Gene Symbol: Dlx3
Description: distal-less homeobox 3
Alias: AV237891, Dlx-3, homeobox protein DLX-3, DII C
Species: mouse
Products:     Dlx3

Top Publications

  1. Nagao K, Zhu J, Heneghan M, Hanson J, Morasso M, Tessarollo L, et al. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8543 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs. ..
  2. Tavares A, Garcia E, Kuhn K, Woods C, Williams T, Clouthier D. Ectodermal-derived Endothelin1 is required for patterning the distal and intermediate domains of the mouse mandibular arch. Dev Biol. 2012;371:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results illustrate an integral role for ectoderm-derived Edn1 in early arch morphogenesis, particularly in the intermediate domain...
  3. Qiu M, Bulfone A, Ghattas I, Meneses J, Christensen L, Sharpe P, et al. Role of the Dlx homeobox genes in proximodistal patterning of the branchial arches: mutations of Dlx-1, Dlx-2, and Dlx-1 and -2 alter morphogenesis of proximal skeletal and soft tissue structures derived from the first and second arches. Dev Biol. 1997;185:165-84 pubmed
    ..Finally, the Dlx-2 and Dlx-1 and -2 mutants have ectopic skull components that resemble bones and cartilages found in phylogenetically more primitive vertebrates. ..
  4. Morasso M, Grinberg A, Robinson G, Sargent T, Mahon K. Placental failure in mice lacking the homeobox gene Dlx3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:162-7 pubmed
    b>Dlx3 is a homeodomain transcription factor and a member of the vertebrate Distal-less family. Targeted deletion of the mouse Dlx3 gene results in embryonic death between day 9...
  5. Simmons D, Natale D, Begay V, Hughes M, Leutz A, Cross J. Early patterning of the chorion leads to the trilaminar trophoblast cell structure in the placental labyrinth. Development. 2008;135:2083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the three differentiated trophoblast cell types in the labyrinth arise from distinct and autonomous precursors in the chorion that are patterned before morphogenesis begins...
  6. Hwang J, Mehrani T, Millar S, Morasso M. Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle differentiation and cycling. Development. 2008;135:3149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate the central role of Dlx3 as a crucial transcriptional regulator of hair formation and regeneration...
  7. Compagnucci C, Debiais Thibaud M, Coolen M, Fish J, Griffin J, Bertocchini F, et al. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula. Dev Biol. 2013;377:428-48 pubmed publisher
  8. Sato T, Kurihara Y, Asai R, Kawamura Y, Tonami K, Uchijima Y, et al. An endothelin-1 switch specifies maxillomandibular identity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, we show that, within PA1, CNCCs are competent to form both mandibular and maxillary structures and that an Edn1 switch is responsible for the choice of either morphogenetic program. ..
  9. Depew M, Lufkin T, Rubenstein J. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science. 2002;298:381-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that nested Dlx expression in the arches patterns their proximodistal axes. Evolutionary acquisition and subsequent refinement of jaws may have been dependent on modification of Dlx expression. ..

More Information


  1. Stemmler M, Bedzhov I. A Cdh1HA knock-in allele rescues the Cdh1-/- phenotype but shows essential Cdh1 function during placentation. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2330-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Placentas without Cdh1 expression are impaired and incapable of establishing a proper connection between the embryonic and the maternal blood vessels for efficient nutrient and oxygen transport. ..
  2. Okano J, Levy C, Lichti U, Sun H, Yuspa S, Sakai Y, et al. Cutaneous retinoic acid levels determine hair follicle development and downgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39304-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs...
  3. Hassan M, Tare R, Lee S, Mandeville M, Morasso M, Javed A, et al. BMP2 commitment to the osteogenic lineage involves activation of Runx2 by DLX3 and a homeodomain transcriptional network. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:40515-26 pubmed
    ..Here we show that BMP2 induces DLX3, a homeodomain protein that activates Runx2 gene transcription...
