Gene Symbol: Dbh
Description: dopamine beta hydroxylase
Alias: dopamine beta-hydroxylase, dopamine beta-monooxygenase
Species: mouse
Products:     Dbh

Top Publications

  1. Thomas S, Palmiter R. Disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene in mice suggests roles for norepinephrine in motor function, learning, and memory. Behav Neurosci. 1997;111:579-89 pubmed
    Mice unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) were created by targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene...
  2. Zhang W, Guzowski J, Thomas S. Mapping neuronal activation and the influence of adrenergic signaling during contextual memory retrieval. Learn Mem. 2005;12:239-47 pubmed
  3. Olson V, Heusner C, Bland R, During M, Weinshenker D, Palmiter R. Role of noradrenergic signaling by the nucleus tractus solitarius in mediating opiate reward. Science. 2006;311:1017-20 pubmed
    ..In mice lacking dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for NE synthesis, we found that NE was necessary for morphine-induced conditioned place ..
  4. Vincentz J, Vandusen N, Fleming A, Rubart M, Firulli B, Howard M, et al. A Phox2- and Hand2-dependent Hand1 cis-regulatory element reveals a unique gene dosage requirement for Hand2 during sympathetic neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that Hand1 is dispensable for normal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) expression in sympathetic neurons, even when Hand2 gene dosage is concurrently reduced by half...
  5. Swoap S, Gutilla M, Liles L, Smith R, Weinshenker D. The full expression of fasting-induced torpor requires beta 3-adrenergic receptor signaling. J Neurosci. 2006;26:241-5 pubmed
    ..the torpor adaptation to fasting by telemetrically monitoring the Tb of dopamine beta-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh-/-) mice, which lack the ability to produce the SNS transmitters, norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine...
  6. Schank J, Liles L, Weinshenker D. Norepinephrine signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63:1007-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated the performance of dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of ..
  7. Thomas S, Palmiter R. Thermoregulatory and metabolic phenotypes of mice lacking noradrenaline and adrenaline. Nature. 1997;387:94-7 pubmed
    ..The unexpected increase in basal metabolic rate is not due to hyperthyroidism, compensation by the widely expressed uncoupling protein UCP2, or shivering. ..
  8. Parlato R, Otto C, Begus Y, Stotz S, Schutz G. Specific ablation of the transcription factor CREB in sympathetic neurons surprisingly protects against developmentally regulated apoptosis. Development. 2007;134:1663-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, our analysis indicates that the activity of cell-autonomous pro-survival signalling is operative in developing sympathetic neurons in the absence of CREB. ..
  9. Szot P, Weinshenker D, White S, Robbins C, Rust N, Schwartzkroin P, et al. Norepinephrine-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to seizure-inducing stimuli. J Neurosci. 1999;19:10985-92 pubmed
    ..Seizure susceptibility was determined in the dopamine beta-hydroxylase null mutant (Dbh -/-) mouse using four different convulsant stimuli: 2,2,2-trifluroethyl ether (flurothyl), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), ..

More Information


  1. Tsarovina K, Pattyn A, Stubbusch J, Muller F, van der Wees J, Schneider C, et al. Essential role of Gata transcription factors in sympathetic neuron development. Development. 2004;131:4775-86 pubmed
    ..after Mash1, Phox2b, Hand2 and Phox2a expression, but before the onset of the noradrenergic marker genes Th and Dbh, and is maintained throughout development...
  2. Tsarovina K, Reiff T, Stubbusch J, Kurek D, Grosveld F, Parlato R, et al. The Gata3 transcription factor is required for the survival of embryonic and adult sympathetic neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of Gata3 in embryonic DBH-expressing neurons elicits a strong reduction in neuron numbers due to apoptotic cell death and reduced ..
  3. Burau K, Stenull I, Huber K, Misawa H, Berse B, Unsicker K, et al. c-ret regulates cholinergic properties in mouse sympathetic neurons: evidence from mutant mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:353-62 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that c-ret signalling is necessary for the maturation of cholinergic sympathetic neurons but dispensable for de novo induction of ChAT and VAChT expression. ..
  4. Weinshenker D, Ferrucci M, Busceti C, Biagioni F, Lazzeri G, Liles L, et al. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of noradrenaline synthesis enhances the neurochemical, behavioral, and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine. J Neurochem. 2008;105:471-83 pubmed
    ..lacking NA (genetic or acute pharmacological blockade of the NA biosynthetic enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase; DBH)...
