Gene Symbol: Dlx1
Description: distal-less homeobox 1
Alias: Dlx, Dlx-1, homeobox protein DLX-1, DII B
Species: mouse
Products:     Dlx1

Top Publications

  1. Anderson S, Eisenstat D, Shi L, Rubenstein J. Interneuron migration from basal forebrain to neocortex: dependence on Dlx genes. Science. 1997;278:474-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, mice lacking the homeodomain proteins DLX-1 and DLX-2 show no detectable cell migration from the subcortical telencephalon to the neocortex and also have few ..
  2. de Melo J, Du G, Fonseca M, Gillespie L, Turk W, Rubenstein J, et al. Dlx1 and Dlx2 function is necessary for terminal differentiation and survival of late-born retinal ganglion cells in the developing mouse retina. Development. 2005;132:311-22 pubmed
    ..Expression begins at embryonic day 12.5 and is maintained until late embryogenesis for Dlx1, while Dlx2 expression extends to adulthood...
  3. Ghanem N, Yu M, Long J, Hatch G, Rubenstein J, Ekker M. Distinct cis-regulatory elements from the Dlx1/Dlx2 locus mark different progenitor cell populations in the ganglionic eminences and different subtypes of adult cortical interneurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5012-22 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that interneuron subtypes use distinct combinations of Dlx1/Dlx2 enhancers from the time they are specified through adulthood.
  4. Yun K, Potter S, Rubenstein J. Gsh2 and Pax6 play complementary roles in dorsoventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon. Development. 2001;128:193-205 pubmed
    ..The role of Pax6 in dorsalizing the telencephalon is similar to its role in the spinal cord, supporting the hypothesis that some dorsoventral patterning mechanisms are used at all axial levels of the central nervous system. ..
  5. Marin O, Yaron A, Bagri A, Tessier Lavigne M, Rubenstein J. Sorting of striatal and cortical interneurons regulated by semaphorin-neuropilin interactions. Science. 2001;293:872-5 pubmed
  6. McGuinness T, Porteus M, Smiga S, Bulfone A, Kingsley C, Qiu M, et al. Sequence, organization, and transcription of the Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 locus. Genomics. 1996;35:473-85 pubmed
    There are at least five murine Dlx genes that are related to the Drosophila Distal-less homeobox gene...
  7. Pleasure S, Anderson S, Hevner R, Bagri A, Marin O, Lowenstein D, et al. Cell migration from the ganglionic eminences is required for the development of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Neuron. 2000;28:727-40 pubmed
    ..differentiation in the embryonic basal telencephalon (lateral and medial ganglionic eminences) through loss of Dlx1/2 homeobox function blocks the migration of virtually all GABAergic interneurons to the hippocampus...
  8. Corbin J, Gaiano N, Machold R, Langston A, Fishell G. The Gsh2 homeodomain gene controls multiple aspects of telencephalic development. Development. 2000;127:5007-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data support a model in which Gsh2, in response to sonic hedgehog signaling, plays a crucial role in multiple aspects of telencephalic development. ..
  9. Bulfone A, Wang F, Hevner R, Anderson S, Cutforth T, Chen S, et al. An olfactory sensory map develops in the absence of normal projection neurons or GABAergic interneurons. Neuron. 1998;21:1273-82 pubmed
    ..with a homozygous deficiency in Tbr-1 lack most projection neurons, whereas mice with a homozygous deficiency in Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 lack most GABAergic interneurons...

More Information


  1. Qiu M, Bulfone A, Martinez S, Meneses J, Shimamura K, Pedersen R, et al. Null mutation of Dlx-2 results in abnormal morphogenesis of proximal first and second branchial arch derivatives and abnormal differentiation in the forebrain. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2523-38 pubmed
    ..To determine the function of Dlx-2, we generated a null mutation in mice using gene targeting...
  2. Cobos I, Borello U, Rubenstein J. Dlx transcription factors promote migration through repression of axon and dendrite growth. Neuron. 2007;54:873-88 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Dlx1/2 has a central role in restraining neurite growth of subpallial-derived immature interneurons at a stage when they ..
