Gene Symbol: Dct
Description: dopachrome tautomerase
Alias: TRP-2, TRP2, Tyrp-2, Tyrp2, slaty, slt, L-dopachrome tautomerase, DOPAchrome conversion factor, DOPAchrome isomerase, DOPAchrome oxidoreductase, L-dopachrome Delta-isomerase, SLATY locus protein, tyrosinase-related protein 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Dct

Top Publications

  1. Wong B, Rho J, Arron J, Robinson E, Orlinick J, Chao M, et al. TRANCE is a novel ligand of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase in T cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25190-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a role for this TNF-related ligand in the regulation of the T cell-dependent immune response. ..
  2. Kos L, Aronzon A, Takayama H, Maina F, Ponzetto C, Merlino G, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-MET signaling in neural crest-derived melanocyte development. Pigment Cell Res. 1999;12:13-21 pubmed
    ..c. These results demonstrate that HGF/SF-MET signaling influences, but is not required for, the initial development of neural crest-derived melanocytes in vivo and in vitro. ..
  3. Pavan W, Tilghman S. Piebald lethal (sl) acts early to disrupt the development of neural crest-derived melanocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7159-63 pubmed
    ..The non-uniform distribution of melanoblasts in wild-type mice suggests that piebald acts stochastically to affect melanocyte development. ..
  4. Jordan S, Jackson I. MGF (KIT ligand) is a chemokinetic factor for melanoblast migration into hair follicles. Dev Biol. 2000;225:424-36 pubmed
    ..We have utilised an organ culture for embryonic skin taken from Dct-lacZ transgenic mice...
  5. Trowe M, Maier H, Schweizer M, Kispert A. Deafness in mice lacking the T-box transcription factor Tbx18 in otic fibrocytes. Development. 2008;135:1725-34 pubmed publisher
  6. Steel K, Davidson D, Jackson I. TRP-2/DT, a new early melanoblast marker, shows that steel growth factor (c-kit ligand) is a survival factor. Development. 1992;115:1111-9 pubmed
  7. Costin G, Valencia J, Vieira W, Lamoreux M, Hearing V. Tyrosinase processing and intracellular trafficking is disrupted in mouse primary melanocytes carrying the underwhite (uw) mutation. A model for oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) type 4. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3203-12 pubmed
    ..dark vesicles that contain tyrosinase and two other melanogenic enzymes, Tyrp1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1) and Dct (DOPAchrome tautomerase); this secretory process is not seen in wild-type melanocytes...
  8. Britsch S, Goerich D, Riethmacher D, Peirano R, Rossner M, Nave K, et al. The transcription factor Sox10 is a key regulator of peripheral glial development. Genes Dev. 2001;15:66-78 pubmed
    ..Haploinsufficiency of Sox10 can thus cause pigmentation and megacolon defects, which are also observed in Sox10(Dom)/+ mice and in patients with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease caused by heterozygous SOX10 mutations. ..
  9. Ashery Padan R, Marquardt T, Zhou X, Gruss P. Pax6 activity in the lens primordium is required for lens formation and for correct placement of a single retina in the eye. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2701-11 pubmed

More Information


  1. Grindley J, Davidson D, Hill R. The role of Pax-6 in eye and nasal development. Development. 1995;121:1433-42 pubmed
  2. Potterf S, Mollaaghababa R, Hou L, Southard Smith E, Hornyak T, Arnheiter H, et al. Analysis of SOX10 function in neural crest-derived melanocyte development: SOX10-dependent transcriptional control of dopachrome tautomerase. Dev Biol. 2001;237:245-57 pubmed
    ..for the Sox10(Dom) mutation entirely lack neural crest-derived cells expressing the lineage marker KIT, MITF, or DCT. Moreover, neural crest cell cultures derived from homozygous embryos do not give rise to pigmented cells...
  3. Cable J, Jackson I, Steel K. Mutations at the W locus affect survival of neural crest-derived melanocytes in the mouse. Mech Dev. 1995;50:139-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that mutations of the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase encoded at the W locus do not alter early migration or differentiation of melanoblasts but severely affect melanoblasts survival. ..