  4. Li H, Jeong H, Choi Y, Kim J, Choi J, Yeo C, et al. Protein kinase a phosphorylates Dlx3 and regulates the function of Dlx3 during osteoblast differentiation. J Cell Biochem. 2014;115:2004-11 pubmed publisher
    ..PKA activity during BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation, and found that PKA regulates the function of Dlx3. Dlx3 plays crucial roles in osteoblast differentiation and it is expressed in most skeletal elements during ..
  5. Duverger O, Zah A, Isaac J, Sun H, Bartels A, Lian J, et al. Neural crest deletion of Dlx3 leads to major dentin defects through down-regulation of Dspp. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12230-40 pubmed publisher
    During development, Dlx3 is expressed in ectodermal appendages such as hair and teeth...
  6. Lee S, Oh K, Han Y, Choi Y, Lee K. Estrogen Receptor α Regulates Dlx3-Mediated Osteoblast Differentiation. Mol Cells. 2016;39:156-62 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dlx3 is essential for the skeletal development and plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation...
  7. Tunster S, Van de Pette M, John R. Fetal overgrowth in the Cdkn1c mouse model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:814-21 pubmed publisher
  8. Coré N, Caubit X, Metchat A, Boned A, Djabali M, Fasano L. Tshz1 is required for axial skeleton, soft palate and middle ear development in mice. Dev Biol. 2007;308:407-20 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that Tshz1 is required for the development of the soft palate...
  9. Zhang Y, Blackwell E, McKnight M, Knutsen G, Vu W, Ruest L. Specific inactivation of Twist1 in the mandibular arch neural crest cells affects the development of the ramus and reveals interactions with hand2. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:924-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of Twist1 during mandibular development, we used the Hand2-Cre transgene to conditionally inactivate the gene in the neural crest cells populating the mandibular pharyngeal arch...
  10. Scherer S, Heng H, Robinson G, Mahon K, Evans J, Tsui L. Assignment of the human homolog of mouse Dlx3 to chromosome 17q21.3-q22 by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:310-1 pubmed
  11. Zhao N, Han D, Liu Y, Li Y, Zeng L, Wang Y, et al. DLX3 negatively regulates osteoclastic differentiation through microRNA-124. Exp Cell Res. 2016;341:166-76 pubmed publisher
    Homeodomain gene Distal-less-3 (DLX3) plays an essential role in the development of bones. Mutations of DLX3 are closely associated with Tricho-Dento-Osseous (TDO) syndrome featured with increased bone formation...
  12. Duverger O, Ohara T, Bible P, Zah A, Morasso M. DLX3-Dependent Regulation of Ion Transporters and Carbonic Anhydrases is Crucial for Enamel Mineralization. J Bone Miner Res. 2017;32:641-653 pubmed publisher
    ..TDO) syndrome, an ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the homeodomain transcription factor DLX3, exhibit enamel hypoplasia and hypomineralization...
  13. Eicher E, Stern R, Womack J, Davisson M, Roderick T, Reynolds S. Evolution of mammalian carbonic anhydrase loci by tanden duplication: close linkage of Car-1 and Car-2 to the centromere region of chromosome 3 of the mouse. Biochem Genet. 1976;14:651-60 pubmed
    ..The red blood cells of mice of the subspecies M.m. casteneus have significantly reduced levels of CAR-1 and CAR-2. ..
  14. Schreiber J, Riethmacher Sonnenberg E, Riethmacher D, Tuerk E, Enderich J, Bösl M, et al. Placental failure in mice lacking the mammalian homolog of glial cells missing, GCMa. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:2466-74 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that mGCMa plays a critical role in trophoblast differentiation and the signal transduction processes required for normal vascularization of the placenta. ..