  3. Saino Saito S, Berlin R, Baker H. Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 expression in the adult mouse brain: relationship to dopaminergic phenotypic regulation. J Comp Neurol. 2003;461:18-30 pubmed
    Expression of the homeodomain-containing transcription factors Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 in the lateral (LGE) and medial (MGE) ganglionic eminences, subpallial embryonic structures, is required for generation of telencephalic interneurons...
  4. Taniguchi H, He M, Wu P, Kim S, Paik R, Sugino K, et al. A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2011;71:995-1013 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, this approach will accelerate the study of GABAergic circuits throughout the mammalian brain. ..
  5. Stoykova A, Fritsch R, Walther C, Gruss P. Forebrain patterning defects in Small eye mutant mice. Development. 1996;122:3453-65 pubmed
    ..Our detailed analysis included a comparison of the expression of Pax6, Dlx1 and several other genes during embryonic mouse brain development in wild-type and in the mutant Small eye (Sey) ..
  6. Cobos I, Long J, Thwin M, Rubenstein J. Cellular patterns of transcription factor expression in developing cortical interneurons. Cereb Cortex. 2006;16 Suppl 1:i82-8 pubmed
    ..patterns in differentiating and mature neocortical interneurons of 8 transcription factors, including 6 homeobox (Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5, Arx, Lhx6, Cux2), 1 basic helix-loop-helix, (NPAS1), and 1 bZIP (MafB)...
  7. Anderson S, Qiu M, Bulfone A, Eisenstat D, Meneses J, Pedersen R, et al. Mutations of the homeobox genes Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 disrupt the striatal subventricular zone and differentiation of late born striatal neurons. Neuron. 1997;19:27-37 pubmed
    ..Inroads to this subject have been made, due to the discovery of transcription factors, such as the Dlx genes, whose expression patterns suggest that they have a role in striatal development...
  8. Eisenstat D, Liu J, Mione M, Zhong W, Yu G, Anderson S, et al. DLX-1, DLX-2, and DLX-5 expression define distinct stages of basal forebrain differentiation. J Comp Neurol. 1999;414:217-37 pubmed
    The homeobox genes in the Dlx family are required for differentiation of basal forebrain neurons and craniofacial morphogenesis...
  9. Liu J, Ghattas I, Liu S, Chen S, Rubenstein J. Dlx genes encode DNA-binding proteins that are expressed in an overlapping and sequential pattern during basal ganglia differentiation. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:498-512 pubmed
    The Dlx gene family encodes homeodomain proteins that are required for forebrain and craniofacial development...
  10. Casarosa S, Fode C, Guillemot F. Mash1 regulates neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon. Development. 1999;126:525-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Mash1 is an important regulator of neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon, where it is required both to specify neuronal precursors and to control the timing of their production. ..
  11. Simeone A, Acampora D, Pannese M, D ESPOSITO M, Stornaiuolo A, Gulisano M, et al. Cloning and characterization of two members of the vertebrate Dlx gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:2250-4 pubmed
    ..Similarly, the two human genes DLX1 and DLX2 are closely linked in a convergent configuration at 2q32, near the HOXD (previously HOX4) locus...
  12. Potter G, Petryniak M, Shevchenko E, McKinsey G, Ekker M, Rubenstein J. Generation of Cre-transgenic mice using Dlx1/Dlx2 enhancers and their characterization in GABAergic interneurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;40:167-86 pubmed publisher
    b>DLX1 and DLX2 transcription factors are necessary for forebrain GABAergic neuron differentiation, migration, and survival...
  13. Ghanem N, Jarinova O, Amores A, Long Q, Hatch G, Park B, et al. Regulatory roles of conserved intergenic domains in vertebrate Dlx bigene clusters. Genome Res. 2003;13:533-43 pubmed
    Dlx homeobox genes of vertebrates are generally arranged as three bigene clusters on distinct chromosomes. The Dlx1/Dlx2, Dlx5/Dlx6, and Dlx3/Dlx7 clusters likely originate from duplications of an ancestral Dlx gene pair...
  14. Long J, Garel S, Alvarez Dolado M, Yoshikawa K, Osumi N, Alvarez Buylla A, et al. Dlx-dependent and -independent regulation of olfactory bulb interneuron differentiation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3230-43 pubmed
    ..Here we explore the mechanisms that result in olfactory bulb interneuron defects in Dlx1&2-/- (distal-less homeobox 1 and 2) and Mash1-/- (mammalian achaete-schute homolog 1) mutants...