  5. Huber K, Ernsberger U. Cholinergic differentiation occurs early in mouse sympathetic neurons and requires Phox2b. Gene Expr. 2006;13:133-9 pubmed
    ..Phox2b is required for development of cholinergic neurons but does not suffice to support cholinergic properties in chromaffin cells. ..
  6. Thomas S, Marck B, Palmiter R, Matsumoto A. Restoration of norepinephrine and reversal of phenotypes in mice lacking dopamine beta-hydroxylase. J Neurochem. 1998;70:2468-76 pubmed
    Mice with a targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene are unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine...
  7. Coppola E, D Autréaux F, Rijli F, Brunet J. Ongoing roles of Phox2 homeodomain transcription factors during neuronal differentiation. Development. 2010;137:4211-20 pubmed publisher
  8. Aroca P, Lorente Cánovas B, Mateos F, Puelles L. Locus coeruleus neurons originate in alar rhombomere 1 and migrate into the basal plate: Studies in chick and mouse embryos. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:802-18 pubmed
    ..studied the topography of the developing LoC in the hindbrain, using as markers the key noradrenergic marker gene Dbh and the transcription factors Phox2a and Phox2b (upstream of Dbh)...
  9. Pattyn A, Morin X, Cremer H, Goridis C, Brunet J. The homeobox gene Phox2b is essential for the development of autonomic neural crest derivatives. Nature. 1999;399:366-70 pubmed
  10. Weinshenker D, Miller N, Blizinsky K, Laughlin M, Palmiter R. Mice with chronic norepinephrine deficiency resemble amphetamine-sensitized animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13873-7 pubmed
    ..NE) signaling modulates psychostimulant responses by testing LRA in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh-/-) mice that lack NE. Surprisingly, Dbh-/- animals were hypersensitive to the behavioral effects of amphetamine...
  11. Morikawa Y, D Autréaux F, Gershon M, Cserjesi P. Hand2 determines the noradrenergic phenotype in the mouse sympathetic nervous system. Dev Biol. 2007;307:114-26 pubmed
    ..the levels of the norepinephrine biosynthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) was examined...
  12. Thomas S, Matsumoto A, Palmiter R. Noradrenaline is essential for mouse fetal development. Nature. 1995;374:643-6 pubmed
    ..Mutant embryos had a histological phenotype similar to that of embryos deficient in tyrosine hydroxylase, suggesting that death might be due to cardiovascular failure. ..
  13. Gaufo G, Wu S, Capecchi M. Contribution of Hox genes to the diversity of the hindbrain sensory system. Development. 2004;131:1259-66 pubmed
    ..More generally, these findings contribute to our understanding of how Hox genes specifically control cellular diversity in the developing organism ..
  14. Yagi H, Takamura Y, Yoneda T, Konno D, Akagi Y, Yoshida K, et al. Vlgr1 knockout mice show audiogenic seizure susceptibility. J Neurochem. 2005;92:191-202 pubmed
    ..Our monogenic mice, which have a unique genetic background, serve as a useful tool for further studies on seizures. ..
  15. Hong S, Lardaro T, Oh M, Huh Y, Ding Y, Kang U, et al. Regulation of the noradrenaline neurotransmitter phenotype by the transcription factor AP-2beta. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16860-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we propose that AP-2beta plays critical and distinctive roles in the NA phenotype specification in both the peripheral and central nervous system during development. ..
  16. Paladini C, Robinson S, Morikawa H, Williams J, Palmiter R. Dopamine controls the firing pattern of dopamine neurons via a network feedback mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2866-71 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that endogenously released dopamine plays a critical role in the afferent control of dopamine neuron bursting activity and that this control is exerted via a network feedback mechanism. ..
  17. Mbikay M, Tadros H, Seidah N, Simpson E. Linkage mapping of the gene for the LIM-homeoprotein LIM3 (locus Lhx3) to mouse chromosome 2. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:818-9 pubmed
  18. Kobayashi K, Morita S, Mizuguchi T, Sawada H, Yamada K, Nagatsu I, et al. Functional and high level expression of human dopamine beta-hydroxylase in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:29725-31 pubmed
    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH; EC catalyzes the production of the neurotransmitter and hormone norepinephrine in the third step of the catecholamine biosynthesis pathway...
