Gene Symbol: Dlx5
Description: distal-less homeobox 5
Alias: AI385752, homeobox protein DLX-5
Species: mouse
Products:     Dlx5

Top Publications

  1. Perera M, Merlo G, Verardo S, Paleari L, Corte G, Levi G. Defective neuronogenesis in the absence of Dlx5. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;25:153-61 pubmed
    ..Single or compound inactivation of Dlx1, Dlx2, or Dlx5 in the mouse causes defects of neuronal migration and differentiation...
  2. Merlo G, Mantero S, Zaghetto A, Peretto P, Paina S, Gozzo M. The role of Dlx homeogenes in early development of the olfactory pathway. J Mol Histol. 2007;38:347-58 pubmed
    ..Little is known about the genetic control of intrinsic ORN properties. Inactivation of the distalless-related Dlx5 prevents connections between ORNs and FB...
  3. Ishii M, Han J, Yen H, Sucov H, Chai Y, Maxson R. Combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause impaired patterning and survival of the cranial neural crest. Development. 2005;132:4937-50 pubmed
    ..This increase in apoptosis may contribute to the mispatterning of the cranial ganglia and the hypoplasia of the first arch. ..
  4. Wang W, Chan E, Baron S, Van de Water T, Lufkin T. Hmx2 homeobox gene control of murine vestibular morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5017-29 pubmed
    ..The developmental regulators Bmp4, Dlx5 and Pax2 all play a critical role in inner ear ontogeny, and the expression of each of these genes is affected in ..
  5. Tavares A, Garcia E, Kuhn K, Woods C, Williams T, Clouthier D. Ectodermal-derived Endothelin1 is required for patterning the distal and intermediate domains of the mouse mandibular arch. Dev Biol. 2012;371:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results illustrate an integral role for ectoderm-derived Edn1 in early arch morphogenesis, particularly in the intermediate domain...
  6. Merlo G, Zerega B, Paleari L, Trombino S, Mantero S, Levi G. Multiple functions of Dlx genes. Int J Dev Biol. 2000;44:619-26 pubmed
    ..In addition, Dlx5 and Dlx6 are expressed in differentiating osteoblasts...
  7. Jin Y, Turcotte T, Crocker A, Han X, Yoon J. The canonical Wnt signaling activator, R-spondin2, regulates craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis within the branchial arch through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction. Dev Biol. 2011;352:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Rspo2 regulates expression of the Dlx5, Dlx6, and Hand2 genes in mesenchymal cells via inducing expression of their upstream activator, Endothelin1 (Edn1),..
  8. Depew M, Liu J, Long J, Presley R, Meneses J, Pedersen R, et al. Dlx5 regulates regional development of the branchial arches and sensory capsules. Development. 1999;126:3831-46 pubmed
    We report the generation and analysis of mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the Dlx5 homeobox gene...
  9. Lee M, Kim Y, Park H, Kang A, Kyung H, Sung J, et al. BMP-2-induced Runx2 expression is mediated by Dlx5, and TGF-beta 1 opposes the BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation by suppression of Dlx5 expression. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34387-94 pubmed
    ..We found that Dlx5 is specifically expressed in osteogenic cells, and is specifically induced by BMP-2 or -4 signaling but not by ..

More Information


  1. Ferguson C, Tucker A, Sharpe P. Temporospatial cell interactions regulating mandibular and maxillary arch patterning. Development. 2000;127:403-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, whereas both mandibular and maxillary arch epithelia could induce Dlx2 and Dlx5 expression in the mandible and Dlx2 expression in the maxilla, neither could induce Dlx5 expression in the maxilla...
  2. Horike S, Cai S, Miyano M, Cheng J, Kohwi Shigematsu T. Loss of silent-chromatin looping and impaired imprinting of DLX5 in Rett syndrome. Nat Genet. 2005;37:31-40 pubmed
    ..Several sequences mapped to an imprinted gene cluster on chromosome 6, including Dlx5 and Dlx6, whose transcription was roughly two times greater in brains of Mecp2-null mice compared with those of ..
