Gene Symbol: Dkk1
Description: dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1
Alias: mdkk-1, dickkopf-related protein 1, dickkopf homolog 1, dickkopf-1, dickkopf-like protein 1, dkk-1
Species: mouse
Products:     Dkk1

Top Publications

  1. Shu W, Guttentag S, Wang Z, Andl T, Ballard P, Lu M, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts upstream of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling to regulate proximal-distal patterning in the lung. Dev Biol. 2005;283:226-39 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, either by expression of Dkk1 or by tissue-specific deletion of beta-catenin, results in disruption of distal airway development and expansion of ..
  2. Osada M, Jardine L, Misir R, Andl T, Millar S, Pezzano M. DKK1 mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in postnatal mice leads to loss of TEC progenitors and thymic degeneration. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9062 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that tetracycline-regulated expression of the canonical Wnt inhibitor DKK1 in TECs localized in both the cortex and medulla of adult mice, results in rapid thymic degeneration characterized ..
  3. Heath D, Chantry A, Buckle C, Coulton L, Shaughnessy J, Evans H, et al. Inhibiting Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) removes suppression of bone formation and prevents the development of osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:425-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), a soluble inhibitor of wingless/int (Wnt) signaling and osteoblastogenesis, is elevated in patients with MM and ..
  4. Fossat N, Jones V, Khoo P, Bogani D, Hardy A, Steiner K, et al. Stringent requirement of a proper level of canonical WNT signalling activity for head formation in mouse embryo. Development. 2011;138:667-76 pubmed publisher
    In mouse embryos, loss of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) activity is associated with an ectopic activation of WNT signalling responses in the precursors of the craniofacial structures and leads to a complete truncation of the head at early ..
  5. Liu F, Thirumangalathu S, Gallant N, Yang S, Stoick Cooper C, Reddy S, et al. Wnt-beta-catenin signaling initiates taste papilla development. Nat Genet. 2007;39:106-12 pubmed
    ..genetic deletion of epithelial beta-catenin or inhibition of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling by ectopic dickkopf1 (Dkk1) blocks initiation of fungiform papilla morphogenesis...
  6. del Barco Barrantes I, Davidson G, Grone H, Westphal H, Niehrs C. Dkk1 and noggin cooperate in mammalian head induction. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2239-44 pubmed
    ..In Xenopus, simultaneous reduction of the BMP antagonists chordin and noggin, and the Wnt antagonist dickkopf1 (dkk1) leads to anterior truncations...
  7. Li J, Sarosi I, Cattley R, Pretorius J, Asuncion F, Grisanti M, et al. Dkk1-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in bone results in osteopenia. Bone. 2006;39:754-66 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the potential role of Dkk1, an inhibitor of LRP5/6 activity, in bone formation by examining the normal expression pattern of Dkk1 in normal ..
  8. Purro S, Dickins E, Salinas P. The secreted Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 is required for amyloid ?-mediated synaptic loss. J Neurosci. 2012;32:3492-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is increased in brains of AD patients and in AD transgenic mouse models, suggesting that dysfunction of Wnt ..
  9. Mukhopadhyay M, Shtrom S, Rodriguez Esteban C, Chen L, Tsukui T, Gomer L, et al. Dickkopf1 is required for embryonic head induction and limb morphogenesis in the mouse. Dev Cell. 2001;1:423-34 pubmed
    Dickkopf1 (Dkk1) is a secreted protein that acts as a Wnt inhibitor and, together with BMP inhibitors, is able to induce the formation of ectopic heads in Xenopus...

More Information


  1. Grotewold L, Ruther U. The Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 is regulated by Bmp signaling and c-Jun and modulates programmed cell death. EMBO J. 2002;21:966-75 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide evidence for an important role of Dkk-1-mediated inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in response to different stress signals that all converge on the activation of c-Jun in vivo. ..
  2. Rosi M, Luccarini I, Grossi C, Fiorentini A, Spillantini M, Prisco A, et al. Increased Dickkopf-1 expression in transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative disease. J Neurochem. 2010;112:1539-51 pubmed publisher
  3. Mao B, Wu W, Davidson G, Marhold J, Li M, Mechler B, et al. Kremen proteins are Dickkopf receptors that regulate Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. Nature. 2002;417:664-7 pubmed
    ..Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is inhibited by the secreted protein Dickkopf1 (Dkk1), a member of a multigene family, which induces head formation in amphibian embryos...
