Gene Symbol: Dnd1
Description: DND microRNA-mediated repression inhibitor 1
Alias: BC034897, RBMS4, Ter, dead end protein homolog 1, RNA-binding motif, single-stranded-interacting protein 4, dead end homolog 1, teratoma
Species: mouse
Products:     Dnd1

Top Publications

  1. Noguchi T, Noguchi M. A recessive mutation (ter) causing germ cell deficiency and a high incidence of congenital testicular teratomas in 129/Sv-ter mice. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1985;75:385-92 pubmed
    ..The germ cell deficiency resulted from the homozygous state of a recessive mutant gene designated "teratoma (ter)...
  2. Nelson V, Heaney J, Tesar P, Davidson N, Nadeau J. Transgenerational epigenetic effects of the Apobec1 cytidine deaminase deficiency on testicular germ cell tumor susceptibility and embryonic viability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2766-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The Deadend1 (Dnd1) gene enhances susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) in mice, in part by interacting epigenetically ..
  3. Cook M, Munger S, Nadeau J, Capel B. Regulation of male germ cell cycle arrest and differentiation by DND1 is modulated by genetic background. Development. 2011;138:23-32 pubmed publisher
    Human germ cell tumors show a strong sensitivity to genetic background similar to Dnd1(Ter/Ter) mutant mice, where testicular teratomas arise only on the 129/SvJ genetic background...
  4. Zhu R, HEANEY J, Nadeau J, Ali S, Matin A. Deficiency of splicing factor 1 suppresses the occurrence of testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer Res. 2010;70:7264-72 pubmed publisher
    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) originate from germ cells. The 129-Ter and M19 (129.MOLF-Chr19 consomic) mouse strains have extremely high incidences of TGCTs...
  5. Bhattacharya C, Aggarwal S, Kumar M, Ali A, Matin A. Mouse apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 (APOBEC3) is expressed in germ cells and interacts with dead-end (DND1). PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2315 pubmed publisher
    The dead-end (Dnd1) gene is essential for maintaining the viability of germ cells. Inactivation of Dnd1 results in sterility and testicular tumors...
  6. Matin A. What leads from dead-end?. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:1317-22 pubmed
    ..Ter was identified to be a mutation that inactivates the Dead-end1 (Dnd1) gene...
  7. Youngren K, Coveney D, Peng X, Bhattacharya C, Schmidt L, Nickerson M, et al. The Ter mutation in the dead end gene causes germ cell loss and testicular germ cell tumours. Nature. 2005;435:360-4 pubmed
    ..positional cloning of Ter, revealing a point mutation that introduces a termination codon in the mouse orthologue (Dnd1) of the zebrafish dead end (dnd) gene...
  8. Stevens L. A new inbred subline of mice (129-terSv) with a high incidence of spontaneous congenital testicular teratomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1973;50:235-42 pubmed
  9. Bhattacharya C, Aggarwal S, Zhu R, Kumar M, Zhao M, Meistrich M, et al. The mouse dead-end gene isoform alpha is necessary for germ cell and embryonic viability. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:194-9 pubmed
    Inactivation of the dead-end (Dnd1) gene in the Ter mouse strain results in depletion of primordial germ cells (PGCs) so that mice become sterile...