  3. Lilleväli K, Matilainen T, Karis A, Salminen M. Partially overlapping expression of Gata2 and Gata3 during inner ear development. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:775-81 pubmed
    ..5 and Gata3 expression was unchanged. In contrast, a delay and strong reduction of Gata2 expression was detected in Gata3-/- otic epithelium...
  4. Hsu S, Noamani B, Abernethy D, Zhu H, Levi G, Bendall A. Dlx5- and Dlx6-mediated chondrogenesis: Differential domain requirements for a conserved function. Mech Dev. 2006;123:819-30 pubmed
    ..b>Dlx5 and Dlx6 are functionally redundant regulators of chondrocyte hypertrophy...
  5. Simeone A, Acampora D, Pannese M, D ESPOSITO M, Stornaiuolo A, Gulisano M, et al. Cloning and characterization of two members of the vertebrate Dlx gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:2250-4 pubmed
    ..We cloned and studied the expression of two members of this family, which we named Dlx5 and Dlx6, in human and mouse...
  6. Feng J, Bi C, Clark B, Mady R, Shah P, Kohtz J. The Evf-2 noncoding RNA is transcribed from the Dlx-5/6 ultraconserved region and functions as a Dlx-2 transcriptional coactivator. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1470-84 pubmed
  7. Casarosa S, Fode C, Guillemot F. Mash1 regulates neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon. Development. 1999;126:525-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Mash1 is an important regulator of neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon, where it is required both to specify neuronal precursors and to control the timing of their production. ..
  8. Merlo G, Paleari L, Mantero S, Genova F, Beverdam A, Palmisano G, et al. Mouse model of split hand/foot malformation type I. Genesis. 2002;33:97-101 pubmed
    ..3-q22, a region that includes the distal-less-related (dll) genes DLX5 and DLX6...
  9. Pirvola U, Zhang X, Mantela J, Ornitz D, Ylikoski J. Fgf9 signaling regulates inner ear morphogenesis through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Dev Biol. 2004;273:350-60 pubmed
    ..Together, these data show that Fgf9 signaling is required for inner ear morphogenesis. ..
  10. Beverdam A, Merlo G, Paleari L, Mantero S, Genova F, Barbieri O, et al. Jaw transformation with gain of symmetry after Dlx5/Dlx6 inactivation: mirror of the past?. Genesis. 2002;34:221-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that simultaneous inactivation of the murine homeobox genes Dlx5 and Dlx6 results in the transformation of the lower jaw into an upper jaw and in symmetry of the snout...
  11. Colombo E, Galli R, Cossu G, Gecz J, Broccoli V. Mouse orthologue of ARX, a gene mutated in several X-linked forms of mental retardation and epilepsy, is a marker of adult neural stem cells and forebrain GABAergic neurons. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:631-9 pubmed
    ..is enhanced during differentiation of the subpallial structures of the ganglionic eminences, overlapping with Dlx2, Dlx5, and Gad1 transcriptional domains...
  12. Riccomagno M, Takada S, Epstein D. Wnt-dependent regulation of inner ear morphogenesis is balanced by the opposing and supporting roles of Shh. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1612-23 pubmed
    ..signaling is active in dorsal regions of the otic vesicle, where it functions to regulate the expression of genes (Dlx5/6 and Gbx2) necessary for vestibular morphogenesis...
  13. Chin H, Fisher M, Li Y, Ferrari D, Wang C, Lichtler A, et al. Studies on the role of Dlx5 in regulation of chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral ossification in the developing mouse limb. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:515-21 pubmed
    The homeodomain transcription factor Dlx5 has been implicated in the regulation of chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation during endochondral ossification in the developing limb...