  4. Hu H, Hilton M, Tu X, Yu K, Ornitz D, Long F. Sequential roles of Hedgehog and Wnt signaling in osteoblast development. Development. 2005;132:49-60 pubmed
    ..Finally Wnt7b is identified as a potential endogenous ligand regulating osteogenesis. These data support a model that integrates Hh and Wnt signaling in the regulation of osteoblast development. ..
  5. Nie X. Dkk1, -2, and -3 expression in mouse craniofacial development. J Mol Histol. 2005;36:367-72 pubmed
    The Dickkopf family is important for embryogenesis and postnatal development and growth. Dkk1 is a strong head inducer and knockout of this gene leads to absence of anterior head structures, which are predominantly formed through neural ..
  6. Ito M, Yang Z, Andl T, Cui C, Kim N, Millar S, et al. Wnt-dependent de novo hair follicle regeneration in adult mouse skin after wounding. Nature. 2007;447:316-20 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest treatments for wounds, hair loss and other degenerative skin disorders. ..
  7. Fjeld K, Kettunen P, Furmanek T, Kvinnsland I, Luukko K. Dynamic expression of Wnt signaling-related Dickkopf1, -2, and -3 mRNAs in the developing mouse tooth. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:161-6 pubmed
    ..Comparison of Dkk1, -2, and -3 mRNA expression during mouse tooth formation revealed that all three genes showed distinct ..
  8. Min J, Park H, Choi H, Kim Y, Pyun B, Agrawal V, et al. The WNT antagonist Dickkopf2 promotes angiogenesis in rodent and human endothelial cells. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1882-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Dickkopf1 (DKK1) and Dickkopf2 (DKK2), originally known as WNT antagonists, play opposite functional roles in regulating ..
  9. Glinka A, Wu W, Delius H, Monaghan A, Blumenstock C, Niehrs C. Dickkopf-1 is a member of a new family of secreted proteins and functions in head induction. Nature. 1998;391:357-62 pubmed
    ..Injections of mRNA and antibody indicate that dkk-1 is sufficient and necessary to cause head induction. dkk-1 s a potent antagonist of Wnt signalling, suggesting that dkk genes encode a family of secreted Wnt inhibitors. ..
  10. MacDonald B, Joiner D, Oyserman S, Sharma P, Goldstein S, He X, et al. Bone mass is inversely proportional to Dkk1 levels in mice. Bone. 2007;41:331-9 pubmed
    ..Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is a secreted Wnt inhibitor that binds LRP5 and LRP6 during embryonic development, therefore it is expected that a ..
  11. Kuraguchi M, Wang X, Bronson R, Rothenberg R, Ohene Baah N, Lund J, et al. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is required for normal development of skin and thymus. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e146 pubmed
  12. Lewis S, Khoo P, De Young R, Steiner K, Wilcock C, Mukhopadhyay M, et al. Dkk1 and Wnt3 interact to control head morphogenesis in the mouse. Development. 2008;135:1791-801 pubmed publisher
    Loss of Dkk1 results in ectopic WNT/beta-catenin signalling activity in the anterior germ layer tissues and impairs cell movement in the endoderm of the mouse gastrula...
  13. Kong X, Zhang C. Dickkopf (Dkk) 1 promotes the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells toward neuroectoderm. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2009;45:185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..There are four Dkk genes in the human genome, and three in that of the mouse. Dkk1 is involved in a variety of craniofacial developmental processes and behaves as a strong head inducer and limb ..
  14. Cappuccio I, Calderone A, Busceti C, Biagioni F, Pontarelli F, Bruno V, et al. Induction of Dickkopf-1, a negative modulator of the Wnt pathway, is required for the development of ischemic neuronal death. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2647-57 pubmed
    ..We conclude that induction of Dkk-1 with the ensuing inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway is required for the development of ischemic and excitotoxic neuronal death. ..
  15. Ang S, Stump R, Lovicu F, McAvoy J. Spatial and temporal expression of Wnt and Dickkopf genes during murine lens development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:289-95 pubmed
    ..This is most notable for Wnt5a, which is barely detectable in the central lens epithelium at P21. Dkk1, Dkk2 and Dkk3 have similar patterns of expression to each other and to the majority of the Wnts during lens ..
  16. Smadja D, d Audigier C, Weiswald L, Badoual C, Dangles Marie V, Mauge L, et al. The Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 increases endothelial progenitor cell angiogenic potential. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2544-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of Wnt antagonist Dickkopf (DKK) 1 in human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in view of the emerging importance of Wnt pathways in vascular biology...
