M, Garcìa P, Walton D, Vegiopoulos A, Del Pozzo W, et al. Regulation of the Flt3 Gene in Haematopoietic Stem and Early Progenitor Cells. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138257 pubmed publisher
    ..This cooperation is cell context dependent and indicates that MYB and C/EBPα activities are inter-dependent in controlling Flt3 expression to influence lineage commitment of multipotential progenitors. ..
  35. Copeland N, Jenkins N, Harvey R. The murine homeobox genes Nkx2.3 and Nkx2.6 are located on chromosomes 19 and 14, respectively. Genomics. 1994;22:655-6 pubmed
  36. Kedzierska K, Thomas P, Venturi V, Davenport M, Doherty P, Turner S, et al. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase is required for the establishment of private virus-specific CD8+ TCR repertoires and facilitates optimal CTL responses. J Immunol. 2008;181:2556-62 pubmed
    ..Because public TCRs can show reduced TdT-mediated N-region additions, we analyzed how TdT shapes the heavily public (to D(b)NP(366)) and essentially private ..
  37. Copeland N, Gilbert D, Li K, Sawamura D, Giudice G, Chu M, et al. Chromosomal localization of mouse bullous pemphigoid antigens. BPAG1 and BPAG2: identification of a new region of homology between mouse and human chromosomes. Genomics. 1993;15:180-1 pubmed
    ..Bpag-2 mapped to the distal end of mouse chromosome 19 in a region of homology to human chromosome 10q. These assignments confirm and extend the relationships between the human and the mouse chromosomes. ..
  38. Fazilleau N, Cabaniols J, Lemaitre F, Motta I, Kourilsky P, Kanellopoulos J. Valpha and Vbeta public repertoires are highly conserved in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2005;174:345-55 pubmed
    ..the alphabeta TCRs specific for several CD4 or CD8 epitopes of wild-type mice and of mice deficient in the enzyme TdT. We find that V, (D), J usage identified in public repertoires is strikingly conserved in TdT(o/o) mice, even for ..
  39. Repasky J, Corbett E, Boboila C, Schatz D. Mutational analysis of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated N-nucleotide addition in V(D)J recombination. J Immunol. 2004;172:5478-88 pubmed
    ..N) nucleotides to coding ends in V(D)J recombination is the result of the action of a unique DNA polymerase, TdT. Although N-nucleotide addition by TdT plays a critical role in the generation of a diverse repertoire of Ag ..
  40. Schoenborn M, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Gayle R, Maliszewski C. Gene structure and chromosome location of mouse Cd39 coding for an ecto-apyrase. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;81:287-9 pubmed
  41. Holloway A, Della N, Fletcher C, Largespada D, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. Chromosomal mapping of five highly conserved murine homologues of the Drosophila RING finger gene seven-in-absentia. Genomics. 1997;41:160-8 pubmed
    ..By comparing the complexity of the Siah genes in these two mammalian species we have gained further insight into which members of this murine multigene family are likely to be functional. ..
  42. Benedict C, Gilfillan S, Kearney J. The long isoform of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase enters the nucleus and, rather than catalyzing nontemplated nucleotide addition, modulates the catalytic activity of the short isoform. J Exp Med. 2001;193:89-99 pubmed
    During variable/diversity/joining (V[D]J) recombination, the enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt) adds random nucleotides at the junctions of the rearranging gene segments, increasing diversity of the antibody (Ab) and T ..
  43. Bertocci B, De Smet A, Weill J, Reynaud C. Nonoverlapping functions of DNA polymerases mu, lambda, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase during immunoglobulin V(D)J recombination in vivo. Immunity. 2006;25:31-41 pubmed
    DNA polymerases mu (pol mu), lambda (pol lambda), and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) are enzymes of the pol X family that share homology in sequence and functional domain organization...
  44. Boulé J, Rougeon F, Papanicolaou C. Comparison of the two murine terminal [corrected] deoxynucleotidyltransferase terminal isoforms. A 20-amino acid insertion in the highly conserved carboxyl-terminal region modifies the thermosensitivity but not the catalytic activity. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28984-8 pubmed
    Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to 3'-hydroxyl ends of DNA strands in a template-independent manner and has been shown to add N-regions to gene segment junctions during V(D)J recombination...