  15. Kim J, Duverger O, Hwang J, Morasso M. Epidermal stem cells in the isthmus/infundibulum influence hair shaft differentiation: evidence from targeted DLX3 deletion. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:299-301 pubmed publisher
  16. Peng L, Payne A. AP-2 gamma and the homeodomain protein distal-less 3 are required for placental-specific expression of the murine 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase VI gene, Hsd3b6. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7945-54 pubmed
    ..Further electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified AP-2 gamma and the homeodomain protein, Dlx 3, as the transcription factors that specifically bind to FPI and FPIII, respectively...
  17. Yang G, Yuan G, Li X, Liu P, Chen Z, Fan M. BMP-2 induction of Dlx3 expression is mediated by p38/Smad5 signaling pathway in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:943-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Dlx3 is essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its expression is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)...
  18. Duverger O, Isaac J, Zah A, Hwang J, Berdal A, Lian J, et al. In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in neural crest-derived craniofacial bones. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:654-64 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in DLX3 in humans lead to defects in craniofacial and appendicular bones, yet the in vivo activities related to Dlx3 function during normal skeletal development have not been fully elucidated...
  19. Ruest L, Clouthier D. Elucidating timing and function of endothelin-A receptor signaling during craniofacial development using neural crest cell-specific gene deletion and receptor antagonism. Dev Biol. 2009;328:94-108 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that the advent of Ednra signaling in cranial NCCs may have been a crucial event in the evolution of the mammalian middle ear ossicles. ..
  20. Han L, Dias Figueiredo M, Berghorn K, Iwata T, Clark Campbell P, Welsh I, et al. Analysis of the gene regulatory program induced by the homeobox transcription factor distal-less 3 in mouse placenta. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1246-54 pubmed
    b>Dlx3, a homeodomain transcription factor, is essential for placental development in the mouse. The Dlx3(-/-) mouse embryo dies at embryonic d 9.5-10 putatively due to placental failure...
  21. Tavares A, Clouthier D. Cre recombinase-regulated Endothelin1 transgenic mouse lines: novel tools for analysis of embryonic and adult disorders. Dev Biol. 2015;400:191-201 pubmed publisher
  22. Quint E, Zerucha T, Ekker M. Differential expression of orthologous Dlx genes in zebrafish and mice: implications for the evolution of the Dlx homeobox gene family. J Exp Zool. 2000;288:235-41 pubmed
    ..These pairs include Dlx1/Dlx2, Dlx7/Dlx3, and Dlx6/Dlx5 (the zebrafish orthologue of Dlx5 is named dlx4)...
  23. Fan B, Brennan J, Grant D, Peale F, Rangell L, Kirchhofer D. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1) is essential for the integrity of basement membranes in the developing placental labyrinth. Dev Biol. 2007;303:222-30 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates the important role of HAI-1 in maintaining the integrity of basement membrane most likely by regulating extracellular proteolytic activities during placental development. ..
  24. Barron F, Woods C, Kuhn K, Bishop J, Howard M, Clouthier D. Downregulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression by Hand2 is essential for initiation of tongue morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:2249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Hand2 thus appears to establish a distal mandibular arch domain that is conducive for lower jaw development, including the initiation of tongue mesenchyme morphogenesis. ..
  25. Weiss K, Bollekens J, Ruddle F, Takashita K. Distal-less and other homeobox genes in the development of the dentition. J Exp Zool. 1994;270:273-84 pubmed
    ..The screening approach with degenerate primers is a successful way to identify new as well as previously known regulatory genes expressed in developing tooth embryos. ..
  26. Compagnucci C, Fish J, Schwark M, Tarabykin V, Depew M. Pax6 regulates craniofacial form through its control of an essential cephalic ectodermal patterning center. Genesis. 2011;49:307-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Pax6 therefore regulates craniofacial form, at stages when CNC has just arrived in the frontonasal region, through its control of surface cephalic ectodermal competence to form an essential craniofacial patterning center. ..
  27. Hassan M, Javed A, Morasso M, Karlin J, Montecino M, Van Wijnen A, et al. Dlx3 transcriptional regulation of osteoblast differentiation: temporal recruitment of Msx2, Dlx3, and Dlx5 homeodomain proteins to chromatin of the osteocalcin gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9248-61 pubmed
    ..that Msx2 and Dlx5 homeodomain (HD) proteins support skeletal development, but null mutation of the closely related Dlx3 gene results in early embryonic lethality...
