Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Dhh
Description: desert hedgehog
Alias: C78960, desert hedgehog protein, HHG-3
- Takabatake T, Ogawa M, Takahashi T, Mizuno M, Okamoto M, Takeshima K. Hedgehog and patched gene expression in adult ocular tissues. FEBS Lett. 1997;410:485-9 pubmed..X-bhh, X-chh and mouse Ihh were detected in the iris and in the retinal pigment epithelium, while mouse Dhh was detected additionally in the neural retina and faintly in the cornea...
- Parmantier E, Lynn B, Lawson D, Turmaine M, Namini S, Chakrabarti L, et al. Schwann cell-derived Desert hedgehog controls the development of peripheral nerve sheaths. Neuron. 1999;23:713-24 pubmedWe show that Schwann cell-derived Desert hedgehog (Dhh) signals the formation of the connective tissue sheath around peripheral nerves...
- Echelard Y, Epstein D, St Jacques B, Shen L, Mohler J, McMahon J, et al. Sonic hedgehog, a member of a family of putative signaling molecules, is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity. Cell. 1993;75:1417-30 pubmed..Ectopic expression of Shh in the mouse CNS leads to the activation of floor plate-expressed genes. These results suggest that Shh may play a role in the normal inductive interactions that pattern the ventral CNS. ..
- Manuylov N, Zhou B, Ma Q, Fox S, Pu W, Tevosian S. Conditional ablation of Gata4 and Fog2 genes in mice reveals their distinct roles in mammalian sexual differentiation. Dev Biol. 2011;353:229-41 pubmed publisher..Our results now demonstrate that these two genes also have non-overlapping essential functions in testis development. ..
- Pierucci Alves F, Clark A, Russell L. A developmental study of the Desert hedgehog-null mouse testis. Biol Reprod. 2001;65:1392-402 pubmedDesert hedgehog (Dhh) is a cell-signaling molecule that was first discovered in Drosophila...
- Hammerschmidt M, Brook A, McMahon A. The world according to hedgehog. Trends Genet. 1997;13:14-21 pubmed..Here, we review recent experiments addressing the function of the various Hedgehog members during invertebrate and vertebrate development. ..
- Liu C, Peng J, Matzuk M, Yao H. Lineage specification of ovarian theca cells requires multicellular interactions via oocyte and granulosa cells. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6934 pubmed publisher..These progenitors acquire theca lineage marker Gli1 in response to paracrine signals Desert hedgehog (Dhh) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) from granulosa cells...
- Xuan S, Sussel L. GATA4 and GATA6 regulate pancreatic endoderm identity through inhibition of hedgehog signaling. Development. 2016;143:780-6 pubmed publisher..These studies establish the importance of GATA4/6-mediated inhibition of hedgehog signaling as a major mechanism regulating pancreatic endoderm specification during patterning of the gut tube. ..
- Bulgakov O, Eggenschwiler J, Hong D, Anderson K, Li T. FKBP8 is a negative regulator of mouse sonic hedgehog signaling in neural tissues. Development. 2004;131:2149-59 pubmed..Although it is expressed broadly, FKBP8 is required to antagonize SHH signaling primarily in neural tissues, suggesting that hedgehog signal transduction is subject to cell-type specific modulation during mammalian development. ..
- Jeays Ward K, Dandonneau M, Swain A. Wnt4 is required for proper male as well as female sexual development. Dev Biol. 2004;276:431-40 pubmed..mutant testes and that this defect occurs downstream of the testis-determining gene Sry but upstream of Sox9 and Dhh, two early Sertoli cell markers...
- Umehara F, Mishima K, Egashira N, Ogata A, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M. Elevated anxiety-like and depressive behavior in Desert hedgehog knockout male mice. Behav Brain Res. 2006;174:167-73 pubmedTo investigate the functional role of Desert hedgehog (Dhh) gene in the nervous system, we examined motor, sensory, learning and memory functions as well as mood in Dhh knockout (KO) mice...