  14. Trumpp A, Depew M, Rubenstein J, Bishop J, Martin G. Cre-mediated gene inactivation demonstrates that FGF8 is required for cell survival and patterning of the first branchial arch. Genes Dev. 1999;13:3136-48 pubmed
    ..Because the mutant mice resemble humans with first arch syndromes that include agnathia, our results raise the possibility that some of these syndromes are caused by mutations that affect FGF8 signaling in BA1 ectoderm...
  15. Lilleväli K, Haugas M, Matilainen T, Pussinen C, Karis A, Salminen M. Gata3 is required for early morphogenesis and Fgf10 expression during otic development. Mech Dev. 2006;123:415-29 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of Gata3 leads also to a loss of Fgf10 expression in otic epithelium and auditory ganglion demonstrating that Gata3 is an important regulator of Fgf-signalling during otic development. ..
  16. Qiu M, Bulfone A, Martinez S, Meneses J, Shimamura K, Pedersen R, et al. Null mutation of Dlx-2 results in abnormal morphogenesis of proximal first and second branchial arch derivatives and abnormal differentiation in the forebrain. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2523-38 pubmed
    ..These results show that Dlx-2 controls development of the branchial arches and the forebrain and suggests its role in craniofacial evolution. ..
  17. Anderson S, Qiu M, Bulfone A, Eisenstat D, Meneses J, Pedersen R, et al. Mutations of the homeobox genes Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 disrupt the striatal subventricular zone and differentiation of late born striatal neurons. Neuron. 1997;19:27-37 pubmed
    ..Several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 produce abnormalities in the development of the striatal subventricular zone and in the differentiation of striatal matrix neurons. ..
  18. Levi G, Puche A, Mantero S, Barbieri O, Trombino S, Paleari L, et al. The Dlx5 homeodomain gene is essential for olfactory development and connectivity in the mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;22:530-43 pubmed
    The distalless-related homeogene Dlx5 is expressed in the olfactory placodes and derived tissues and in the anterior-basal forebrain. We investigated the role of Dlx5 in olfactory development...
  19. Bendall A, Hu G, Levi G, Abate Shen C. Dlx5 regulates chondrocyte differentiation at multiple stages. Int J Dev Biol. 2003;47:335-44 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the expression of Dlx5 in the cartilaginous core of limb skeletal elements in chicken and mouse embryos...
  20. Zhang H, Hu G, Wang H, Sciavolino P, Iler N, Shen M, et al. Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2920-32 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the expression patterns of representative Msx and Dlx genes (Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, and Dlx5) overlap in mouse embryogenesis during limb bud and craniofacial development, consistent with the potential for ..
  21. Sussel L, Marin O, Kimura S, Rubenstein J. Loss of Nkx2.1 homeobox gene function results in a ventral to dorsal molecular respecification within the basal telencephalon: evidence for a transformation of the pallidum into the striatum. Development. 1999;126:3359-70 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that these phenotypes result from a ventral-to-dorsal transformation of the pallidal primordium into a striatal-like anlage. ..
  22. Sato T, Kurihara Y, Asai R, Kawamura Y, Tonami K, Uchijima Y, et al. An endothelin-1 switch specifies maxillomandibular identity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The endothelin-1 (Edn1)/endothelin receptor type-A (Ednra)-->Dlx5/6-->Hand2 signaling pathway is necessary for lower jaw formation...
  23. Paina S, Garzotto D, Demarchis S, Marino M, Moiana A, Conti L, et al. Wnt5a is a transcriptional target of Dlx homeogenes and promotes differentiation of interneuron progenitors in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci. 2011;31:2675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Dlx2 and Dlx5 interact with homeodomain binding sequences within the Wnt5a locus and activate its transcription...
  24. Compagnucci C, Debiais Thibaud M, Coolen M, Fish J, Griffin J, Bertocchini F, et al. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula. Dev Biol. 2013;377:428-48 pubmed publisher
  25. Heude E, Bouhali K, Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Couly G, Janvier P, et al. Jaw muscularization requires Dlx expression by cranial neural crest cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, inactivation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 in the mouse results in loss of jaw muscles...