  15. Poitras L, Ghanem N, Hatch G, Ekker M. The proneural determinant MASH1 regulates forebrain Dlx1/2 expression through the I12b intergenic enhancer. Development. 2007;134:1755-65 pubmed
    ..In the developing forebrain of mammals, the combined function of the Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes is necessary for the differentiation of the GABAergic interneurons born in the ..
  16. Long J, Cobos I, Potter G, Rubenstein J. Dlx1&2 and Mash1 transcription factors control MGE and CGE patterning and differentiation through parallel and overlapping pathways. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19 Suppl 1:i96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..We have begun to elucidate the transcriptional hierarchy of these genes with respect to the Dlx homeodomain genes, which are essential for differentiation of most gamma-aminobutyric acidergic projection neurons ..
  17. Cobos I, Calcagnotto M, Vilaythong A, Thwin M, Noebels J, Baraban S, et al. Mice lacking Dlx1 show subtype-specific loss of interneurons, reduced inhibition and epilepsy. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1059-68 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Dlx1 is also required for regulating the functional longevity of cortical and hippocampal interneurons in the adult ..
  18. de Melo J, Qiu X, Du G, Cristante L, Eisenstat D. Dlx1, Dlx2, Pax6, Brn3b, and Chx10 homeobox gene expression defines the retinal ganglion and inner nuclear layers of the developing and adult mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2003;461:187-204 pubmed
    ..We assessed Dlx gene expression in the developing and adult mouse retina. Dlx1 and Dlx2 are detected in retinal neuroprogenitors by embryonic day (E) 12.5 (Eisenstat et al. [1999] J. Comp...
  19. Anderson S, Marin O, Horn C, Jennings K, Rubenstein J. Distinct cortical migrations from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences. Development. 2001;128:353-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, by comparing the phenotypes of mouse mutants with differential effects on MGE and LGE migration, we provide evidence that the MGE and LGE may give rise to different subtypes of cortical interneurons. ..
  20. Cobos I, Broccoli V, Rubenstein J. The vertebrate ortholog of Aristaless is regulated by Dlx genes in the developing forebrain. J Comp Neurol. 2005;483:292-303 pubmed
    ..functionally relevant role in regulating Arx in vivo, as shown by the severe reduction in the expression of Arx in Dlx1/2 double-knockout mice...
  21. Fernandez A, Pieau C, Reperant J, Boncinelli E, Wassef M. Expression of the Emx-1 and Dlx-1 homeobox genes define three molecularly distinct domains in the telencephalon of mouse, chick, turtle and frog embryos: implications for the evolution of telencephalic subdivisions in amniotes. Development. 1998;125:2099-111 pubmed
    ..Expression of homeobox-containing genes of the Emx, Dlx and Pax families were used as markers of anteroposterior developmental subdivisions of the forebrain in mouse, ..
  22. Zhou Q, Le T, Qiu X, Spencer V, de Melo J, Du G, et al. Identification of a direct Dlx homeodomain target in the developing mouse forebrain and retina by optimization of chromatin immunoprecipitation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:884-92 pubmed
    ..Dlx genes are expressed in the developing forebrain, retina, craniofacial structures and limbs. Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout mice die at birth with multiple defects including abnormal forebrain development and decreased ..
  23. Toresson H, Potter S, Campbell K. Genetic control of dorsal-ventral identity in the telencephalon: opposing roles for Pax6 and Gsh2. Development. 2000;127:4361-71 pubmed
    ..identity of early striatal progenitors and in its absence the ventral telencephalic regulatory genes Mash1 and Dlx are lost from most of the striatal germinal zone...
  24. Wang Y, Li G, Stanco A, Long J, Crawford D, Potter G, et al. CXCR4 and CXCR7 have distinct functions in regulating interneuron migration. Neuron. 2011;69:61-76 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, CXCL12 stimulation of CXCR7, but not CXCR4, promoted MAP kinase signaling. Thus, we suggest that CXCR4 and CXCR7 have distinct roles and signal transduction in regulating interneuron movement and laminar positioning. ..