- Driver E, Pryor S, Hill P, Turner J, Ruther U, Biesecker L, et al. Hedgehog signaling regulates sensory cell formation and auditory function in mice and humans. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7350-8 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that HH signaling plays a key role in the specification, size, and location of the prosensory domain, and therefore of hair cells, within the cochlea. ..
- Seidel K, Ahn C, Lyons D, Nee A, Ting K, Brownell I, et al. Hedgehog signaling regulates the generation of ameloblast progenitors in the continuously growing mouse incisor. Development. 2010;137:3753-61 pubmed publisher..These results therefore reveal the existence of a positive-feedback loop in which differentiating progeny produce the signal that in turn allows them to be generated from stem cells...
- Rice D, Connor E, Veltmaat J, Lana Elola E, Veistinen L, Tanimoto Y, et al. Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J mice exhibit lambdoid suture craniosynostosis which results from altered osteoprogenitor proliferation and differentiation. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3457-67 pubmed publisher..Taken together, we define a novel role for Gli3 in osteoblast development; we describe the first mouse model of lambdoid suture craniosynostosis and show how craniosynostosis can be rescued in this model. ..
- Rice R, Connor E, Rice D. Expression patterns of Hedgehog signalling pathway members during mouse palate development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:206-12 pubmed..No differences were found in the expression patterns of Hh pathway members along the anterior-posterior axis of the developing palate. ..
- Miyado M, Nakamura M, Miyado K, Morohashi K, Sano S, Nagata E, et al. Mamld1 deficiency significantly reduces mRNA expression levels of multiple genes expressed in mouse fetal Leydig cells but permits normal genital and reproductive development. Endocrinology. 2012;153:6033-40 pubmed publisher..The contrastive phenotypic findings between Mamld1 KO male mice and MAMLD1 mutation positive patients would primarily be ascribed to species difference in the fetal sex development. ..
- Russell M, Cowan R, Harman R, Walker A, Quirk S. The hedgehog signaling pathway in the mouse ovary. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:226-36 pubmed..RT-PCR analyses show developmentally regulated expression of sonic (Shh), indian (Ihh) and desert (Dhh) HH in the ovary. Expression is detected in whole ovary, granulosa cells, and corpora lutea...
- Gierl M, Gruhn W, von Seggern A, Maltry N, Niehrs C. GADD45G functions in male sex determination by promoting p38 signaling and Sry expression. Dev Cell. 2012;23:1032-42 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that a signaling cascade, involving GADD45G ? p38 MAPK ? GATA4 ? SRY, regulates male sex determination...
- Ikeda Y, Tanaka H, Esaki M. Effects of gestational diethylstilbestrol treatment on male and female gonads during early embryonic development. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3970-9 pubmed publisher..5. The results suggest that exogenous estrogens can alter sex-specific genetic pathways governing early differentiation and cell proliferation of both male and female gonads. ..
- Monk K, Oshima K, Jörs S, Heller S, Talbot W. Gpr126 is essential for peripheral nerve development and myelination in mammals. Development. 2011;138:2673-80 pubmed publisher..This analysis shows that Gpr126 is required for Schwann cell myelination in mammals, and defines new roles for Gpr126 in axonal sorting, formation of mature non-myelinating Schwann cells and organization of the perineurium. ..
- Bouma G, Washburn L, Albrecht K, Eicher E. Correct dosage of Fog2 and Gata4 transcription factors is critical for fetal testis development in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14994-9 pubmed..We propose that in humans the FOG2 and/or GATA4 genes might be haploinsufficient for normal testis determination and thus could be the cause of some previously unassigned cases of XY gonadal sex reversal. ..
- Rudat C, Norden J, Taketo M, Kispert A. Epicardial function of canonical Wnt-, Hedgehog-, Fgfr1/2-, and Pdgfra-signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:411-21 pubmed publisher..Canonical Wnt-, Hh-, and Fgfr1/Fgfr2-signalling are dispensable for epicardial development, but Pdgfra-signalling is crucial for the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts from epicardium-derived cells. ..