  19. Qian Y, Fritzsch B, Shirasawa S, Chen C, Choi Y, Ma Q. Formation of brainstem (nor)adrenergic centers and first-order relay visceral sensory neurons is dependent on homeodomain protein Rnx/Tlx3. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2533-45 pubmed
  20. Chen H, Lun Y, Ovchinnikov D, Kokubo H, Oberg K, Pepicelli C, et al. Limb and kidney defects in Lmx1b mutant mice suggest an involvement of LMX1B in human nail patella syndrome. Nat Genet. 1998;19:51-5 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate an essential function for Lmx1b in mouse limb and kidney development and suggest that NPS might result from mutations in the human LMX1B gene...
  21. Denenberg V, Kim D, Palmiter R. The role of dopamine in learning, memory, and performance of a water escape task. Behav Brain Res. 2004;148:73-8 pubmed
  22. Katayama Y, Battista M, Kao W, Hidalgo A, Peired A, Thomas S, et al. Signals from the sympathetic nervous system regulate hematopoietic stem cell egress from bone marrow. Cell. 2006;124:407-21 pubmed
    ..Further, administration of a beta(2) adrenergic agonist enhances mobilization in both control and NE-deficient mice. Thus, these results indicate that the sympathetic nervous system regulates the attraction of stem cells to their niche...
  23. Shepard K, Liles L, Weinshenker D, Liu R. Norepinephrine is necessary for experience-dependent plasticity in the developing mouse auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2015;35:2432-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we exposed dopamine β-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh(-/-)) mice, which lack NE completely from birth, to a biased acoustic environment during the auditory cortical ..
  24. Barrie E, Weinshenker D, Verma A, Pendergrass S, Lange L, Ritchie M, et al. Regulatory polymorphisms in human DBH affect peripheral gene expression and sympathetic activity. Circ Res. 2014;115:1017-25 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine in the central nervous system and peripherally...
  25. Sanders J, Szot P, Weinshenker D, Happe H, Bylund D, Murrin L. Analysis of brain adrenergic receptors in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase knockout mice. Brain Res. 2006;1109:45-53 pubmed
    ..of norepinephrine occurs through a multi-enzymatic pathway that includes the enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Mice with a homozygous deletion of DBH (Dbh-/-) have a selective and complete absence of norepinephrine...
  26. Cubells J, Schroeder J, Barrie E, Manvich D, Sadee W, Berg T, et al. Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Transgenesis Fully Rescues Noradrenergic Function in Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Knockout Mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154864 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic/adrenergic cells...
  27. Wildner H, Gierl M, Strehle M, Pla P, Birchmeier C. Insm1 (IA-1) is a crucial component of the transcriptional network that controls differentiation of the sympatho-adrenal lineage. Development. 2008;135:473-81 pubmed
    ..of sympatho-adrenal precursors, as assessed by the expression of neuronal subtype-specific genes such as Th and Dbh, is delayed in a pronounced manner, which is accompanied by a reduced proliferation...
  28. Reilly D, Curtis A, Cheng Y, Westgate E, Rudic R, Paschos G, et al. Peripheral circadian clock rhythmicity is retained in the absence of adrenergic signaling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:121-6 pubmed
    ..Per2 were preserved ex vivo in the aorta, heart, and liver harvested from dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout mice (Dbh-/-) that cannot synthesize either norepinephrine or epinephrine...
  29. Pilz A, Moseley H, Peters J, Abbott C. Comparative mapping of mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 9q: the genes for gelsolin and dopamine beta-hydroxylase map to mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1992;12:715-9 pubmed
    ..Two genes that map to human chromosome 9q34, gelsolin (GSN) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), have not previously been located in the mouse...
  30. Weinshenker D, Rust N, Miller N, Palmiter R. Ethanol-associated behaviors of mice lacking norepinephrine. J Neurosci. 2000;20:3157-64 pubmed
    ..to determine the effect of NE depletion on ethanol-mediated behaviors by using dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that specifically lack the ability to synthesize NE...
  31. Robertson S, Plummer N, De Marchena J, Jensen P. Developmental origins of central norepinephrine neuron diversity. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1016-23 pubmed publisher
  32. Takeda S, Elefteriou F, Levasseur R, Liu X, Zhao L, Parker K, et al. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system. Cell. 2002;111:305-17 pubmed
    ..None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis. ..
  33. Rüdiger R, BINDER E, Tsarovina K, Schmidt M, Reiff T, Stubbusch J, et al. In vivo role for CREB signaling in the noradrenergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..development proceeds normally in CREB-deficient mouse embryos, a decrease in noradrenergic differentiation (TH, DBH) was observed in chick sympathetic ganglia in response to ACREB, a dominant-negative CREB variant which interferes ..