  4. Morsli H, Tuorto F, Choo D, Postiglione M, Simeone A, Wu D. Otx1 and Otx2 activities are required for the normal development of the mouse inner ear. Development. 1999;126:2335-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that both Otx genes play important and differing roles in the morphogenesis of the mouse inner ear and the development of its sensory organs...
  5. Southard Smith E, Kos L, Pavan W. Sox10 mutation disrupts neural crest development in Dom Hirschsprung mouse model. Nat Genet. 1998;18:60-4 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that Sox10 is essential for proper peripheral nervous system development. We propose SOX10 as a candidate disease gene for individuals with HSCR whose disease does not have an identified genetic origin. ..
  6. Guyonneau L, Murisier F, Rossier A, Moulin A, Beermann F. Melanocytes and pigmentation are affected in dopachrome tautomerase knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3396-403 pubmed
    ..In comparison to the knockout, the slaty mutation (Dct(slt)/Dct(slt)) has less melanin and affects growth of primary melanocytes severely...
  7. Tsukamoto K, Jackson I, Urabe K, Montague P, Hearing V. A second tyrosinase-related protein, TRP-2, is a melanogenic enzyme termed DOPAchrome tautomerase. EMBO J. 1992;11:519-26 pubmed
    ..We now report that TRP-2 (tyrosinase related protein-2), which maps to and is mutated at the slaty locus in mice, encodes a protein with DOPAchrome tautomerase activity.
  8. Budd P, Jackson I. Structure of the mouse tyrosinase-related protein-2/dopachrome tautomerase (Tyrp2/Dct) gene and sequence of two novel slaty alleles. Genomics. 1995;29:35-43 pubmed
    ..exons and 5' and 3' flanking regions of the mouse tyrosinase-related protein-2 (dopachrome tautomerase) gene (Tyrp2/Dct), which is mutated in slaty mice...
  9. del Marmol V, Beermann F. Tyrosinase and related proteins in mammalian pigmentation. FEBS Lett. 1996;381:165-8 pubmed
    ..We will discuss recent findings on genomic organization, and on the proteins and their presumed function, which is important for eumelanin synthesis in mouse and man. ..
  10. Li A, Ma Y, Yu X, Mort R, Lindsay C, Stevenson D, et al. Rac1 drives melanoblast organization during mouse development by orchestrating pseudopod- driven motility and cell-cycle progression. Dev Cell. 2011;21:722-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Myosin contractility balances the extension of long pseudopods by effecting retraction and allowing force generation for movement through the complex 3D epidermal environment...
  11. Lanning J, Wallace J, Zhang D, Diwakar G, Jiao Z, Hornyak T. Altered melanocyte differentiation and retinal pigmented epithelium transdifferentiation induced by Mash1 expression in pigment cell precursors. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:805-17 pubmed
    ..factor Mash1 was expressed early in pigment cell development in transgenic mice from the dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) promoter. Dct:Mash1 transgenic founders exhibit variable microphthalmia and patchy coat color hypopigmentation...
  12. Inoue Narita T, Hamada K, Sasaki T, Hatakeyama S, Fujita S, Kawahara K, et al. Pten deficiency in melanocytes results in resistance to hair graying and susceptibility to carcinogen-induced melanomagenesis. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5760-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Pten is important for the maintenance of melanocyte stem cells and the suppression of melanomagenesis. ..
  13. Hodgkinson C, Moore K, Nakayama A, Steingrimsson E, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. Mutations at the mouse microphthalmia locus are associated with defects in a gene encoding a novel basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper protein. Cell. 1993;74:395-404 pubmed
    ..The multiple spontaneous and induced mutations available at mi provide a unique biological resource for studying the role of a bHLH-ZIP protein in mammalian development. ..
  14. Baxter L, Pavan W. Pmel17 expression is Mitf-dependent and reveals cranial melanoblast migration during murine development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:703-7 pubmed
    ..Pmel17 expression in dorsal regions precedes dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) ISH expression, suggesting Pmel17 identifies melanoblasts at an earlier developmental stage...