- Barrionuevo F, Georg I, Scherthan H, Lecureuil C, Guillou F, Wegner M, et al. Testis cord differentiation after the sex determination stage is independent of Sox9 but fails in the combined absence of Sox9 and Sox8. Dev Biol. 2009;327:301-12 pubmed publisher..This study shows that testis cord differentiation is independent of Sox9, and that concerted Sox9 and Sox8 function in post E14.0 Sertoli cells is essential for the maintenance of testicular function. ..
- Marigo V, Roberts D, Lee S, Tsukurov O, Levi T, Gastier J, et al. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal location of SHH and IHH: two human homologues of the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog. Genomics. 1995;28:44-51 pubmed..82, theta = 0.05) tightly linked to the EN2 locus. The murine homologues Shh, Ihh, and Dhh were mapped using (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus)F1 x C57BL/6J interspecific backcross. Shh mapped to a position 0...
- Kim G, Georg I, Scherthan H, Merkenschlager M, Guillou F, Scherer G, et al. Dicer is required for Sertoli cell function and survival. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:867-75 pubmed publisher..Taken together, the results of this study show that Dicer is required for Sertoli cell function and survival and for spermatogenesis in mice. ..
- Kim Y, Kobayashi A, Sekido R, DiNapoli L, Brennan J, Chaboissier M, et al. Fgf9 and Wnt4 act as antagonistic signals to regulate mammalian sex determination. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e187 pubmed..In principle, sex determination in other vertebrates may operate through any switch that introduces an imbalance between these two signaling pathways. ..
- Mirsky R, Parmantier E, McMahon A, Jessen K. Schwann cell-derived desert hedgehog signals nerve sheath formation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;883:196-202 pubmed
- Kumar S, Balczarek K, Lai Z. Evolution of the hedgehog gene family. Genetics. 1996;142:965-72 pubmed
- Chapouly C, Yao Q, Vandierdonck S, Larrieu Lahargue F, Mariani J, Gadeau A, et al. Impaired Hedgehog signalling-induced endothelial dysfunction is sufficient to induce neuropathy: implication in diabetes. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;109:217-27 pubmed publisher..By using Desert Hedgehog (Dhh)-deficient mice, we have revealed, that in the absence of Dhh, endoneurial capillaries are abnormally dense and ..
- Outram S, Varas A, Pepicelli C, Crompton T. Hedgehog signaling regulates differentiation from double-negative to double-positive thymocyte. Immunity. 2000;13:187-97 pubmed..We show that one consequence of pre-TCR signaling is downregulation of Smo, allowing DN thymocytes to proliferate and differentiate. ..
- Dyer M, Farrington S, Mohn D, Munday J, Baron M. Indian hedgehog activates hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis and can respecify prospective neurectodermal cell fate in the mouse embryo. Development. 2001;128:1717-30 pubmed..To our knowledge, these are the earliest functions for a hedgehog protein in post-implantation development in the mouse embryo. ..
- Bitgood M, McMahon A. Hedgehog and Bmp genes are coexpressed at many diverse sites of cell-cell interaction in the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 1995;172:126-38 pubmedThe mouse Hedgehog gene family consists of three members, Sonic, Desert, and Indian hedgehog (Shh, Dhh, and Ihh, respectively), relatives of the Drosophila segment polarity gene, hedgehog (hh)...
- Häärä O, Fujimori S, Schmidt Ullrich R, Hartmann C, Thesleff I, Mikkola M. Ectodysplasin and Wnt pathways are required for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. Development. 2011;138:2681-91 pubmed publisher..We also provide evidence suggesting that the effects of mesenchymal Wnt/?-catenin signaling are mediated, at least in part, through regulation of Eda expression. ..
- La Sala G, Marazziti D, Di Pietro C, Golini E, Matteoni R, Tocchini Valentini G. Modulation of Dhh signaling and altered Sertoli cell function in mice lacking the GPR37-prosaposin receptor. FASEB J. 2015;29:2059-69 pubmed publisher..It also affects the prepubertal testis expression of desert hedgehog (Dhh) mitogenic cascade components (Dhh, 1.3-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P10 and P21 pups; Gli2, 1.4-fold and 1...