More Information


  1. Zhu R, Bhattacharya C, Matin A. The role of dead-end in germ-cell tumor development. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1120:181-6 pubmed
    ..Here a brief overview of the recently identified genetic defect in the Ter strain, inactivation of the dead-end (Dnd1) gene, and the ongoing studies on Dnd1 to understand its role in germ-cell and germ cell-tumor development, are ..
  2. Weidinger G, Stebler J, Slanchev K, Dumstrei K, Wise C, Lovell Badge R, et al. dead end, a novel vertebrate germ plasm component, is required for zebrafish primordial germ cell migration and survival. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1429-34 pubmed
    ..We have identified dead end orthologs in other vertebrates including Xenopus, mouse, and chick, where they are expressed in germ plasm and germ-line cells, suggesting a role in germ-line development in these organisms as well. ..
  3. Lam M, Heaney J, Youngren K, Kawasoe J, Nadeau J. Trans-generational epistasis between Dnd1Ter and other modifier genes controls susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2233-40 pubmed
    ..Any of six genetic variants, in either the female or male parent interacted with the Dnd1(Ter) mutation in male offspring to significantly increase both the frequency of affected Ter/+ males and the ..
  4. Takabayashi S, Sasaoka Y, Yamashita M, Tokumoto T, Ishikawa K, Noguchi M. Novel growth factor supporting survival of murine primordial germ cells: evidence from conditioned medium of ter fetal gonadal somatic cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2001;60:384-96 pubmed
    The ter (teratoma, chromosome 18) mutation causes a deficiency of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in ter/ter embryos from the ter congenic mouse strain at 8.0 days post coitum (dpc)...
  5. Sakurai T, Katoh H, Moriwaki K, Noguchi T, Noguchi M. The ter primordial germ cell deficiency mutation maps near Grl-1 on mouse chromosome 18. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:333-6 pubmed
    A single recessive gene, ter (teratoma), causes germ cell deficiency and a high incidence of congenital testicular teratomas in the 129/Sv-ter strain of the mouse...
  6. Lam M, Nadeau J. Genetic control of susceptibility to spontaneous testicular germ cell tumors in mice. APMIS. 2003;111:184-90; discussion 191 pubmed
    ..interact with 129/Sv-derived susceptibility genes to enhance or suppress susceptibility; two of these mutations (Ter and Trp53) revealed novel linkages for susceptibility genes in sensitized polygenic trait analysis...
  7. Zechel J, Doerner S, Lager A, Tesar P, Heaney J, Nadeau J. Contrasting effects of Deadend1 (Dnd1) gain and loss of function mutations on allelic inheritance, testicular cancer, and intestinal polyposis. BMC Genet. 2013;14:54 pubmed publisher
    Certain mutations in the Deadend1 (Dnd1) gene are the most potent modifiers of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) susceptibility in mice and rats...
  8. Hammond S, Zhu R, Youngren K, Lam J, Anderson P, Matin A. Chromosome X modulates incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in Ter mice. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:832-8 pubmed
    ..We found that these defects in Ter mice are due to mutational inactivation of the Dead-end (Dnd1) gene. Here we report that chromosome X modulates germ cell tumor development in Ter mice...
  9. Suzuki A, Niimi Y, Shinmyozu K, Zhou Z, Kiso M, Saga Y. Dead end1 is an essential partner of NANOS2 for selective binding of target RNAs in male germ cell development. EMBO Rep. 2016;17:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanisms involved in target specificity remain elusive. We show that another RBP, Dead end1 (DND1), directly interacts with NANOS2 to load unique RNAs into the CNOT complex...
  10. Cook M, Coveney D, Batchvarov I, Nadeau J, Capel B. BAX-mediated cell death affects early germ cell loss and incidence of testicular teratomas in Dnd1(Ter/Ter) mice. Dev Biol. 2009;328:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Male mutants on other genetic backgrounds ultimately lose all PGCs with no incidence of teratoma formation...
  11. Weber S, Eckert D, Nettersheim D, Gillis A, Schäfer S, Kuckenberg P, et al. Critical function of AP-2 gamma/TCFAP2C in mouse embryonic germ cell maintenance. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate Tcfap2c as an important effector of Prdm1 activity that is required for PGC maintenance, most likely mediating Prdm1-induced suppression of mesodermal differentiation. ..
  12. Stevens L, Little C. Spontaneous Testicular Teratomas in an Inbred Strain of Mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1954;40:1080-7 pubmed
  13. Ali S, Karki N, Bhattacharya C, Zhu R, MacDuff D, Stenglein M, et al. APOBEC3 inhibits DEAD-END function to regulate microRNA activity. BMC Mol Biol. 2013;14:16 pubmed publisher
    The RNA binding protein DEAD-END (DND1) is one of the few proteins known to regulate microRNA (miRNA) activity at the level of miRNA-mRNA interaction...
  14. Yamaji M, Jishage M, Meyer C, Suryawanshi H, Der E, Yamaji M, et al. DND1 maintains germline stem cells via recruitment of the CCR4-NOT complex to target mRNAs. Nature. 2017;543:568-572 pubmed publisher
    The vertebrate-conserved RNA-binding protein DND1 is required for the survival of primordial germ cells (PGCs), as well as the suppression of germ cell tumours in mice...
  15. Anderson P, Lam M, Poirier C, Bishop C, Nadeau J. The role of the mouse y chromosome on susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that a Y-linked gene that does not differ among the tested strains is essential for tumorigenesis...
  16. Matin A, Collin G, Varnum D, Nadeau J. Testicular teratocarcinogenesis in mice--a review. APMIS. 1998;106:174-82 pubmed
    ..We are taking advantage of the Ter mutation to simplify the genetic analysis...
  17. Staats J. Standardized Nomenclature for Inbred Strains of Mice: eighth listing. Cancer Res. 1985;45:945-77 pubmed
    ..This paper presents a list of inbred strains of mice with their origins and characteristics, and a list of standard subline designations. ..
  18. Bustamante Marin X, Cook M, Gooding J, Newgard C, Capel B. Left-Biased Spermatogenic Failure in 129/SvJ Dnd1Ter/+ Mice Correlates with Differences in Vascular Architecture, Oxygen Availability, and Metabolites. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:78 pubmed publisher
    Homozygosity for the Ter mutation in the RNA-binding protein Dead end 1 (Dnd1(Ter/Ter)) sensitizes germ cells to degeneration in all mouse strains...
  19. Matin A, Nadeau J. Search for testicular cancer gene hits dead-end. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1136-8 pubmed
    ..b>Ter is one of the most potent cancer modifiers genes known; it is a single gene mutation that causes progressive loss ..
  20. Asada Y, Varnum D, Frankel W, Nadeau J. A mutation in the Ter gene causing increased susceptibility to testicular teratomas maps to mouse chromosome 18. Nat Genet. 1994;6:363-8 pubmed
    Little is known about inherited susceptibility to spontaneous germ cells tumours in humans or other species. The Ter mutation in laboratory mice is novel in that it acts codominantly to reduce germ cell numbers on many inbred strain ..
  21. Nadeau J. Do Gametes Woo? Evidence for Their Nonrandom Union at Fertilization. Genetics. 2017;207:369-387 pubmed publisher