  17. Monaghan A, Kioschis P, Wu W, Zuniga A, Bock D, Poustka A, et al. Dickkopf genes are co-ordinately expressed in mesodermal lineages. Mech Dev. 1999;87:45-56 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate that dkk genes constitute a new family of secreted proteins that may mediate inductive interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. ..
  18. Lieven O, Ruther U. The Dkk1 dose is critical for eye development. Dev Biol. 2011;355:124-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated a Dkk1+/- haploinsufficiency during eye development, resulting in coloboma and anterior eye defects, two common ..
  19. Wang K, Zhang Y, Li X, Chen L, Wang H, Wu J, et al. Characterization of the Kremen-binding site on Dkk1 and elucidation of the role of Kremen in Dkk-mediated Wnt antagonism. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..range of developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes and is negatively regulated by Dickkopf1 (Dkk1)...
  20. Verani R, Cappuccio I, Spinsanti P, Gradini R, Caruso A, Magnotti M, et al. Expression of the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 is required for the induction of neural markers in mouse embryonic stem cells differentiating in response to retinoic acid. J Neurochem. 2007;100:242-50 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that induction of Dkk-1 and the ensuing inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway is required for neural differentiation of ES cells. ..
  21. Adamska M, MacDonald B, Sarmast Z, Oliver E, Meisler M. En1 and Wnt7a interact with Dkk1 during limb development in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2004;272:134-44 pubmed Wnt7a null mice, while extra digits result from excess Wnt signaling in mice null for the Wnt antagonist Dkk1. The extra digits and expanded apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of Dkk1-deficient mice closely resemble En1 null mice...
  22. Zuklys S, Gill J, Keller M, Hauri Hohl M, Zhanybekova S, Balciunaite G, et al. Stabilized beta-catenin in thymic epithelial cells blocks thymus development and function. J Immunol. 2009;182:2997-3007 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that a precise regulation of canonical Wnt signaling in thymic epithelia is essential for normal thymus development and function. ..
  23. Brugmann S, Goodnough L, Gregorieff A, Leucht P, ten Berge D, Fuerer C, et al. Wnt signaling mediates regional specification in the vertebrate face. Development. 2007;134:3283-95 pubmed
    ..We also used a biochemical approach to perturb Wnt signaling and found that in utero delivery of a Wnt antagonist, Dkk1, produced similar midfacial malformations...
  24. Fulciniti M, Tassone P, Hideshima T, Vallet S, Nanjappa P, Ettenberg S, et al. Anti-DKK1 mAb (BHQ880) as a potential therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma. Blood. 2009;114:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The production of the soluble Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) by MM cells inhibits OB activity, and its serum level correlates with focal bone lesions in MM...
  25. Oh H, Ryu J, Jeon J, Yang S, Chun C, Park H, et al. Misexpression of Dickkopf-1 in endothelial cells, but not in chondrocytes or hypertrophic chondrocytes, causes defects in endochondral ossification. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:1335-44 pubmed publisher
    ..involves the action of Dickkopf (DKK), which is a family of soluble canonical Wnt antagonists with four members (DKK1-4)...
  26. Andl T, Reddy S, Gaddapara T, Millar S. WNT signals are required for the initiation of hair follicle development. Dev Cell. 2002;2:643-53 pubmed
    ..To determine whether WNT signals are required for initiation of follicular development, we ectopically expressed Dickkopf 1, a potent diffusible inhibitor of WNT action, in the skin of transgenic mice...
  27. Choi H, Dieckmann M, Herz J, Niemeier A. Lrp4, a novel receptor for Dickkopf 1 and sclerostin, is expressed by osteoblasts and regulates bone growth and turnover in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7930 pubmed publisher
    ..Dickkopf1 (Dkk1) is another potent soluble Wnt inhibitor that binds to Lrp5 and Lrp6, can displace Lrp5-bound sclerostin and is ..
  28. Ren S, Johnson B, Kida Y, Ip C, Davidson K, Lin S, et al. LRP-6 is a coreceptor for multiple fibrogenic signaling pathways in pericytes and myofibroblasts that are inhibited by DKK-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1440-5 pubmed publisher
  29. MacDonald B, Adamska M, Meisler M. Hypomorphic expression of Dkk1 in the doubleridge mouse: dose dependence and compensatory interactions with Lrp6. Development. 2004;131:2543-52 pubmed and demonstrate that doubleridge acts in cis from a distance of 150 kb to reduce the expression of dickkopf 1 (Dkk1), the secreted Wnt antagonist...