- Wen Q, Zheng Q, Li X, Hu Z, Gao F, Cheng C, et al. Wt1 dictates the fate of fetal and adult Leydig cells during development in the mouse testis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307:E1131-43 pubmed publisher..In summary, FLC-like cells in mutant testes are putative FLCs that remain mitotically active in adult mice, illustrating that Wt1 dictates the fate of FLC and ALC during postnatal testis development. ..
- Meeks J, Crawford S, Russell T, Morohashi K, Weiss J, Jameson J. Dax1 regulates testis cord organization during gonadal differentiation. Development. 2003;130:1029-36 pubmed..The developmental abnormalities in the Dax1-deficient testis lay the foundation for gonadal dysgenesis and infertility in adult mice and, potentially in humans with DAX1 mutations. ..
- Lewis M, Ross S, Strickland P, Sugnet C, Jimenez E, Scott M, et al. Defects in mouse mammary gland development caused by conditional haploinsufficiency of Patched-1. Development. 1999;126:5181-93 pubmed..Data demonstrate a critical mammary role for at least one component of the hedgehog signaling network and suggest that Ihh is the primary hedgehog gene active in the gland. ..
- Jensen A, Wallace V. Expression of Sonic hedgehog and its putative role as a precursor cell mitogen in the developing mouse retina. Development. 1997;124:363-71 pubmed..These findings suggest that hedgehog and patched are part of a conserved signalling pathway in retinal development in mammals and insects. ..
- Kim R, Robertson E, Solloway M. Bmp6 and Bmp7 are required for cushion formation and septation in the developing mouse heart. Dev Biol. 2001;235:449-66 pubmed..5 and 15.5 dpc due to cardiac insufficiency. These data provide the first genetic evidence that BMPs are involved in the formation of the cardiac cushions. ..
- Chang D, L pez A, von Kessler D, Chiang C, Simandl B, Zhao R, et al. Products, genetic linkage and limb patterning activity of a murine hedgehog gene. Development. 1994;120:3339-53 pubmed..The significance of Hhg-1 genetic linkage, patterning activity and proteolytic processing in Drosophila and chick embryos is discussed...
- Jiang F, Herman G. Analysis of Nsdhl-deficient embryos reveals a role for Hedgehog signaling in early placental development. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:3293-305 pubmed
- Sharghi Namini S, Turmaine M, Meier C, Sahni V, Umehara F, Jessen K, et al. The structural and functional integrity of peripheral nerves depends on the glial-derived signal desert hedgehog. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6364-76 pubmedWe show that desert hedgehog (dhh), a signaling molecule expressed by Schwann cells, is essential for the structural and functional integrity of the peripheral nerve...
- Lee F, Faivre E, Suzawa M, Lontok E, Ebert D, Cai F, et al. Eliminating SF-1 (NR5A1) sumoylation in vivo results in ectopic hedgehog signaling and disruption of endocrine development. Dev Cell. 2011;21:315-27 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the sumoylation cycle greatly expands the functional capacity of transcription factors such as SF-1 and is leveraged during development to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression in multicellular organisms. ..
- Finzsch M, Schreiner S, Kichko T, Reeh P, Tamm E, Bösl M, et al. Sox10 is required for Schwann cell identity and progression beyond the immature Schwann cell stage. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:701-12 pubmed publisher..Schwann cells failed to develop beyond the immature stage and were unable to maintain identity. Thus, our study identifies a novel cause for peripheral neuropathies in patients with SOX10 mutations. ..
- Piprek R, Kolasa M, Podkowa D, Kloc M, Kubiak J. Cell adhesion molecules expression pattern indicates that somatic cells arbitrate gonadal sex of differentiating bipotential fetal mouse gonad. Mech Dev. 2017;147:17-27 pubmed publisher..This indicates that differential CAMs expression pattern in the somatic cells but not in the germ line arbitrates structural organization of gonadal anlagen into testis or ovary. ..