  34. Ste Marie L, Luquet S, Curtis W, Palmiter R. Norepinephrine- and epinephrine-deficient mice gain weight normally on a high-fat diet. Obes Res. 2005;13:1518-22 pubmed
    ..one would predict that mice unable to make NE/Epi because of inactivation of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene (Dbh-null mice) would have a propensity to become obese...
  35. Tafari A, Thomas S, Palmiter R. Norepinephrine facilitates the development of the murine sweat response but is not essential. J Neurosci. 1997;17:4275-81 pubmed
    ..We tested this hypothesis in vivo using dopamine beta-hydroxylase-deficient mice (DBH -/-), which are unable to synthesize NE and epinephrine, and tyrosine hydroxylase-deficient mice (TH -/-), which ..
  36. Kvetnansky R, Krizanova O, Tillinger A, Sabban E, Thomas S, Kubovcakova L. Regulation of gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase- and CRH-knockout mice exposed to stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:257-68 pubmed publisher
    Norepinephrine-deficient mice harbor a disruption of the gene for dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH-KO). Corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout mice (CRH-KO) have markedly reduced HPA activity...
  37. Szczypka M, Rainey M, Kim D, Alaynick W, Marck B, Matsumoto A, et al. Feeding behavior in dopamine-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:12138-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, DA-/- mice can execute behaviors necessary to seek and ingest food, but they do not eat enough to survive. ..
  38. Seeman P, Weinshenker D, Quirion R, Srivastava L, Bhardwaj S, Grandy D, et al. Dopamine supersensitivity correlates with D2High states, implying many paths to psychosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3513-8 pubmed
    ..psychoses, and after hippocampal lesions, antipsychotics, ethanol, amphetamine, phencyclidine, gene knockouts of Dbh (dopamine beta-hydroxylase), Drd4 receptors, Gprk6 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6), Comt (catechol-O-..
  39. Henschen C, Palmiter R, Darvas M. Restoration of dopamine signaling to the dorsal striatum is sufficient for aspects of active maternal behavior in female mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4316-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, DA in the dorsal striatum is sufficient to allow for active maternal behavior. ..
  40. Robinson S, Smith D, Mizumori S, Palmiter R. Firing properties of dopamine neurons in freely moving dopamine-deficient mice: effects of dopamine receptor activation and anesthesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13329-34 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that restoration of endogenous dopamine signaling activates hypersensitive long-loop feedback pathways that serve to limit dopamine release and underscore the importance of recording from awake animals. ..
  41. Hu F, Hanna G, Han W, Mardini F, Thomas S, Wyner A, et al. Hypnotic hypersensitivity to volatile anesthetics and dexmedetomidine in dopamine ?-hydroxylase knockout mice. Anesthesiology. 2012;117:1006-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Using dopamine ?-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh) mice genetically engineered to lack the adrenergic ligands and their siblings with normal adrenergic levels, we ..
  42. Cho M, Rao M, Koch W, Thomas S, Palmiter R, Rockman H. Enhanced contractility and decreased beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 in mice lacking endogenous norepinephrine and epinephrine. Circulation. 1999;99:2702-7 pubmed
    ..Gene-targeted mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/-), the enzyme needed to convert dopamine to NE, were created by homologous recombination...
  43. Hirsch M, Tiveron M, Guillemot F, Brunet J, Goridis C. Control of noradrenergic differentiation and Phox2a expression by MASH1 in the central and peripheral nervous system. Development. 1998;125:599-608 pubmed
  44. Saga Y, Kobayashi M, Ohta H, Murai N, Nakai N, Oshima M, et al. Impaired extrapyramidal function caused by the targeted disruption of retinoid X receptor RXRgamma1 isoform. Genes Cells. 1999;4:219-28 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that RXRgamma1 plays an important role in either the development or activation of cholinergic neurones in nigrostriatal extrapyramidal pathways. ..
  45. Fadok J, Dickerson T, Palmiter R. Dopamine is necessary for cue-dependent fear conditioning. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11089-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that DA acting on multiple receptor subtypes within multiple target regions facilitates the stabilization of fear memory. ..
  46. Stubbusch J, Narasimhan P, Hennchen M, Huber K, Unsicker K, Ernsberger U, et al. Lineage and stage specific requirement for Dicer1 in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla formation and maintenance. Dev Biol. 2015;400:210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..5. The number of Dbh, Th and TrkA expressing noradrenergic neurons is strongly decreased in Dicer1-deficient sympathetic ganglia at ..