  45. Keller S, Jones J, Boyle A, Barrow L, Killen P, Green D, et al. Kidney and retinal defects (Krd), a transgene-induced mutation with a deletion of mouse chromosome 19 that includes the Pax2 locus. Genomics. 1994;23:309-20 pubmed
    ..This deletion, Del(19)TgN8052Mm, will be useful for genetic and functional studies of this region of mouse Chromosome 19. ..
  46. Aruga J, Yoshikawa F, Nozaki Y, Sakaki Y, Toyoda A, Furuichi T. An oligodendrocyte enhancer in a phylogenetically conserved intron region of the mammalian myelin gene Opalin. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1533-1547 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that LIF, cAMP signaling cascades and Myt1 play significant roles in the differentiation of oligodendrocytes through their action on the Opalin oligodendrocyte enhancer...
  47. Holodick N, Vizconde T, Rothstein T. B-1a cell diversity: nontemplated addition in B-1a cell Ig is determined by progenitor population and developmental location. J Immunol. 2014;192:2432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..natural Ab that binds pneumococcal Ags, but this Ig contains substantial N-addition despite initial absence of TdT. Furthermore, we show extensive N-addition is also present in B-1a cells derived from the Lin(-)CD45R(low/-)CD19(+) ..
  48. O Brien E, Novak E, Keller S, Poirier C, Guenet J, Swank R. Molecular map of chromosome 19 including three genes affecting bleeding time: ep, ru, and bm. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:356-60 pubmed
    ..Several markers were found to be closely linked to the three genes and should be useful as entry points in their eventual molecular identification. ..
  49. Andrade P, Martín M, Juarez R, López de Saro F, Blanco L. Limited terminal transferase in human DNA polymerase mu defines the required balance between accuracy and efficiency in NHEJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..residue (Arg(387)) that is responsible for its limited terminal transferase activity compared to that of human TdT, its closest homologue (42% amino acid identity)...
  50. Payne K, Medina K, Kincade P. Loss of c-kit accompanies B-lineage commitment and acquisition of CD45R by most murine B-lymphocyte precursors. Blood. 1999;94:713-23 pubmed
    Using surface markers, we identified two bone marrow (BM) subsets enriched for TdT+ cells on the brink of CD45R acquisition. These two populations, Lin-c-kitLo and Lin-c-kit-, consisting of 35.4% and 7...
  51. Watson L, Moffatt Blue C, McDonald R, Kompfner E, Ait Azzouzene D, Nemazee D, et al. Paucity of V-D-D-J rearrangements and VH replacement events in lupus prone and nonautoimmune TdT-/- and TdT+/+ mice. J Immunol. 2006;177:1120-8 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that newborn mice, which lack TdT due to the late onset of its expression, do not contain any CDR3 with D-D rearrangements...
  52. Watanabe T, Sakai Y, Hanai A, Masaki S, Ohno K, Miyawaki S, et al. A new allele at the lpr gene on mouse chromosome 19 expresses properties different from the original recessive mutation. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:346-7 pubmed
  53. Dominguez O, Ruiz J, Lain de Lera T, Garcia Diaz M, Gonzalez M, Kirchhoff T, et al. DNA polymerase mu (Pol mu), homologous to TdT, could act as a DNA mutator in eukaryotic cells. EMBO J. 2000;19:1731-42 pubmed
    ..polymerase mu (Pol mu), consisting of 494 amino acids, has 41% identity to terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT)...
  54. Molano I, Wloch M, Alexander A, Watanabe H, Gilkeson G. Effect of a genetic deficiency of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase on autoantibody production by C57BL6 Fas(lpr) mice. Clin Immunol. 2000;94:24-32 pubmed
    b>Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) adds nontemplate coded nucleotides (N additions) between the recombining ends of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes...
  55. Fazilleau N, Delarasse C, Motta I, Fillatreau S, Gougeon M, Kourilsky P, et al. T cell repertoire diversity is required for relapses in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2007;178:4865-75 pubmed
    ..of TCRalphabeta repertoires of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific T lymphocytes in C57BL/6 and TdT-deficient littermates (TdT(-/-)) generated during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) highlights a link ..
  56. Jonkers J, Korswagen H, Acton D, Breuer M, Berns A. Activation of a novel proto-oncogene, Frat1, contributes to progression of mouse T-cell lymphomas. EMBO J. 1997;16:441-50 pubmed
  57. Disteche C, Brannan C, Larsen A, Adler D, Schorderet D, Gearing D, et al. The human pseudoautosomal GM-CSF receptor alpha subunit gene is autosomal in mouse. Nat Genet. 1992;1:333-6 pubmed