- Morales C, Fox A, El Alfy M, Ni X, Argraves W. Expression of Patched-1 and Smoothened in testicular meiotic and post-meiotic cells. Microsc Res Tech. 2009;72:809-15 pubmed publisherDesert hedgehog (Dhh) signaling plays an essential role in the normal development of the testis and in the process of spermatogenesis...
- Park S, Meeks J, Raverot G, Pfaff L, Weiss J, Hammer G, et al. Nuclear receptors Sf1 and Dax1 function cooperatively to mediate somatic cell differentiation during testis development. Development. 2005;132:2415-23 pubmed..The Sertoli cell product Dhh was reduced in Sf1 heterozygotes at E11...
- Manuylov N, Fujiwara Y, Adameyko I, Poulat F, Tevosian S. The regulation of Sox9 gene expression by the GATA4/FOG2 transcriptional complex in dominant XX sex reversal mouse models. Dev Biol. 2007;307:356-67 pubmed..We conclude that FOG2 is a limiting factor in the formation of a functional GATA4/FOG2 transcription complex that is required for Sox9 expression during gonadogenesis. ..
- Lin Y, Roffler S, Yan Y, Yang R. Disruption of Scube2 Impairs Endochondral Bone Formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:1255-67 pubmed publisher..However, whether SCUBE2 can regulate the signaling activity of two other hedgehog ligands (Ihh and Dhh), and the developmental relevance of the SCUBE2-induced hedgehog signaling in mammals remain poorly understood...
- Parkin C, Ingham P. The adventures of Sonic Hedgehog in development and repair. I. Hedgehog signaling in gastrointestinal development and disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G363-7 pubmed..Here we focus on the Hh signaling pathway and its role in GI tract development and maintenance and consider the diseases resulting from aberrant Hh activity. ..
- Li Y, Zhang L, Hu Y, Han F, Qin Y, Chen M, et al. β-Catenin directs the transformation of testis Sertoli cells to ovarian granulosa-like cells by inducing Foxl2 expression. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:17577-17586 pubmed publisher..Our study provides a new mechanism for Sertoli cell lineage maintenance during gonad development. ..
- Valenti G, Quinn H, Heynen G, Lan L, Holland J, Vogel R, et al. Cancer Stem Cells Regulate Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts via Activation of Hedgehog Signaling in Mammary Gland Tumors. Cancer Res. 2017;77:2134-2147 pubmed publisher..Targeting CAFs with Hedgehog inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(8); 2134-47. Â©2017 AACR. ..
- Adolphe C, Narang M, Ellis T, Wicking C, Kaur P, Wainwright B. An in vivo comparative study of sonic, desert and Indian hedgehog reveals that hedgehog pathway activity regulates epidermal stem cell homeostasis. Development. 2004;131:5009-19 pubmed..vertebrate hedgehog molecules play a role in regulating epidermal renewal we overexpressed sonic (Shh), desert (Dhh) and Indian (Ihh) hedgehog in the basal cells of mouse skin under the control of the human keratin 14 promoter...
- Dakubo G, Mazerolle C, Furimsky M, Yu C, St Jacques B, McMahon A, et al. Indian hedgehog signaling from endothelial cells is required for sclera and retinal pigment epithelium development in the mouse eye. Dev Biol. 2008;320:242-55 pubmed publisher..This study identifies Ihh as a novel choroid-derived signal that regulates RPE, sclera and neural retina development. ..
- Wu J, Williams J, Rizvi T, Kordich J, Witte D, Meijer D, et al. Plexiform and dermal neurofibromas and pigmentation are caused by Nf1 loss in desert hedgehog-expressing cells. Cancer Cell. 2008;13:105-16 pubmed publisher..Peripheral nerve and tumors contain transiently proliferating Schwann cells that lose axonal contact, providing insight into early neurofibroma formation. We suggest that timing of Nf1 mutation is critical for neurofibroma formation...
- Küspert M, Weider M, Müller J, Hermans Borgmeyer I, Meijer D, Wegner M. Desert hedgehog links transcription factor Sox10 to perineurial development. J Neurosci. 2012;32:5472-80 pubmed publisher..This resembled the defect observed after loss of Desert hedgehog (Dhh) in mice...