  30. Verheyden J, Lewandoski M, Deng C, Harfe B, Sun X. Conditional inactivation of Fgfr1 in mouse defines its role in limb bud establishment, outgrowth and digit patterning. Development. 2005;132:4235-45 pubmed
    ..Our study of these two Fgfr1 conditional mutants has elucidated the multiple roles of FGFR1 in limb bud establishment, growth and patterning. ..
  31. Semenov M, Zhang X, He X. DKK1 antagonizes Wnt signaling without promotion of LRP6 internalization and degradation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21427-32 pubmed publisher
    b>DKK1 is a secreted protein that antagonizes Wnt signaling and plays essential roles in vertebrate embryogenesis including head induction, skeletal development, and limb patterning...
  32. Lieven O, Knobloch J, Ruther U. The regulation of Dkk1 expression during embryonic development. Dev Biol. 2010;340:256-68 pubmed publisher
    During embryogenesis, the Dkk1 mediated Wnt inhibition controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of cell fate determination, cell differentiation and cell death...
  33. Mastroiacovo F, Busceti C, Biagioni F, Moyanova S, Meisler M, Battaglia G, et al. Induction of the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1, contributes to the development of neuronal death in models of brain focal ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29:264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data rise the interesting possibility that Dkk-1 antagonists or drugs that rescue the Wnt pathway might be neuroprotective in stroke. ..
  34. Grotewold L, Theil T, Ruther U. Expression pattern of Dkk-1 during mouse limb development. Mech Dev. 1999;89:151-3 pubmed
    ..Later, the two expression domains become separated. At E12.5-E14.5 Dkk-1 transcripts are restricted to the interdigital mesenchyme. ..
  35. Morvan F, Boulukos K, Clément Lacroix P, Roman Roman S, Suc Royer I, Vayssière B, et al. Deletion of a single allele of the Dkk1 gene leads to an increase in bone formation and bone mass. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:934-45 pubmed
    ..We show that Dkk1, unlike Dkk2, negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation...
  36. Kuhnert F, Davis C, Wang H, Chu P, Lee M, Yuan J, et al. Essential requirement for Wnt signaling in proliferation of adult small intestine and colon revealed by adenoviral expression of Dickkopf-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:266-71 pubmed
    ..Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is a potent secreted Wnt antagonist that interacts with Wnt coreceptors of the LRP family...
  37. Minocha S, Bessonnard S, Sung T, Moret C, Constam D, Herr W. Epiblast-specific loss of HCF-1 leads to failure in anterior-posterior axis specification. Dev Biol. 2016;418:75-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We note that the pattern of Hcfc1(epiKO/Y) lethality displays many similarities to loss of ?-catenin function. These results reveal essential new roles for HCF-1 in early embryonic cell proliferation and development. ..
  38. Wang F, Ko J, Yeh D, Ke H, Wu H. Modulation of Dickkopf-1 attenuates glucocorticoid induction of osteoblast apoptosis, adipocytic differentiation, and bone mass loss. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1793-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) acts as a potent bone-remodeling factor that mediates several types of skeletal disorders...
  39. Miura S, Singh A, Mishina Y. Bmpr1a is required for proper migration of the AVE through regulation of Dkk1 expression in the pre-streak mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2010;341:246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dkk1, which is normally expressed in the anterior proximal visceral endoderm (PxVE), is downregulated in Bmpr-null ..
  40. Dela Cruz F, Terry M, Matushansky I. A transgenic, mesodermal specific, Dkk1 mouse model recapitulates a spectrum of human congenital limb reduction defects. Differentiation. 2012;83:220-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we generated transgenic mice expressing Dkk1 in an appendicular mesodermal pattern...
  41. Amantea C, Kim W, Meliton V, Tetradis S, Parhami F. Oxysterol-induced osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells is regulated by Dkk-1 inhibitable and PI3-kinase mediated signaling. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:424-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Osteogenic oxysterols are, therefore, important small molecule modulators of critical signaling pathways in pluripotent mesenchymal cells that regulate numerous developmental and post-developmental processes. ..
  42. Chen C, Murray P, Jiang T, Plikus M, Chang Y, Lee O, et al. Regenerative hair waves in aging mice and extra-follicular modulators follistatin, dkk1, and sfrp4. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2086-2096 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular studies show that extra-follicular modulators Bmp2, Dkk1, and Sfrp4 increase in early anagen...