  15. Guyonneau L, Rossier A, Richard C, Hummler E, Beermann F. Expression of Cre recombinase in pigment cells. Pigment Cell Res. 2002;15:305-9 pubmed
    ..A construct was generated where Cre recombinase is controlled by the promoter of the mouse dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) gene. The construct was functionally tested in vitro and introduced into mice...
  16. Baxter L, Pavan W. The oculocutaneous albinism type IV gene Matp is a new marker of pigment cell precursors during mouse embryonic development. Mech Dev. 2002;116:209-12 pubmed
    ..membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP) varied similarly to the melanogenic enzymes dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) and tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1) (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (2002) in press)...
  17. Zhao S, Overbeek P. Tyrosinase-related protein 2 promoter targets transgene expression to ocular and neural crest-derived tissues. Dev Biol. 1999;216:154-63 pubmed
    ..we generated transgenic mice carrying the lacZ reporter gene linked to the tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) promoter...
  18. Kim H, Ryu J, Woo H, Cho S, Sung M, Kim S, et al. Patterns of gene expression associated with Pten deficiency in the developing inner ear. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97544 pubmed publisher
    ..From this study, we suggest two key regulatory signaling networks mediated by Spp1 and Rgs4, which may play potential roles in neuronal differentiation of developing auditory neurons. ..
  19. Orlow S, Hearing V, Sakai C, Urabe K, Zhou B, Silvers W, et al. Changes in expression of putative antigens encoded by pigment genes in mouse melanomas at different stages of malignant progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10152-6 pubmed
    ..within and among tumors in levels of mRNAs and proteins encoded by the wild-type alleles at the albino, brown, slaty, and silver loci...
  20. Rao C, Foernzler D, Loftus S, Liu S, McPherson J, Jungers K, et al. A defect in a novel ADAMTS family member is the cause of the belted white-spotting mutation. Development. 2003;130:4665-72 pubmed
    ..elegans. Our results suggest that the role of ADAMTS proteases in the regulation of cell migration has been conserved in mammalian development. ..
  21. Kobayashi T, Vieira W, Potterf B, Sakai C, Imokawa G, Hearing V. Modulation of melanogenic protein expression during the switch from eu- to pheomelanogenesis. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 6):2301-9 pubmed
    ..g. TRP1 encoded at the brown locus and TRP2 encoded at the slaty locus) regulate eumelanogenesis catalytically at steps distal to tyrosinase (as 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic ..
  22. Ozeki H, Ito S, Wakamatsu K, Hirobe T. Chemical characterization of hair melanins in various coat-color mutants of mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:361-6 pubmed
    ..black, lethal yellow, viable yellow, agouti, brown, light, albino, dilute, recessive yellow, pink-eyed dilution, slaty, and silver...
  23. Lee H, Levorse J, Shin M. The endothelin receptor-B is required for the migration of neural crest-derived melanocyte and enteric neuron precursors. Dev Biol. 2003;259:162-75 pubmed
    ..Rather, the EDNRB-mediated signaling is required for the terminal migration of melanoblasts and ENS precursors, and this pathway is not required for the survival of the migratory cells. ..
  24. Buniello A, Hardisty Hughes R, Pass J, Bober E, Smith R, Steel K. Headbobber: a combined morphogenetic and cochleosaccular mouse model to study 10qter deletions in human deafness. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56274 pubmed publisher
    ..We use Trp2 as a marker of melanoblasts migrating from the neural crest at E12...
  25. Burton Q, Cole L, Mulheisen M, Chang W, Wu D. The role of Pax2 in mouse inner ear development. Dev Biol. 2004;272:161-75 pubmed
  26. Romand R, Albuisson E, Niederreither K, Fraulob V, Chambon P, Dolle P. Specific expression of the retinoic acid-synthesizing enzyme RALDH2 during mouse inner ear development. Mech Dev. 2001;106:185-9 pubmed
    ..Raldh2 mesenchymal expression did not correlate with migrating neural crest-derived melanoblasts. These restricted expression domains may correspond to specific sites of RA synthesis during inner ear morphogenesis. ..