  25. Le T, Du G, Fonseca M, Zhou Q, Wigle J, Eisenstat D. Dlx homeobox genes promote cortical interneuron migration from the basal forebrain by direct repression of the semaphorin receptor neuropilin-2. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19071-81 pubmed
    Dlx homeobox genes play an important role in vertebrate forebrain development. Dlx1/Dlx2 null mice die at birth with an abnormal cortical phenotype, including impaired differentiation and migration of GABAergic interneurons to the ..
  26. Qiu M, Bulfone A, Ghattas I, Meneses J, Christensen L, Sharpe P, et al. Role of the Dlx homeobox genes in proximodistal patterning of the branchial arches: mutations of Dlx-1, Dlx-2, and Dlx-1 and -2 alter morphogenesis of proximal skeletal and soft tissue structures derived from the first and second arches. Dev Biol. 1997;185:165-84 pubmed
    The Dlx homeobox gene family is expressed in a complex pattern within the embryonic craniofacial ectoderm and ectomesenchyme...
  27. Zerucha T, Stühmer T, Hatch G, Park B, Long Q, Yu G, et al. A highly conserved enhancer in the Dlx5/Dlx6 intergenic region is the site of cross-regulatory interactions between Dlx genes in the embryonic forebrain. J Neurosci. 2000;20:709-21 pubmed
    Four Dlx homeobox genes, Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5, and Dlx6 are expressed in the same primordia of the mouse forebrain with temporally overlapping patterns...
  28. Kitamura K, Yanazawa M, Sugiyama N, Miura H, Iizuka Kogo A, Kusaka M, et al. Mutation of ARX causes abnormal development of forebrain and testes in mice and X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia in humans. Nat Genet. 2002;32:359-69 pubmed
    ..The present report is, to our knowledge, the first to use phenotypic analysis of a knockout mouse to identify a gene associated with an X-linked human brain malformation...
  29. Bei M, Maas R. FGFs and BMP4 induce both Msx1-independent and Msx1-dependent signaling pathways in early tooth development. Development. 1998;125:4325-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have investigated the effects of FGFs and BMP4 on the distal-less homeobox genes Dlx1 and Dlx2 and we have clarified the relationship between Msx and Dlx gene function in the developing tooth...
  30. Furushima K, Murata T, Kiyonari H, Aizawa S. Characterization of Opr deficiency in mouse brain: subtle defects in dorsomedial telencephalon and medioventral forebrain. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:1056-61 pubmed
    ..However, no defects were apparent in embryonic day 10.5 Opr null mutants, and subtle defects were later found in medial pallium and ventral structures of forebrain, suggesting the compensation of Opr deficiency by its cognate(s). ..
  31. Vucurovic K, Gallopin T, Ferezou I, Rancillac A, Chameau P, van Hooft J, et al. Serotonin 3A receptor subtype as an early and protracted marker of cortical interneuron subpopulations. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:2333-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This protracted expression of the 5-HT(3A) subunit allowed us to study specific cortical interneuron populations from their birth to their final functional phenotype. ..
  32. Cocas L, Georgala P, Mangin J, Clegg J, Kessaris N, Haydar T, et al. Pax6 is required at the telencephalic pallial-subpallial boundary for the generation of neuronal diversity in the postnatal limbic system. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in PSB progenitors, Pax6 plays an important role in the generation of multiple subtypes of neurons that contribute to the amygdala and olfactory bulb. ..
  33. Feng L, Eisenstat D, Chiba S, Ishizaki Y, Gan L, Shibasaki K. Brn-3b inhibits generation of amacrine cells by binding to and negatively regulating DLX1/2 in developing retina. Neuroscience. 2011;195:9-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we show that the expression of DLX1 and DLX2 is significantly down-regulated in math5-null retina but is markedly increased in Brn-3b-null retina...
  34. Monuki E, Porter F, Walsh C. Patterning of the dorsal telencephalon and cerebral cortex by a roof plate-Lhx2 pathway. Neuron. 2001;32:591-604 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence for the roof plate as an organizing center of the developing cortex and for a roof plate-Lhx2 pathway in cortical patterning. ..
  35. Acampora D, Merlo G, Paleari L, Zerega B, Postiglione M, Mantero S, et al. Craniofacial, vestibular and bone defects in mice lacking the Distal-less-related gene Dlx5. Development. 1999;126:3795-809 pubmed
    ..The defects observed in Dlx5-/- mutant animals suggest multiple and independent roles of this gene in the patterning of the branchial arches, in the morphogenesis of the vestibular organ and in osteoblast differentiation. ..