  43. Kim B, Lee H, Kim I, Choi K, Park J, Yoon S. Increased expression of Dkk1 by HR is associated with alteration of hair cycle in hairpoor mice. J Dermatol Sci. 2014;74:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate regulation of Dkk1 by HR and its effect on hair formation...
  44. Killick R, Ribe E, Al Shawi R, Malik B, Hooper C, Fernandes C, et al. Clusterin regulates ?-amyloid toxicity via Dickkopf-1-driven induction of the wnt-PCP-JNK pathway. Mol Psychiatry. 2014;19:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..remained elusive, it is known to increase the expression of the antagonist of canonical wnt signalling, Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), whereas the silencing of Dkk1 blocks A? neurotoxicity...
  45. Wang S, Zhang S. Dickkopf-1 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian serous carcinoma and involved in tumor invasion. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011;28:581-91 pubmed publisher
    Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) was known as a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which played a crucial role in carcinogenesis. However, its function in human cancers remained elusive...
  46. Malhotra S, Kincade P. Canonical Wnt pathway signaling suppresses VCAM-1 expression by marrow stromal and hematopoietic cells. Exp Hematol. 2009;37:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This response may be important for export of hematopoietic cells. Given the known contribution of VCAM-1 to inflammation, this may represent a new avenue for therapeutic intervention. ..
  47. Fujita K, Janz S. Attenuation of WNT signaling by DKK-1 and -2 regulates BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation and expression of OPG, RANKL and M-CSF. Mol Cancer. 2007;6:71 pubmed
    ..We found that Dkk1 and -2 restored the Wnt3a-dependent reduction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Osterix and p53, indicating that ..
  48. Sugiyama N, Tsukiyama T, Yamaguchi T, Yokoyama T. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is not involved in renal cyst development in the kidneys of inv mutant mice. Kidney Int. 2011;79:957-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis that canonical Wnt signaling causes renal cyst development in these mice. ..
  49. Li Z, Yang J, Vazquez E, Rose D, Vakar Lopez F, Mathew P, et al. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) mediates the prostate cancer-induced formation of new bone. Oncogene. 2008;27:596-603 pubmed
    ..PC-3 cells expressed 50 times more Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of Wnt pathways, than did MDA PCa 2b cells...
  50. Malanchi I, Santamaria Martínez A, Susanto E, Peng H, Lehr H, Delaloye J, et al. Interactions between cancer stem cells and their niche govern metastatic colonization. Nature. 2011;481:85-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the education of stromal cells by infiltrating tumour cells is an important step in metastatic colonization and that preventing de novo niche formation may be a novel strategy for the treatment of metastatic disease. ..
  51. Caronia G, Wilcoxon J, Feldman P, Grove E. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the developing telencephalon controls formation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and modifies fear-related behavior. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6291-301 pubmed publisher
  52. Chilov D, Sinjushina N, Saarimäki Vire J, Taketo M, Partanen J. beta-Catenin regulates intercellular signalling networks and cell-type specific transcription in the developing mouse midbrain-rhombomere 1 region. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10881 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the role of beta-catenin in establishment of neuroectodermal signalling centers, promoting region-specific gene expression and regulation of cell fate determination. ..
  53. Haynes K, Pettit A, Duan R, Tseng H, Glant T, Brown M, et al. Excessive bone formation in a mouse model of ankylosing spondylitis is associated with decreases in Wnt pathway inhibitors. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R253 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression levels of DKK1 and SOST, Wnt signalling inhibitors highly expressed in joints, were reduced by 49% and 63% respectively in the ..
  54. Tortelote G, Hernández Hernández J, Quaresma A, Nickerson J, Imbalzano A, Rivera Perez J. Wnt3 function in the epiblast is required for the maintenance but not the initiation of gastrulation in mice. Dev Biol. 2013;374:164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..5. At the molecular level, we provide evidence that Wnt3 regulates its own expression and that of other primitive streak markers via activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  55. Glantschnig H, Hampton R, Lu P, Zhao J, Vitelli S, Huang L, et al. Generation and selection of novel fully human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) inhibitory function in vitro and increase bone mass in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40135-47 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling is a central regulatory component of bone formative and resorptive activities, and the pathway inhibitor DKK1 is a suppressor of bone formation and bone mass accrual in mice...
  56. Kimura Yoshida C, Nakano H, Okamura D, Nakao K, Yonemura S, Belo J, et al. Canonical Wnt signaling and its antagonist regulate anterior-posterior axis polarization by guiding cell migration in mouse visceral endoderm. Dev Cell. 2005;9:639-50 pubmed
    ..Here, defective axis conversion due to Otx2 deficiency can be rescued by expression of Dkk1, a Wnt antagonist, or following removal of one copy of the beta-catenin gene...