  28. Tiveron M, Rossel M, Moepps B, Zhang Y, Seidenfaden R, Favor J, et al. Molecular interaction between projection neuron precursors and invading interneurons via stromal-derived factor 1 (CXCL12)/CXCR4 signaling in the cortical subventricular zone/intermediate zone. J Neurosci. 2006;26:13273-8 pubmed
    ..These results represent the first evidence for a molecular interaction between precursors of projection neurons and invading interneurons during corticogenesis. ..
  29. Sato T, Kawamura Y, Asai R, Amano T, Uchijima Y, Dettlaff Swiercz D, et al. Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange reveals the selective use of Gq/G11-dependent and -independent endothelin 1/endothelin type A receptor signaling in pharyngeal arch development. Development. 2008;135:755-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This RMCE-mediated knock-in system can serve as a useful tool for studies on gene functions in craniofacial development. ..
  30. Monks D, Morrow B. Identification of putative retinoic acid target genes downstream of mesenchymal Tbx1 during inner ear development. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..biological validation including quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (Otor, Mia, Col2a1, Clu, Adm, Myt1, Dlx3, Itgb3, and Itga2b)...
  31. Brinkmeier M, Davis S, Carninci P, MacDonald J, Kawai J, Ghosh D, et al. Discovery of transcriptional regulators and signaling pathways in the developing pituitary gland by bioinformatic and genomic approaches. Genomics. 2009;93:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are exciting candidates for regulators of pituitary development and function. ..
  32. Park G, Morasso M. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transactivates Dlx3 through Smad1 and Smad4: alternative mode for Dlx3 induction in mouse keratinocytes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:515-22 pubmed
    Expression of the Dlx3 homeodomain gene is induced in terminally differentiated epidermal cells...
  33. Choi S, Roodman G, Feng J, Song I, Amin K, Hart P, et al. In vivo impact of a 4 bp deletion mutation in the DLX3 gene on bone development. Dev Biol. 2009;325:129-37 pubmed publisher
    Distal-less 3 (DLX3) gene mutations are etiologic for Tricho-Dento-Osseous syndrome. To investigate the in vivo impact of mutant DLX3 on bone development, we established transgenic (TG) mice expressing the c...
  34. Clouthier D, Williams S, Yanagisawa H, Wieduwilt M, Richardson J, Yanagisawa M. Signaling pathways crucial for craniofacial development revealed by endothelin-A receptor-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2000;217:10-24 pubmed
    ..In particular, this developmental pathway appears distinct from the pathway that includes UFD1L, implicated as a causative gene in CATCH 22 patients, and suggests parallel complementary pathways mediating craniofacial development. ..
  35. Park G, Morasso M. Regulation of the Dlx3 homeobox gene upon differentiation of mouse keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26599-608 pubmed
    The Distal-less Dlx3 homeodomain gene is expressed in terminally differentiated murine epidermal cells, and there is evidence to support an essential role as a transcriptional regulator of the terminal differentiation process in these ..
  36. Robinson G, Mahon K. Differential and overlapping expression domains of Dlx-2 and Dlx-3 suggest distinct roles for Distal-less homeobox genes in craniofacial development. Mech Dev. 1994;48:199-215 pubmed
    ..The differential expression of Dlx genes in the branchial region suggests that they play key roles in craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis. ..
  37. Stock D, Ellies D, Zhao Z, Ekker M, Ruddle F, Weiss K. The evolution of the vertebrate Dlx gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10858-63 pubmed
    ..Determination of the linkage relationship of these additional zebrafish Dlx genes to Hox clusters should help resolve this issue. ..