  27. Dankort D, Curley D, Cartlidge R, Nelson B, Karnezis A, Damsky W, et al. Braf(V600E) cooperates with Pten loss to induce metastatic melanoma. Nat Genet. 2009;41:544-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice, engineered with a common genetic profile to human melanoma, provide a system to study melanoma's cardinal feature of metastasis and for preclinical evaluation of agents designed to prevent or treat metastatic disease. ..
  28. Kunisada T, Yamazaki H, Hirobe T, Kamei S, Omoteno M, Tagaya H, et al. Keratinocyte expression of transgenic hepatocyte growth factor affects melanocyte development, leading to dermal melanocytosis. Mech Dev. 2000;94:67-78 pubmed
    ..Loss of E-cadherin expression in dermal melanocyte precursors suggests that HGF caused dermal localization of melanocytes and their precursors by down-regulation of E-cadherin molecules. ..
  29. Solano F, Martinez Liarte J, Jimenez Cervantes C, Garcia Borron J, Lozano J. Dopachrome tautomerase is a zinc-containing enzyme. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;204:1243-50 pubmed
    ..This enzyme, also named TRP2, belongs to the family of the tyrosinase related proteins...
  30. Yang S, Tsatsakis A, Tzanakakis G, Kim H, Le B, Sifaki M, et al. Soyasaponin Ag inhibits α‑MSH‑induced melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells via the downregulation of TRP‑2. Int J Mol Med. 2017;40:631-636 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, soyasaponin Ag did not exert any toxic on B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, suggesting that soyasaponin is a safe component for use in skin care cosmetic formulations that are used for skin whitening. ..
  31. Takashima Y, Era T, Nakao K, Kondo S, Kasuga M, Smith A, et al. Neuroepithelial cells supply an initial transient wave of MSC differentiation. Cell. 2007;129:1377-88 pubmed
    ..MSC recruitment from this pathway, however, is transient and is replaced by MSCs from unknown sources. We conclude that MSC can be defined as a definite in vivo entity recruited from multiple developmental origins. ..
  32. Ikeya M, Lee S, Johnson J, McMahon A, Takada S. Wnt signalling required for expansion of neural crest and CNS progenitors. Nature. 1997;389:966-70 pubmed
    ..Given the widespread expression of different Wnt genes in discrete areas of the mammalian neural tube, this may represent a general model for the action of Wnt signalling in the developing CNS. ..
  33. Xu G, Smith T, Grey F, Hill A. Cytomegalovirus-based cancer vaccines expressing TRP2 induce rejection of melanoma in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;437:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We expressed an unmodified melanoma antigen, mouse tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2), in mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV)...
  34. You S, Cho Y, Byun J, Shin E. Melanocyte-specific CD8+ T cells are associated with epidermal depigmentation in a novel mouse model of vitiligo. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013;174:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..by sequential prime/boost immunizations into the hind footpad and tail dermis with tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)-180 (SVYDFFVWL) peptide, lipopolysaccharides and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides...
  35. Ishiguro T, Nakajima M, Naito M, Muto T, Tsuruo T. Identification of genes differentially expressed in B16 murine melanoma sublines with different metastatic potentials. Cancer Res. 1996;56:875-9 pubmed
    ..TI-241 may regulate the expression of various genes as a transcription factor in the complex process of metastasis. ..
  36. Brito F, Kos L. Timeline and distribution of melanocyte precursors in the mouse heart. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2008;21:464-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we tracked cardiac melanoblasts using in situ hybridization with a dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) probe and Dct-LacZ transgenic mice...
  37. Agarwal P, Verzi M, Nguyen T, Hu J, Ehlers M, McCulley D, et al. The MADS box transcription factor MEF2C regulates melanocyte development and is a direct transcriptional target and partner of SOX10. Development. 2011;138:2555-65 pubmed publisher
  38. Hawkins G, Eggen A, Hayes H, Elduque C, Bishop M. Tyrosinase-related protein-2 (DCT; TYRP2) maps to bovine chromosome 12. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:474-5 pubmed
  39. Coram R, Stillwagon S, Guggilam A, Jenkins M, Swanson M, Ladd A. Muscleblind-like 1 is required for normal heart valve development in vivo. BMC Dev Biol. 2015;15:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that MBNL1 plays a conserved role in negatively regulating TGFβ signaling, and is required for normal valve morphogenesis and homeostasis in vivo. ..