  47. Zhang H, Cotecchia S, Thomas S, Tanoue A, Tsujimoto G, Faber J. Gene deletion of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and alpha1-adrenoceptors demonstrates involvement of catecholamines in vascular remodeling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H2106-14 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study, in which mice devoid of norepinephrine and epinephrine synthesis [dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH-/-)] or deficient in alpha1-AR subtypes expressed in murine carotid (alpha1B-AR-/- and alpha1D-AR-/-) were used, ..
  48. Vincentz J, Firulli B, Lin A, Spicer D, Howard M, Firulli A. Twist1 controls a cell-specification switch governing cell fate decisions within the cardiac neural crest. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003405 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Twist1 functions in post-migratory neural crest cells to repress pro-neural factors and thereby regulate cell fate determination between ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. ..
  49. Steinle J, Kern T, Thomas S, McFadyen Ketchum L, Smith C. Increased basement membrane thickness, pericyte ghosts, and loss of retinal thickness and cells in dopamine beta hydroxylase knockout mice. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88:1014-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this, retinas from non-diabetic dopamine beta hydroxylase (Dbh, Dbh(-/-)) knockout mice and their littermate controls were assessed for diabetic-like capillary ..
  50. Tiveron M, Hirsch M, Brunet J. The expression pattern of the transcription factor Phox2 delineates synaptic pathways of the autonomic nervous system. J Neurosci. 1996;16:7649-60 pubmed
    ..e., that of the medullary control reflexes of autonomic functions. This suggests that Phox2 could be involved in the establishment of these circuits. ..
  51. Shi M, Guo C, Dai J, Ding Y. DCC is required for the tangential migration of noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus of mouse brain. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;39:529-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate that DCC is a key regulator of tangential migration of LC neurons during the embryonic development. ..
  52. Chartoff E, Marck B, Matsumoto A, Dorsa D, Palmiter R. Induction of stereotypy in dopamine-deficient mice requires striatal D1 receptor activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10451-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that activation of D1 receptors on a specific population of striatal neurons is required for the induction of stereotypy in DD mice. ..
  53. Chen S, Du C, Shen M, Zhao G, Xu Y, Yang K, et al. Sympathetic stimulation facilitates thrombopoiesis by promoting megakaryocyte adhesion, migration, and proplatelet formation. Blood. 2016;127:1024-35 pubmed publisher
    ..peripheral platelet levels in normal and splenectomized mice, but not in dopamine β-hydroxylase-deficient (Dbh(-/-)) mice that lack norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI)...
  54. Marino M, Bourdélat Parks B, Cameron Liles L, Weinshenker D. Genetic reduction of noradrenergic function alters social memory and reduces aggression in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2005;161:197-203 pubmed
    ..We tested dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that lack NA in various social behavior paradigms...
  55. Kim D, Palmiter R. Adenosine receptor blockade reverses hypophagia and enhances locomotor activity of dopamine-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1346-51 pubmed
    ..This study of a genetic model of dopamine depletion provides evidence that A(2A) receptor antagonists could ameliorate the hypokinetic symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease patients without inducing excessive motor activity. ..
  56. Shi Y, Alin K, Goff S. Abl-interactor-1, a novel SH3 protein binding to the carboxy-terminal portion of the Abl protein, suppresses v-abl transforming activity. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2583-97 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the Abi-1 protein may serve as a regulator of Abl function in transformation or in signal transduction. ..
  57. Cryan J, O Leary O, Jin S, Friedland J, Ouyang M, Hirsch B, et al. Norepinephrine-deficient mice lack responses to antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8186-91 pubmed
    ..to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine due to targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene, Dbh, were used to critically test roles for NE in mediating acute behavioral changes elicited by different classes of ..
  58. Cannon C, Palmiter R. Reward without dopamine. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10827-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, DA is not required for mice to learn to consume sweet solutions preferentially. We conclude that DA is not required to find the sweet tastes of sucrose or saccharin rewarding. ..
  59. Rommelfanger K, Edwards G, Freeman K, Liles L, Miller G, Weinshenker D. Norepinephrine loss produces more profound motor deficits than MPTP treatment in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13804-9 pubmed
    ..a battery of coordinated movement tests and examining motor deficits in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh-/-) mice that lack NE altogether...
  60. Sun J, Ray R. Generation of Two Noradrenergic-Specific Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase-FLPo Knock-In Mice Using CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeting in Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159474 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse lines that express FLPo recombinase under control of the noradrenergic-specific Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH) gene...