  36. Jones D, Howard M, Stanco A, Rubenstein J, Baraban S. Deletion of Dlx1 results in reduced glutamatergic input to hippocampal interneurons. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:1984-91 pubmed publisher
    Dlx transcription factors are important in the differentiation of GABAergic interneurons. In mice lacking Dlx1, early steps in interneuron development appear normal...
  37. Radoja N, Guerrini L, Lo Iacono N, Merlo G, Costanzo A, Weinberg W, et al. Homeobox gene Dlx3 is regulated by p63 during ectoderm development: relevance in the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias. Development. 2007;134:13-8 pubmed
    ..Our results unravel aspects of the transcriptional cascade of events that contribute to ectoderm development and pathogenesis associated with p63 mutations. ..
  38. Colasante G, Collombat P, Raimondi V, Bonanomi D, Ferrai C, Maira M, et al. Arx is a direct target of Dlx2 and thereby contributes to the tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10674-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional characterization of the Arx GABAergic enhancer element revealed its strict dependence on the activity of Dlx transcription factors...
  39. Cajigas I, Leib D, Cochrane J, Luo H, Swyter K, Chen S, et al. Evf2 lncRNA/BRG1/DLX1 interactions reveal RNA-dependent inhibition of chromatin remodeling. Development. 2015;142:2641-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, mass spectrometry shows that the Evf2-DLX1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) contains the SWI/SNF-related chromatin remodelers Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1, SMARCA4) and ..
  40. Zhang Q, Zagozewski J, Cheng S, Dixit R, Zhang S, de Melo J, et al. Regulation of Brn3b by DLX1 and DLX2 is required for retinal ganglion cell differentiation in the vertebrate retina. Development. 2017;144:1698-1711 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that Dlx1, Dlx2 and Brn3b homeobox genes function in parallel intrinsic pathways to determine RGC fate and ..
  41. Xu C, Fan C. Allocation of paraventricular and supraoptic neurons requires Sim1 function: a role for a Sim1 downstream gene PlexinC1. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:1234-45 pubmed
    ..Together, our results uncover a transcriptional regulation of neuronal migration cues initiated by Sim1 that contribute to the organization of the PVN and SON. ..
  42. Liu W, Selever J, Murali D, Sun X, Brugger S, Ma L, et al. Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development. Dev Biol. 2005;283:282-93 pubmed
    ..Lastly, we provide evidence that Prx homeobox genes repress expression of an Msx2 transgene, previously shown to be Bmp4-responsive, revealing a mechanism for differential regulation of Msx1 and Msx2 by Bmp signaling. ..
  43. Kroll T, O Leary D. Ventralized dorsal telencephalic progenitors in Pax6 mutant mice generate GABA interneurons of a lateral ganglionic eminence fate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7374-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, Pax6 delimits the appropriate proliferative zone for GABA INs and regulates their numbers and distributions by repressing the ventral fates of dTel progenitors and progeny. ..
  44. Puelles L, Rubenstein J. Forebrain gene expression domains and the evolving prosomeric model. Trends Neurosci. 2003;26:469-76 pubmed
    ..By contrast, we continue to postulate that prosomeres p1-p3 (i.e. the pretectum, thalamus and prethalamus) are the caudal forebrain. ..
  45. Andrews G, Yun K, Rubenstein J, Mastick G. Dlx transcription factors regulate differentiation of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral thalamus. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;23:107-20 pubmed
    ..for DLX function, the initial differentiation of the ventral thalamic neurons was examined in embryos mutant for Dlx1 and Dlx2...
  46. Howard M, Rubenstein J, Baraban S. Bidirectional homeostatic plasticity induced by interneuron cell death and transplantation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In distal-less homeobox 1 (Dlx1(-/-)) mice with late-onset interneuron loss and reduced inhibition, we observed both excitatory synaptic silencing ..
  47. Kraus P, Sivakamasundari V, Lim S, Xing X, Lipovich L, Lufkin T. Making sense of Dlx1 antisense RNA. Dev Biol. 2013;376:224-35 pubmed publisher
    ..to interrogate the biological significance of another distal-less antisense lncRNA, the previously uncharacterized Dlx1 antisense (Dlx1as) transcript...