  26. Depew M, Lufkin T, Rubenstein J. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science. 2002;298:381-5 pubmed
    ..mechanisms that specify the identity of skeletal elements within the arches, we examined mice lacking expression of Dlx5 and Dlx6, linked homeobox genes expressed distally but not proximally within the arches...
  27. Qiu M, Bulfone A, Ghattas I, Meneses J, Christensen L, Sharpe P, et al. Role of the Dlx homeobox genes in proximodistal patterning of the branchial arches: mutations of Dlx-1, Dlx-2, and Dlx-1 and -2 alter morphogenesis of proximal skeletal and soft tissue structures derived from the first and second arches. Dev Biol. 1997;185:165-84 pubmed
    ..Finally, the Dlx-2 and Dlx-1 and -2 mutants have ectopic skull components that resemble bones and cartilages found in phylogenetically more primitive vertebrates. ..
  28. Kawauchi S, Shou J, Santos R, Hebert J, McConnell S, Mason I, et al. Fgf8 expression defines a morphogenetic center required for olfactory neurogenesis and nasal cavity development in the mouse. Development. 2005;132:5211-23 pubmed
  29. Lin Z, Cantos R, Patente M, Wu D. Gbx2 is required for the morphogenesis of the mouse inner ear: a downstream candidate of hindbrain signaling. Development. 2005;132:2309-18 pubmed
    ..fates such as the endolymphatic duct and semicircular canals by positively regulating genes such as Wnt2b and Dlx5. However, Gbx2 promotes ventral fates such as the saccule and cochlear duct, possibly by restricting Otx2 expression...
  30. Zerucha T, Stühmer T, Hatch G, Park B, Long Q, Yu G, et al. A highly conserved enhancer in the Dlx5/Dlx6 intergenic region is the site of cross-regulatory interactions between Dlx genes in the embryonic forebrain. J Neurosci. 2000;20:709-21 pubmed
    Four Dlx homeobox genes, Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5, and Dlx6 are expressed in the same primordia of the mouse forebrain with temporally overlapping patterns...
  31. Robledo R, Rajan L, Li X, Lufkin T. The Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are essential for craniofacial, axial, and appendicular skeletal development. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1089-101 pubmed
    ..In addition, human Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes have been identified as possible candidate genes for the autosomal dominant form of the ..
  32. Lo Iacono N, Mantero S, Chiarelli A, Garcia E, Mills A, Morasso M, et al. Regulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 gene expression by p63 is involved in EEC and SHFM congenital limb defects. Development. 2008;135:1377-88 pubmed publisher
    ..are known in humans; the most common (type-I) is linked to deletions of DSS1 and the distalless-related homeogenes DLX5 and DLX6...
  33. Zhou Q, Le T, Qiu X, Spencer V, de Melo J, Du G, et al. Identification of a direct Dlx homeodomain target in the developing mouse forebrain and retina by optimization of chromatin immunoprecipitation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:884-92 pubmed
    ..double knockout mice die at birth with multiple defects including abnormal forebrain development and decreased Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression...
  34. Robledo R, Lufkin T. Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are required for specification of the mammalian vestibular apparatus. Genesis. 2006;44:425-37 pubmed
    ..and is observed in patients with split hand/split foot malformation, a malformation which is phenocopied by Dlx5/6 null mice...
  35. Wang W, Grimmer J, Van De Water T, Lufkin T. Hmx2 and Hmx3 homeobox genes direct development of the murine inner ear and hypothalamus and can be functionally replaced by Drosophila Hmx. Dev Cell. 2004;7:439-53 pubmed
  36. Levi G, Mantero S, Barbieri O, Cantatore D, Paleari L, Beverdam A, et al. Msx1 and Dlx5 act independently in development of craniofacial skeleton, but converge on the regulation of Bmp signaling in palate formation. Mech Dev. 2006;123:3-16 pubmed
    ..In this report we examine the skeletal phenotype of Msx1; Dlx5 double knock-out (DKO) mice in relationship with their expression territories during craniofacial development...