  40. Sanchez Ferras O, Bernas G, Farnos O, Touré A, Souchkova O, Pilon N. A direct role for murine Cdx proteins in the trunk neural crest gene regulatory network. Development. 2016;143:1363-74 pubmed publisher
  41. Cai Z, Grobe K, Zhang X. Role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in optic disc and stalk morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:1310-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that HSPGs, depending on their HS sulfation pattern, regulate multiple signaling pathways in optic disc and stalk morphogenesis. ..
  42. Furumura M, Sakai C, Potterf S, Vieira W, Barsh G, Hearing V. Characterization of genes modulated during pheomelanogenesis using differential display. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7374-8 pubmed
    ..simultaneously identified six down-regulated genes in ASP-treated melanocytes; two of those encode tyrosinase and TRP2, melanogenic genes known to be down-regulated during pheomelanogenesis, which provide good internal controls for ..
  43. Aoki H, Yamada Y, Hara A, Kunisada T. Two distinct types of mouse melanocyte: differential signaling requirement for the maintenance of non-cutaneous and dermal versus epidermal melanocytes. Development. 2009;136:2511-21 pubmed publisher
  44. Hirobe T, Abe H. The slaty mutation affects the morphology and maturation of melanosomes in the mouse melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res. 2006;19:454-9 pubmed
    The slaty (Dct(slt)) mutation is known to reduce the activity of dopachrome tautomerase in melanocytes and to reduce the melanin content in skin, hairs and eyes...
  45. Wehrle Haller B, Weston J. Altered cell-surface targeting of stem cell factor causes loss of melanocyte precursors in Steel17H mutant mice. Dev Biol. 1999;210:71-86 pubmed
  46. Lee C, May N, Fan C. Transdifferentiation of the ventral retinal pigmented epithelium to neural retina in the growth arrest specific gene 1 mutant. Dev Biol. 2001;236:17-29 pubmed
    ..This defect is specific to the ventral region of the RPE. Using molecular markers for RPE (Mi and Tyrp2) and NR (Math5), we demonstrate that there is a gradual loss of Mi and Tyrp2 expression and an appearance of Math5 ..
  47. Stolt C, Lommes P, Hillgärtner S, Wegner M. The transcription factor Sox5 modulates Sox10 function during melanocyte development. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:5427-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Both binding site competition and recruitment of corepressors thus help Sox5 to modulate the activity of Sox10 in the melanocyte lineage. ..
  48. Ly L, Sluijter M, van der Burg S, Jager M, van Hall T. Effective cooperation of monoclonal antibody and peptide vaccine for the treatment of mouse melanoma. J Immunol. 2013;190:489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we advocate that tumor Ag-specific T cell immunity directed against self-proteins can be exploited from the endogenous repertoire. ..
  49. Stottmann R, Klingensmith J. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling is required in the dorsal neural folds before neurulation for the induction of spinal neural crest cells and dorsal neurons. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:755-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also demonstrate a requirement for BMP signaling in patterning of dorsal neural tube cell fate and in neural crest cell formation, and imply a critical period shortly before neural tube closure. ..
  50. Seberg H, Van Otterloo E, Loftus S, Liu H, Bonde G, Sompallae R, et al. TFAP2 paralogs regulate melanocyte differentiation in parallel with MITF. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006636 pubmed publisher
    ..find that expression of a small subset of genes underlying pigmentation phenotypes is TFAP2A-dependent, including Dct, Mc1r, Mlph, and Pmel...
  51. Wilson Y, Richards K, Ford Perriss M, Panthier J, Murphy M. Neural crest cell lineage segregation in the mouse neural tube. Development. 2004;131:6153-62 pubmed
    ..The p75+ cells are located ventrolateral to the Kit+ cells in areas of the NT where these two cell types are found. These data provide direct in vivo evidence for NC lineage segregation within the mouse neural tube. ..