  48. Berghoff E, Clark M, Chen S, Cajigas I, Leib D, Kohtz J. Evf2 (Dlx6as) lncRNA regulates ultraconserved enhancer methylation and the differential transcriptional control of adjacent genes. Development. 2013;140:4407-16 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments show that MECP2 transcriptional repression of Evf2 and Dlx5, but not Dlx6, occurs through antagonism of DLX1/2 in E13.5 MGE. Analysis of E13...
  49. Dixit R, Wilkinson G, Cancino G, Shaker T, Adnani L, Li S, et al. Neurog1 and Neurog2 control two waves of neuronal differentiation in the piriform cortex. J Neurosci. 2014;34:539-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurog1 and Neurog2 thus have unique and redundant functions in the piriform cortex, controlling the timing of differentiation of early-born CR/lot cells and specifying the identities of later-born layer II/III neurons. ..
  50. Kaestner K, Schutz G, Monaghan A. Expression of the winged helix genes fkh-4 and fkh-5 defines domains in the central nervous system. Mech Dev. 1996;55:221-30 pubmed
    ..5 centiMorgans (cM) and fkh-4 to chromosome 19 at 10.5 cM. The potential relationship of the two genes to the mouse mutations staggerer and small thymus (for fkh-5) and muscle deficient (for fkh-4) is discussed. ..
  51. Le T, Zhou Q, Cobos I, Zhang S, Zagozewski J, Japoni S, et al. GABAergic Interneuron Differentiation in the Basal Forebrain Is Mediated through Direct Regulation of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Isoforms by Dlx Homeobox Transcription Factors. J Neurosci. 2017;37:8816-8829 pubmed publisher
    ..The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knock-out mice die at birth with abnormal cortical development, including loss of tangential ..
  52. Lo Iacono N, Mantero S, Chiarelli A, Garcia E, Mills A, Morasso M, et al. Regulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 gene expression by p63 is involved in EEC and SHFM congenital limb defects. Development. 2008;135:1377-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that p63 and Dlx proteins colocalize in the nuclei of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER)...
  53. Thomas B, Tucker A, Qui M, Ferguson C, Hardcastle Z, Rubenstein J, et al. Role of Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 genes in patterning of the murine dentition. Development. 1997;124:4811-8 pubmed
    ..A role for Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 genes in patterning of the dentition has been proposed with the genes envisaged as participating in an '..
  54. Lezot F, Descroix V, Mesbah M, Hotton D, Blin C, Papagerakis P, et al. Cross-talk between Msx/Dlx homeobox genes and vitamin D during tooth mineralization. Connect Tissue Res. 2002;43:509-14 pubmed
    ..This study is devoted to potential cross-talk between vitamin D and Msx/Dlx transcription factors...
  55. Mao R, Schummers J, Knoblich U, Lacey C, Van Wart A, Cobos I, et al. Influence of a subtype of inhibitory interneuron on stimulus-specific responses in visual cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:493-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined neuronal responses in primary visual cortex (V1) of adult Dlx1(-/-) mice, which have a selective reduction in cortical dendrite-targeting interneurons (DTIs) that express ..
  56. Lee B, Lee M, Song S, Loi L, Lam D, Yoon J, et al. Specification of neurotransmitter identity by Tal1 in thalamic nuclei. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:749-758 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Tal1 plays an essential role in regulating neurotransmitter phenotype in the developing thalamic nuclei. Developmental Dynamics 246:749-758, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  57. Long J, Swan C, Liang W, Cobos I, Potter G, Rubenstein J. Dlx1&2 and Mash1 transcription factors control striatal patterning and differentiation through parallel and overlapping pathways. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:556-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We have begun to elucidate the transcriptional hierarchy of these genes with respect to the Dlx homeodomain genes, which are essential for differentiation of most GABAergic projection neurons of the basal ..
  58. Weiss K, Bollekens J, Ruddle F, Takashita K. Distal-less and other homeobox genes in the development of the dentition. J Exp Zool. 1994;270:273-84 pubmed
    ..Members of several classes have been isolated, including the Msx genes, two Dlx genes, and the Dbx, MHox, Mox2A genes...