  37. Stühmer T, Anderson S, Ekker M, Rubenstein J. Ectopic expression of the Dlx genes induces glutamic acid decarboxylase and Dlx expression. Development. 2002;129:245-52 pubmed
    ..This approach showed that ectopic expression of Dlx2 and Dlx5 induced the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylases (GADs), the enzymes that synthesize GABA...
  38. Merlo G, Paleari L, Mantero S, Zerega B, Adamska M, Rinkwitz S, et al. The Dlx5 homeobox gene is essential for vestibular morphogenesis in the mouse embryo through a BMP4-mediated pathway. Dev Biol. 2002;248:157-69 pubmed
    In the mouse embryo, Dlx5 is expressed in the otic placode and vesicle, and later in the semicircular canals of the inner ear...
  39. Cobos I, Calcagnotto M, Vilaythong A, Thwin M, Noebels J, Baraban S, et al. Mice lacking Dlx1 show subtype-specific loss of interneurons, reduced inhibition and epilepsy. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1059-68 pubmed
    ..Dlx1 mutant mice show generalized electrographic seizures and histological evidence of seizure-induced reorganization, linking the Dlx1 mutation to delayed-onset epilepsy associated with interneuron loss. ..
  40. Bensoussan Trigano V, Lallemand Y, Saint Cloment C, Robert B. Msx1 and Msx2 in limb mesenchyme modulate digit number and identity. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..With this strategy, we demonstrate that mesenchymal expression of Msx1 and Msx2 is required for proper Shh and Bmp4 signaling to specify digit number and identity...
  41. Jeong J, Mao J, Tenzen T, Kottmann A, McMahon A. Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia. Genes Dev. 2004;18:937-51 pubmed
    ..Further, our analysis of Shh-Fox gene regulatory interactions leads us to propose that Fox genes mediate the action of Shh in facial development. ..
  42. Radoja N, Guerrini L, Lo Iacono N, Merlo G, Costanzo A, Weinberg W, et al. Homeobox gene Dlx3 is regulated by p63 during ectoderm development: relevance in the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias. Development. 2007;134:13-8 pubmed
    ..Our results unravel aspects of the transcriptional cascade of events that contribute to ectoderm development and pathogenesis associated with p63 mutations. ..
  43. Riccomagno M, Martinu L, Mulheisen M, Wu D, Epstein D. Specification of the mammalian cochlea is dependent on Sonic hedgehog. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2365-78 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data support a model whereby auditory cell fates in the otic vesicle are established by the direct action of Shh. ..
  44. Long J, Garel S, Alvarez Dolado M, Yoshikawa K, Osumi N, Alvarez Buylla A, et al. Dlx-dependent and -independent regulation of olfactory bulb interneuron differentiation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3230-43 pubmed
  45. Xu H, Viola A, Zhang Z, Gerken C, Lindsay Illingworth E, Baldini A. Tbx1 regulates population, proliferation and cell fate determination of otic epithelial cells. Dev Biol. 2007;302:670-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the main functions of Tbx1 in the inner ear are to control, cell-autonomously, contribution, size and fate of a large population of otic epithelial cells, and, cell non-autonomously, cochlear morphogenesis. ..
  46. Carney R, Cocas L, Hirata T, Mansfield K, Corbin J. Differential regulation of telencephalic pallial-subpallial boundary patterning by Pax6 and Gsh2. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:745-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to their well-characterized cross-repressive roles in dorsal/ventral patterning our analyses reveal important novel functions of Gsh2 and Pax6 in the regulation of PSB progenitor pool specification and patterning. ..
  47. Zimmer C, Tiveron M, Bodmer R, Cremer H. Dynamics of Cux2 expression suggests that an early pool of SVZ precursors is fated to become upper cortical layer neurons. Cereb Cortex. 2004;14:1408-20 pubmed
    ..This suggests that laminar determination of upper cortical layer neurons occurs during the earliest stages of corticogenesis. ..