  57. Ribeiro D, Ellwanger K, Glagow D, Theofilopoulos S, Corsini N, Martin Villalba A, et al. Dkk1 regulates ventral midbrain dopaminergic differentiation and morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15786 pubmed publisher
    Dickkopf1 (Dkk1) is a Wnt/?-catenin inhibitor that participates in many processes during embryonic development...
  58. Pereira P, Dobreva M, Maas E, Cornelis F, Moya I, Umans L, et al. Antagonism of Nodal signaling by BMP/Smad5 prevents ectopic primitive streak formation in the mouse amnion. Development. 2012;139:3343-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that antagonism of Nodal signaling by BMP/Smad5 signaling prevents primitive streak formation in the amnion of normal mouse embryos. ..
  59. Nishioka N, Nagano S, Nakayama R, Kiyonari H, Ijiri T, Taniguchi K, et al. Ssdp1 regulates head morphogenesis of mouse embryos by activating the Lim1-Ldb1 complex. Development. 2005;132:2535-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Ssdp1 regulates the development of late head organizer tissues and body growth by functioning as an essential activator component of a Lim1 complex through interaction with Ldb1. ..
  60. Liu X, Xu H, Kou J, Wang Q, Zheng X, Yu T. MiR-9 promotes osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by inhibiting DKK1 gene expression. Mol Biol Rep. 2016;43:939-46 pubmed publisher
    ..b>DKK1 mRNA was not affected by miR-9 overexpression, however, DKK1 protein was significantly decreased...
  61. Leung A, Wong S, Chan D, Tam P, Cheah K. Loss of procollagen IIA from the anterior mesendoderm disrupts the development of mouse embryonic forebrain. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2319-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic interaction studies reveal that IIA function in forebrain and face development does not involve bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A (BMPR1A)- or NODAL-mediated signaling activity. ..
  62. Kwack M, Kim M, Kim J, Sung Y. Dickkopf 1 promotes regression of hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:1554-60 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we suggested that Dickkopf 1 (DKK-1) is a pathogenic mediator involved in male pattern baldness...
  63. Dietrich M, van der Weyden L, Prosser H, Bradley A, Herz J, Adams D. Ectodomains of the LDL receptor-related proteins LRP1b and LRP4 have anchorage independent functions in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9960 pubmed publisher
  64. Qin X, Zhang H, Zhou X, Wang C, Zhang H, Zhang X, et al. Proliferation and migration mediated by Dkk-1/Wnt/beta-catenin cascade in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Transl Res. 2007;150:281-94 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that Dkk-1/Wnt/beta-catenin cascade may mediate the proliferation and migration of HCC cells during the metastasis process. ..
  65. Chen W, Liang Y, Deng W, Shimizu K, Ashique A, Li E, et al. The zinc-finger protein CNBP is required for forebrain formation in the mouse. Development. 2003;130:1367-79 pubmed
    ..In these regions, Myc expression was absent, indicating CNBP targets Myc in rostral head formation. Our findings demonstrate that Cnbp is essential for the forebrain induction and specification. ..
  66. Cui C, Hashimoto T, Grivennikov S, Piao Y, Nedospasov S, Schlessinger D. Ectodysplasin regulates the lymphotoxin-beta pathway for hair differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9142-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, as an EDA target, LTbeta regulates the form of hair in developing hair follicles; and when EDA is defective, failure of LTbeta activation can account for part of the Ta phenotype. ..
  67. Acampora D, Di Giovannantonio L, Di Salvio M, Mancuso P, Simeone A. Selective inactivation of Otx2 mRNA isoforms reveals isoform-specific requirement for visceral endoderm anteriorization and head morphogenesis and highlights cell diversity in the visceral endoderm. Mech Dev. 2009;126:882-97 pubmed publisher
    ..for VE anteriorization and specification of rostral neuroectoderm at least in part by controlling the expression of Dkk1 and Lefty1. Here, we investigated the relevance of the Otx2 transcriptional control in these processes...
  68. Funck Brentano T, Bouaziz W, Marty C, Geoffroy V, Hay E, Cohen Solal M. Dkk-1-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in bone ameliorates osteoarthritis in mice. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:3028-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt activation in OA affects the whole joint, particularly bone. Selective inhibition of this pathway in bone by Dkk-1 decreased OA severity through VEGF inhibition. ..