  52. Miller A, Du J, Rowan S, Hershey C, Widlund H, Fisher D. Transcriptional regulation of the melanoma prognostic marker melastatin (TRPM1) by MITF in melanocytes and melanoma. Cancer Res. 2004;64:509-16 pubmed
    ..These studies identify MITF as a major transcriptional regulator of TRPM1 and suggest that its prognostic value may be linked to MITF-mediated regulation of cellular differentiation. ..
  53. Costin G, Valencia J, Wakamatsu K, Ito S, Solano F, Milac A, et al. Mutations in dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) affect eumelanin/pheomelanin synthesis, but do not affect intracellular trafficking of the mutant protein. Biochem J. 2005;391:249-59 pubmed
    ..Dct-mutant melanocytes carrying the slaty or slaty light mutations were derived from the skin of newborn congenic C57BL/6J non-agouti black mice and were ..
  54. Shibata S, Miwa T, Wu H, Levitt P, Ohyama T. Hepatocyte Growth Factor-c-MET Signaling Mediates the Development of Nonsensory Structures of the Mammalian Cochlea and Hearing. J Neurosci. 2016;36:8200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an additional example of context-dependent c-MET signaling diversity, required here for proper cellular invasion developmentally that is essential for specific aspects of auditory-related organogenesis. ..
  55. Adameyko I, Lallemend F, Furlan A, Zinin N, Aranda S, Kitambi S, et al. Sox2 and Mitf cross-regulatory interactions consolidate progenitor and melanocyte lineages in the cranial neural crest. Development. 2012;139:397-410 pubmed publisher
  56. Buac K, Xu M, Cronin J, Weeraratna A, Hewitt S, Pavan W. NRG1 / ERBB3 signaling in melanocyte development and melanoma: inhibition of differentiation and promotion of proliferation. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009;22:773-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that targeting ERBB3 activation and downstream genes identified in this study may provide novel therapeutic interventions for malignant melanoma. ..
  57. Hirobe T, Abe H. Changes of melanosome morphology associated with the differentiation of epidermal melanocytes in slaty mice. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:981-93 pubmed
    The slaty (Dct(slt)) mutation is known to reduce the activity of dopachrome tautomerase, which converts dopachrome to 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid in the pathway of eumelanin synthesis and to inhibit melanosome maturation in ..
  58. Shibahara S, Tomita Y, Yoshizawa M, Shibata K, Tagami H. Identification of mutations in the pigment cell-specific gene located at the brown locus in mouse. Pigment Cell Res. 1992;Suppl 2:90-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we are able to show that the b-locus protein containing Tyr 86 is not reactive with the anti-b-locus protein monoclonal antibody, TMH-1, in transient expression assays. ..
  59. Kwon B. Pigmentation genes: the tyrosinase gene family and the pmel 17 gene family. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;100:134S-140S pubmed
    ..the tyrosinase gene family, which is comprised of tyrosinase (c locus), gp75 (b locus) and DOPAchrome tautomerase (slt locus)...
  60. Theos A, Tenza D, Martina J, Hurbain I, Peden A, Sviderskaya E, et al. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5356-72 pubmed
  61. Kellerer S, Schreiner S, Stolt C, Scholz S, Bösl M, Wegner M. Replacement of the Sox10 transcription factor by Sox8 reveals incomplete functional equivalence. Development. 2006;133:2875-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the extent of functional equivalence depends on the tissue and that, despite their relatedness, Sox8 and Sox10 have more unique functions than previously appreciated. ..
  62. Sun H, Cai L, Davis S, Taylor J, Doud L, Bishop M, et al. Comparative linkage mapping of human chromosome 13 and bovine chromosome 12. Genomics. 1997;39:47-54 pubmed
    ..One intrachromosomal rearrangement was detected in this linkage group relative to human, and this rearrangement was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization results. ..
  63. Hari L, Miescher I, Shakhova O, Suter U, Chin L, Taketo M, et al. Temporal control of neural crest lineage generation by Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Development. 2012;139:2107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, neural crest cells appear to be multipotent in vivo both before and after emigration from the neural tube but adapt their response to extracellular signals in a temporally controlled manner. ..