  48. Vieux Rochas M, Bouhali K, Mantero S, Garaffo G, Provero P, Astigiano S, et al. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e51700 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape...
  49. Han J, Mayo J, Xu X, Li J, Bringas P, Maas R, et al. Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice. Development. 2009;136:4225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..questions and show that O-N patterning is associated with the expansion and fusion of the palatal shelves and that Dlx5 is required for the O-N patterning of palatal mesenchyme...
  50. Trokovic N, Trokovic R, Mai P, Partanen J. Fgfr1 regulates patterning of the pharyngeal region. Genes Dev. 2003;17:141-53 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Fgfr1 patterns the pharyngeal region to create a permissive environment for neural crest cell migration. ..
  51. Puelles L, Rubenstein J. Forebrain gene expression domains and the evolving prosomeric model. Trends Neurosci. 2003;26:469-76 pubmed
    ..By contrast, we continue to postulate that prosomeres p1-p3 (i.e. the pretectum, thalamus and prethalamus) are the caudal forebrain. ..
  52. Eisenstat D, Liu J, Mione M, Zhong W, Yu G, Anderson S, et al. DLX-1, DLX-2, and DLX-5 expression define distinct stages of basal forebrain differentiation. J Comp Neurol. 1999;414:217-37 pubmed
    ..In the basal telencephalon, these DLX-positive cells differentiate into projection neurons of the striatum and pallidum as well as interneurons, some of which migrate to the cerebral cortex and the olfactory bulb. ..
  53. Crackower M, Motoyama J, Tsui L. Defect in the maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge in the Dactylaplasia mouse. Dev Biol. 1998;201:78-89 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the data suggest that the role of the AER maintenance factor is to promote cell proliferation in the ridge. Based on our findings, we propose a model for AER maintenance in the vertebrate limb. ..
  54. Chen L, Chatterjee M, Li J. The mouse homeobox gene Gbx2 is required for the development of cholinergic interneurons in the striatum. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate that Gbx2 is required for the development of striatal cholinergic interneurons, perhaps by regulating tangential migration of the striatal cholinergic precursors...
  55. Han J, Ishii M, Bringas P, Maas R, Maxson R, Chai Y. Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development. Mech Dev. 2007;124:729-45 pubmed
    ..This early function of the Msx genes is likely independent of the Bmp signaling pathway...
  56. Chung I, Han J, Iwata J, Chai Y. Msx1 and Dlx5 function synergistically to regulate frontal bone development. Genesis. 2010;48:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Msx1 in mice results in multiple developmental defects including craniofacial malformations. Although Dlx5 is widely expressed during embryonic development, targeted null mutation of Dlx5 mainly affects the development of ..
  57. Ruest L, Xiang X, Lim K, Levi G, Clouthier D. Endothelin-A receptor-dependent and -independent signaling pathways in establishing mandibular identity. Development. 2004;131:4413-23 pubmed
    ..in Ednra(-/-) embryos undergo a homeotic transformation into maxillary-like structures similar to those observed in Dlx5/Dlx6(-/-) embryos, though lower incisors are still present in both mutant embryos...
  58. Sasaki T, Ito Y, Bringas P, Chou S, Urata M, Slavkin H, et al. TGFbeta-mediated FGF signaling is crucial for regulating cranial neural crest cell proliferation during frontal bone development. Development. 2006;133:371-81 pubmed
  59. Bendall A, Abate Shen C. Roles for Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vertebrate development. Gene. 2000;247:17-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, their ability to oppose each other's transcriptional actions implies a mechanism underlying their complementary or antagonistic functions during development. ..
  60. Acampora D, Merlo G, Paleari L, Zerega B, Postiglione M, Mantero S, et al. Craniofacial, vestibular and bone defects in mice lacking the Distal-less-related gene Dlx5. Development. 1999;126:3795-809 pubmed
    The Dlx5 gene encodes a Distal-less-related DNA-binding homeobox protein first expressed during early embryonic development in anterior regions of the mouse embryo...