  59. Simmons C, Mastroeni P, Fowler R, Ghaem Maghami M, Lycke N, Pizza M, et al. MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic lymphocyte responses induced by enterotoxin-based mucosal adjuvants. J Immunol. 1999;163:6502-10 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the versatility of toxin-based adjuvants and suggest that LT potentiates CTL responses independently of IL-12 and IFN-gamma and probably by a mechanism unrelated to cross-priming. ..
  60. Dolle P, Price M, Duboule D. Expression of the murine Dlx-1 homeobox gene during facial, ocular and limb development. Differentiation. 1992;49:93-9 pubmed
    We have analysed the expression pattern of the mouse homeobox containing gene Dlx-1. This gene harbors a homeodomain related to that found in the Drosophila distal-less (dll) gene...
  61. Miura H, Yanazawa M, Kato K, Kitamura K. Expression of a novel aristaless related homeobox gene 'Arx' in the vertebrate telencephalon, diencephalon and floor plate. Mech Dev. 1997;65:99-109 pubmed
    ..The expression of Arx in the ganglionic eminence and ventral thalamus overlapped regionally with that of Dlx1, but the cell layer where Arx is expressed differed from that of the Dlx1...
  62. Peters H, Balling R. Teeth. Where and how to make them. Trends Genet. 1999;15:59-65 pubmed
    ..This cascade provides a molecular model by which reciprocal tissue interactions are controlled. ..
  63. Quint E, Zerucha T, Ekker M. Differential expression of orthologous Dlx genes in zebrafish and mice: implications for the evolution of the Dlx homeobox gene family. J Exp Zool. 2000;288:235-41 pubmed
    ..These pairs include Dlx1/Dlx2, Dlx7/Dlx3, and Dlx6/Dlx5 (the zebrafish orthologue of Dlx5 is named dlx4)...
  64. Philips G, Stair C, Young Lee H, Wroblewski E, Berberoglu M, Brown N, et al. Precocious retinal neurons: Pax6 controls timing of differentiation and determination of cell type. Dev Biol. 2005;279:308-21 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, precocious neurons adopted a generic rather than a specific retinal neuron fate. Thus, Pax6 regulates the timing of retinal neurogenesis and couples it with specific neuron differentiation programs. ..
  65. Petryniak M, Potter G, Rowitch D, Rubenstein J. Dlx1 and Dlx2 control neuronal versus oligodendroglial cell fate acquisition in the developing forebrain. Neuron. 2007;55:417-33 pubmed
    ..We investigated the combinatorial expression and function of Dlx1&2, Olig2, and Mash1 transcription factors in the ventral telencephalon...
  66. Jin Y, Turcotte T, Crocker A, Han X, Yoon J. The canonical Wnt signaling activator, R-spondin2, regulates craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis within the branchial arch through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction. Dev Biol. 2011;352:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study identifies Rspo2 as a mesenchyme-derived factor that plays critical roles in regulating BA1 patterning and morphogenesis through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction and a novel genetic factor for cleft palate. ..
  67. Simeone A, Acampora D, Mallamaci A, Stornaiuolo A, D Apice M, Nigro V, et al. A vertebrate gene related to orthodenticle contains a homeodomain of the bicoid class and demarcates anterior neuroectoderm in the gastrulating mouse embryo. EMBO J. 1993;12:2735-47 pubmed
    ..Its gene product contains a homeodomain of the bicoid class and is able to recognize and transactivate a bicoid target sequence. ..
  68. Song H, Lee B, Pyun D, Guimera J, Son Y, Yoon J, et al. Ascl1 and Helt act combinatorially to specify thalamic neuronal identity by repressing Dlxs activation. Dev Biol. 2015;398:280-91 pubmed publisher
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    ..These data suggest that Ebf genes may be involved in the control of neuronal differentiation in the CNS and in enforcing regional diversity in populations of post-mitotic forebrain neurons. ..
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    ..of 9 homeobox genes of the Antennapedia class; EVX2, a homeobox gene related to Drosophila-even-skipped gene; DLX1 and DLX2, two homeobox genes related to the Drosophila distal-less gene; and TTN and NEB, the genes for the two ..
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    ..Together, these studies demonstrate that Hes1, like Pax6, simultaneously regulates multiple developmental processes during optic development. ..