  38. Palazzo E, Kellett M, Cataisson C, Gormley A, Bible P, Pietroni V, et al. The homeoprotein DLX3 and tumor suppressor p53 co-regulate cell cycle progression and squamous tumor growth. Oncogene. 2016;35:3114-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Differentiation and the alteration of this balance can result in neoplastic development. Here we report on a novel DLX3-dependent network that constrains epidermal hyperplasia and squamous tumorigenesis...
  39. Toresson H, Mata De Urquiza A, Fagerstrom C, Perlmann T, Campbell K. Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. Development. 1999;126:1317-26 pubmed
    ..These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation. ..
  40. Inman K, Purcell P, Kume T, Trainor P. Interaction between Foxc1 and Fgf8 during mammalian jaw patterning and in the pathogenesis of syngnathia. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003949 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our work provides a framework for understanding jaw patterning and the etiology of other congenital craniofacial anomalies, including temporomandibular joint agenesis. ..
  41. Choi S, Song I, Ryu O, Choi S, Hart P, Wu W, et al. A 4 bp deletion mutation in DLX3 enhances osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation in vitro. Bone. 2008;42:162-71 pubmed
    A 4 base-pair deletion mutation in the Distal-less 3 (DLX3) gene is etiologic for Tricho-Dento-Osseous syndrome (TDO). A cardinal feature of TDO is an increased thickness and density of bone...
  42. Nakamura S, Stock D, Wydner K, Bollekens J, Takeshita K, Nagai B, et al. Genomic analysis of a new mammalian distal-less gene: Dlx7. Genomics. 1996;38:314-24 pubmed
    ..Both the human and the mouse Dlx7 are shown to be closely linked to Dlx3 in a convergently transcribed orientation...
  43. Weiss K, Ruddle F, Bollekens J. Dlx and other homeobox genes in the morphological development of the dentition. Connect Tissue Res. 1995;32:35-40 pubmed
    ..The Msx and Dlx genes are the best current candidates for a combinatorial mechanism that controls the differentiation of structures within and between teeth, and perhaps also the evolution of those structures. ..
  44. Ghoul Mazgar S, Hotton D, Lezot F, Blin Wakkach C, Asselin A, Sautier J, et al. Expression pattern of Dlx3 during cell differentiation in mineralized tissues. Bone. 2005;37:799-809 pubmed
    The present study was designed to compare the expression pattern of Dlx3 in four different mineralized tissues because of: 1-its role in skeleton patterning, 2-its expression in dental epithelium and mesenchyme during morphogenesis, 3-the ..
  45. Andrews G, Yun K, Rubenstein J, Mastick G. Dlx transcription factors regulate differentiation of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral thalamus. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;23:107-20 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that DLX genes act as forebrain-specific factors linking general neuron-inducing signals to region-specific neuron differentiation programs. ..
  46. Lanctot C, Lamolet B, Drouin J. The bicoid-related homeoprotein Ptx1 defines the most anterior domain of the embryo and differentiates posterior from anterior lateral mesoderm. Development. 1997;124:2807-17 pubmed
  47. Radoja N, Guerrini L, Lo Iacono N, Merlo G, Costanzo A, Weinberg W, et al. Homeobox gene Dlx3 is regulated by p63 during ectoderm development: relevance in the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias. Development. 2007;134:13-8 pubmed
    ..b>Dlx3 and p63 act as part of the transcriptional regulatory pathways relevant in ectoderm derivatives, and autosomal ..
  48. Edlund R, Ohyama T, Kantarci H, Riley B, Groves A. Foxi transcription factors promote pharyngeal arch development by regulating formation of FGF signaling centers. Dev Biol. 2014;390:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Foxi3 may play a role in the establishment of signaling centers in the branchial arches that are required for neural crest survival, patterning and the subsequent development of branchial arch derivatives. ..
  49. Tavares A, Cox T, Maxson R, Ford H, Clouthier D. Negative regulation of endothelin signaling by SIX1 is required for proper maxillary development. Development. 2017;144:2021-2031 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results illustrate that SIX1 is the central mediator of dorsal mandibular arch identity, thus ensuring separation of bone development between the upper and lower jaws. ..