  64. Horsford D, Nguyen M, Sellar G, Kothary R, Arnheiter H, McInnes R. Chx10 repression of Mitf is required for the maintenance of mammalian neuroretinal identity. Development. 2005;132:177-87 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the repression of Mitf by FGF is Chx10 dependent, indicating that FGF, Chx10 and Mitf are components of a pathway that determines and maintains the identity of the NR. ..
  65. O Donnell K, An W, Schrum C, Wheelan S, Boeke J. Controlled insertional mutagenesis using a LINE-1 (ORFeus) gene-trap mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2706-13 pubmed publisher
  66. Manceau M, Domingues V, Mallarino R, Hoekstra H. The developmental role of Agouti in color pattern evolution. Science. 2011;331:1062-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, natural selection favors late-acting, tissue-specific changes in embryonic Agouti expression to produce large changes in adult color pattern. ..
  67. Wu L, Li M, Hinton D, Guo L, Jiang S, Wang J, et al. Microphthalmia resulting from MSX2-induced apoptosis in the optic vesicle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:2404-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, deregulated Msx2 gene expression may be a plausible genetic mechanism by which the autosomal dominant form of congenital microphthalmia may arise. ..
  68. Schreiner S, Cossais F, Fischer K, Scholz S, Bösl M, Holtmann B, et al. Hypomorphic Sox10 alleles reveal novel protein functions and unravel developmental differences in glial lineages. Development. 2007;134:3271-81 pubmed
  69. Marathe H, Watkins Chow D, Weider M, Hoffmann A, Mehta G, Trivedi A, et al. BRG1 interacts with SOX10 to establish the melanocyte lineage and to promote differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:6442-6458 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that BRG1 was required for expression of Dct, Tyrp1 and Tyr, genes that are regulated by SOX10 and MITF and for chromatin remodeling at distal and proximal ..
  70. Hirobe T, Wakamatsu K, Ito S, Kawa Y, Soma Y, Mizoguchi M. The slaty mutation affects eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in mouse melanocytes. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006;85:537-49 pubmed
    The slaty (Dct(slt)) mutation is known to reduce the activity of dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) in melanocytes...
  71. Nitzan E, Krispin S, Pfaltzgraff E, Klar A, Labosky P, Kalcheim C. A dynamic code of dorsal neural tube genes regulates the segregation between neurogenic and melanogenic neural crest cells. Development. 2013;140:2269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Their timely downregulation in the dorsal neural tube is thus necessary for the switch between neural and melanocytic phases of NC development...
  72. Belmadani A, Jung H, Ren D, Miller R. The chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12 regulates the migration of melanocyte progenitors in mouse hair follicles. Differentiation. 2009;77:395-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate an important role for SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in directing the migration and positioning of melanoblasts in the HF. ..
  73. Nishikawa Torikai S, Osawa M, Nishikawa S. Functional characterization of melanocyte stem cells in hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2358-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Dct(tm1(Cre)Bee)/CAG-CAT-GFP mice, we show that, in the presence of stem cell factor and basic fibroblast growth factor ..
  74. Mui S, Kim J, Lemke G, Bertuzzi S. Vax genes ventralize the embryonic eye. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1249-59 pubmed
  75. Kluppel M, Nagle D, Bucan M, Bernstein A. Long-range genomic rearrangements upstream of Kit dysregulate the developmental pattern of Kit expression in W57 and Wbanded mice and interfere with distinct steps in melanocyte development. Development. 1997;124:65-77 pubmed
  76. Wehrle Haller B, Morrison Graham K, Weston J. Ectopic c-kit expression affects the fate of melanocyte precursors in Patch mutant embryos. Dev Biol. 1996;177:463-74 pubmed
  77. Aroca P, Garcia Borron J, Solano F, Lozano J. Regulation of mammalian melanogenesis. I: Partial purification and characterization of a dopachrome converting factor: dopachrome tautomerase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1035:266-75 pubmed
    ..1984) J. Invest. Dermatol. 83, 145-149) and the dopachrome conversion factor (Korner and Pawelek (1980) J. Invest. Dermatol...
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