- Murone M, Rosenthal A, de Sauvage F. Hedgehog signal transduction: from flies to vertebrates. Exp Cell Res. 1999;253:25-33 pubmed..In the following review, we will not discuss in detail the role of Hh as a morphogen, but rather focus on its signal transduction pathway and its role in various human disorders. ..
- Jung J, Frump D, Su J, Wang W, Mozaffar T, Gupta R. Desert hedgehog is a mediator of demyelination in compression neuropathies. Exp Neurol. 2015;271:84-94 pubmed publisherThe secreted protein desert hedgehog (dhh) controls the formation of the nerve perineurium during development and is a key component of Schwann cells that ensures peripheral nerve survival...
- Szczepny A, Hime G, Loveland K. Expression of hedgehog signalling components in adult mouse testis. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3063-70 pubmed..Based on observations that deletion of one of the three Hh genes, Dhh, leads to male infertility, we hypothesized that regulated expression of Hh signalling components would be a ..
- Astorga J, Carlsson P. Hedgehog induction of murine vasculogenesis is mediated by Foxf1 and Bmp4. Development. 2007;134:3753-61 pubmed..However, vasculogenesis in Smo(-/-) yolk sacs can be rescued by exogenous Bmp4, consistent with the notion that the role of hedgehog signaling in primary vascular tube formation is as an activator of Bmp4, via Foxf1. ..
- Renault M, Robbesyn F, Chapouly C, Yao Q, Vandierdonck S, Reynaud A, et al. Hedgehog-dependent regulation of angiogenesis and myogenesis is impaired in aged mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2858-66 pubmed publisher..Sonic Hh expression was not different in old mice compared with young mice, whereas desert Hh (Dhh) expression was downregulated in the skeletal muscle of old mice both in healthy and ischemic conditions...
- Wang C, Low W, Liu A, Wang B. Centrosomal protein DZIP1 regulates Hedgehog signaling by promoting cytoplasmic retention of transcription factor GLI3 and affecting ciliogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29518-29 pubmed publisher..Therefore, DZIP1 is the first known ciliogenic protein that regulates Hedgehog signaling through a dual mechanism and that biochemically links IFT machinery with Hedgehog pathway components. ..
- Brennan J, Capel B. One tissue, two fates: molecular genetic events that underlie testis versus ovary development. Nat Rev Genet. 2004;5:509-21 pubmed
- Farrington S, Belaoussoff M, Baron M. Winged-helix, Hedgehog and Bmp genes are differentially expressed in distinct cell layers of the murine yolk sac. Mech Dev. 1997;62:197-211 pubmed..Our results suggest that similar mechanisms may be utilized to mediate inductive interactions in both extraembryonic and embryonic tissues. ..
- Zhang L, Chen M, Wen Q, Li Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. Reprogramming of Sertoli cells to fetal-like Leydig cells by Wt1 ablation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4003-8 pubmed publisher..This study thus provides a novel concept for somatic cell fate determination in testis development that may also represent an etiology of male infertility in human patients. ..
- Sarraj M, Escalona R, Umbers A, Chua H, Small C, Griswold M, et al. Fetal testis dysgenesis and compromised Leydig cell function in Tgfbr3 (beta glycan) knockout mice. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:153-62 pubmed publisher..The expression levels of Sertoli cell markers Dhh, Sox9, and Amh were also reduced in the knockout testis at 14.5 dpc...
- Liu C, Rodriguez K, Yao H. Mapping lineage progression of somatic progenitor cells in the mouse fetal testis. Development. 2016;143:3700-3710 pubmed..These results provide the first lineage progression map that illustrates the sequential establishment of somatic cell populations during testis morphogenesis. ..
- Combes A, Bowles J, Feng C, Chiu H, Khoo P, Jackson A, et al. Expression and functional analysis of Dkk1 during early gonadal development. Sex Dev. 2011;5:124-30 pubmed publisher..Nor did we find significant differences in expression of key markers of testis and ovarian development. We propose that DKK1 may play a protective role that is not unmasked by loss-of-function in the absence of other stressors. ..