  50. Yamada R, Mizutani Koseki Y, Koseki H, Takahashi N. Requirement for Mab21l2 during development of murine retina and ventral body wall. Dev Biol. 2004;274:295-307 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that Mab21l2 plays crucial roles in retina and in ventral body wall formation. ..
  51. Oh McGinnis R, Bogutz A, Lefebvre L. Partial loss of Ascl2 function affects all three layers of the mature placenta and causes intrauterine growth restriction. Dev Biol. 2011;351:277-86 pubmed publisher
  52. Gritli Linde A, Bei M, Maas R, Zhang X, Linde A, McMahon A. Shh signaling within the dental epithelium is necessary for cell proliferation, growth and polarization. Development. 2002;129:5323-37 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that Shh signaling between ameloblasts and the overlying stratum intermedium may involve subcellular localization of Patched 2 and Gli1 mRNAs, both of which are targets of Shh signaling in these cells. ..
  53. Donati G, Proserpio V, Lichtenberger B, Natsuga K, Sinclair R, Fujiwara H, et al. Epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates adipocyte differentiation via secretion of adipogenic factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1501-9 pubmed publisher
  54. Sumiyama K, Irvine S, Stock D, Weiss K, Kawasaki K, Shimizu N, et al. Genomic structure and functional control of the Dlx3-7 bigene cluster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:780-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examine the regulation of the Dlx3-7 cluster of the mouse. We obtained and sequenced human and mouse P1 clones covering the entire Dlx3-7 cluster...
  55. Mastick G, Andrews G. Pax6 regulates the identity of embryonic diencephalic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2001;17:190-207 pubmed
    ..Pax6 up-regulation occurred only several hours postdifferentiation. The loss of Pax6 altered progenitor specification, and the Lhx1 neuronal marker was lost, indicating a role for Pax6 in the specification of forebrain neuron identity. ..
  56. Duverger O, Ohara T, Shaffer J, Donahue D, Zerfas P, Dullnig A, et al. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:5219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. ..
  57. Mackay D, Hu M, Li B, Rhéaume C, Dai X. The mouse Ovol2 gene is required for cranial neural tube development. Dev Biol. 2006;291:38-52 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our studies indicate that Ovol2 is a key regulator of neural development and reveal a previously unexplored role for Ovo genes in mammalian embryogenesis. ..
  58. Zhao Z, Stock D, Buchanan A, Weiss K. Expression of Dlx genes during the development of the murine dentition. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:270-5 pubmed
    ..The relationship of Dlx gene expression to their genomic organization suggests coordinate regulation of linked genes at early stages but regulatory differences at later stages. ..
  59. Clark P, Xie J, Li S, Zhang X, Coonrod S, Roberson M. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is a distal-less 3 target-gene in placental trophoblast cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;305:C173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray studies in mouse placenta suggested that MMP-9 transcript abundance was dependent on distal-less 3 (Dlx3), a placental-specific transcriptional regulator; however, it was not clear if this was a direct or indirect effect...
  60. Price J, Bowden D, Wright J, Pettenati M, Hart T. Identification of a mutation in DLX3 associated with tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:563-9 pubmed
    ..the TDO locus to chromosome 17q21, a region that includes two members of the distal-less homeobox gene family, DLX3 and DLX7...
  61. Kim B, Lee H, Choi J, Kim J, Yoon J, Yoon S. Hairless plays a role in formation of inner root sheath via regulation of Dlx3 gene. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16681-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we documented abnormal formation of inner root sheath (IRS), suppressed expression of Dlx3, and IRS keratins in the Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) skin...
  62. Woodside K, Shen H, Muntzel C, Daller J, Sommers C, Love P. Expression of Dlx and Lhx family homeobox genes in fetal thymus and thymocytes. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:315-20 pubmed
  63. Bendall A, Abate Shen C. Roles for Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vertebrate development. Gene. 2000;247:17-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, their ability to oppose each other's transcriptional actions implies a mechanism underlying their complementary or antagonistic functions during development. ..
  64. Hirota J, Mombaerts P. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx2 is required for complete development of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8751-5 pubmed
    ..OSN development appears to be arrested between the terminal differentiation into neurons and the transition to immature neurons. Thus, Lhx2 is required for complete development of OSNs in mice. ..
  65. Reichmann J, Reddington J, Best D, Read D, Ollinger R, Meehan R, et al. The genome-defence gene Tex19.1 suppresses LINE-1 retrotransposons in the placenta and prevents intra-uterine growth retardation in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:1791-806 pubmed publisher
  66. Robinson G, Wray S, Mahon K. Spatially restricted expression of a member of a new family of murine Distal-less homeobox genes in the developing forebrain. New Biol. 1991;3:1183-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Distal-less genes may contribute missing positional cues not provided by the previously identified vertebrate homeobox genes. ..
  67. Liu C, Nakamura E, Knezevic V, Hunter S, Thompson K, Mackem S. A role for the mesenchymal T-box gene Brachyury in AER formation during limb development. Development. 2003;130:1327-37 pubmed
  68. Moore Scott B, Manley N. Differential expression of Sonic hedgehog along the anterior-posterior axis regulates patterning of pharyngeal pouch endoderm and pharyngeal endoderm-derived organs. Dev Biol. 2005;278:323-35 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that, as in the posterior gut endoderm, exclusion of Shh expression from developing primordia is required for the proper development of pharyngeal-derived organs. ..
  69. Berghorn K, Clark P, Encarnacion B, Deregis C, Folger J, Morasso M, et al. Developmental expression of the homeobox protein Distal-less 3 and its relationship to progesterone production in mouse placenta. J Endocrinol. 2005;186:315-23 pubmed
    Distal-less 3 (Dlx3) is a homeobox factor that functions as a placental-specific transcriptional regulator. Dlx3 null mice (-/-) have compromised placental development and do not survive in utero past embryonic day (E) 9.5...
  70. Sumiyama K, Ruddle F. Regulation of Dlx3 gene expression in visceral arches by evolutionarily conserved enhancer elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4030-4 pubmed
    The mammalian Distal-less (Dlx) clusters (Dlx1-2, Dlx5-6, and Dlx3-7) have a nested expression pattern in developing visceral (branchial) arches...
  71. Begay V, Smink J, Leutz A. Essential requirement of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins in embryogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9744-51 pubmed
    ..Our data thus reveal novel essential, redundant, and dosage dependent functions of C/EBPs. ..
  72. Zou D, Silvius D, Davenport J, Grifone R, Maire P, Xu P. Patterning of the third pharyngeal pouch into thymus/parathyroid by Six and Eya1. Dev Biol. 2006;293:499-512 pubmed
    ..Together, these analyses establish an essential role for Eya1 and Six genes in patterning the third pouch into organ-specific primordia. ..
  73. Morasso M, Markova N, Sargent T. Regulation of epidermal differentiation by a Distal-less homeodomain gene. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1879-87 pubmed
    The Distal-less-related homeodomain gene Dlx3 is expressed in terminally differentiated murine epidermal cells...
  74. Sachs M, Brohmann H, Zechner D, Muller T, Hülsken J, Walther I, et al. Essential role of Gab1 for signaling by the c-Met receptor in vivo. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1375-84 pubmed
    ..This is genetic evidence that Gab1 is essential for c-Met signaling in vivo. Analogy exists to signal transmission by insulin receptors, which require IRS1 and IRS2 as specific docking proteins. ..
  75. Vieux Rochas M, Mantero S, Heude E, Barbieri O, Astigiano S, Couly G, et al. Spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression of the Edn1-Dlx5/6 pathway during development of the lower jaw. Genesis. 2010;48:262-373 pubmed publisher
    ..More in general, our findings emphasize the importance of quantitative gene expression in the fine control of morphogenetic events. ..