  61. Compagnone N, Bulfone A, Rubenstein J, Mellon S. Steroidogenic enzyme P450c17 is expressed in the embryonic central nervous system. Endocrinology. 1995;136:5212-23 pubmed
  62. Hnasko T, Sotak B, Palmiter R. Morphine reward in dopamine-deficient mice. Nature. 2005;438:854-7 pubmed
  63. Turi G, Liposits Z, Moenter S, Fekete C, Hrabovszky E. Origin of neuropeptide Y-containing afferents to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in male mice. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4967-74 pubmed
    ..Future studies will address distinct functions of the two identified NPY systems in the afferent neuronal regulation of the GnRH system. ..
  64. Andres R, Herraez Baranda L, Thompson J, Wyatt S, Davies A. Regulation of sympathetic neuron differentiation by endogenous nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3. Neurosci Lett. 2008;431:241-6 pubmed
    ..regulate the noradrenergic phenotype of sympathetic neurons, we found that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH) mRNA levels were normal in NGF(-/-) embryos, but significantly reduced in NT3(-/-) embryos...
  65. Murchison C, Zhang X, Zhang W, Ouyang M, Lee A, Thomas S. A distinct role for norepinephrine in memory retrieval. Cell. 2004;117:131-43 pubmed
    ..These findings may be relevant to symptoms in several neuropsychiatric disorders as well as the treatment of cardiac failure with beta blockers. ..
  66. Kajimura D, Lee H, Riley K, Arteaga Solis E, Ferron M, Zhou B, et al. Adiponectin regulates bone mass via opposite central and peripheral mechanisms through FoxO1. Cell Metab. 2013;17:901-15 pubmed publisher
    ..It also proposes that adiponectin regulation of bone mass occurs through a PI3-kinase-FoxO1 pathway. ..
  67. Nishino J, Mochida K, Ohfuji Y, Shimazaki T, Meno C, Ohishi S, et al. GFR alpha3, a component of the artemin receptor, is required for migration and survival of the superior cervical ganglion. Neuron. 1999;23:725-36 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that GFR alpha3-mediated signaling is required both for the rostral migration of SCG precursors and for the survival of mature SCG neurons. ..
  68. Hasbani D, Perez F, Palmiter R, O Malley K. Dopamine depletion does not protect against acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in vivo. J Neurosci. 2005;25:9428-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DA does not contribute to acute MPTP toxicity in vivo...
  69. Rapacciuolo A, Esposito G, Caron K, Mao L, Thomas S, Rockman H. Important role of endogenous norepinephrine and epinephrine in the development of in vivo pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:876-82 pubmed
    ..We performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout mice (Dbh(-/-), genetically altered mice that are completely devoid of endogenous norepinephrine and epinephrine) and ..
  70. Kobayashi K. Role of catecholamine signaling in brain and nervous system functions: new insights from mouse molecular genetic study. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2001;6:115-21 pubmed
  71. Vandusen N, Vincentz J, Firulli B, Howard M, Rubart M, Firulli A. Loss of Hand2 in a population of Periostin lineage cells results in pronounced bradycardia and neonatal death. Dev Biol. 2014;388:149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In both cases, Hand2 loss-of-function dramatically reduces expression of Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase (Dbh), a gene encoding a crucial catecholaminergic biosynthetic enzyme...
  72. D Autréaux F, Morikawa Y, Cserjesi P, Gershon M. Hand2 is necessary for terminal differentiation of enteric neurons from crest-derived precursors but not for their migration into the gut or for formation of glia. Development. 2007;134:2237-49 pubmed
    ..We suggest that enteric neuronal development occurs in stages and that Hand2 expression is required for terminal differentiation but not for precursors to enter the neuronal lineage. ..
  73. Morin X, Cremer H, Hirsch M, Kapur R, Goridis C, Brunet J. Defects in sensory and autonomic ganglia and absence of locus coeruleus in mice deficient for the homeobox gene Phox2a. Neuron. 1997;18:411-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Phox2a appears to regulate conventional differentiation traits and the ability of neurons to respond to essential survival factors. ..
  74. Sciolino N, Plummer N, Chen Y, Alexander G, Robertson S, Dudek S, et al. Recombinase-Dependent Mouse Lines for Chemogenetic Activation of Genetically Defined Cell Types. Cell Rep. 2016;15:2563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These alleles offer the ability to non-invasively control activity of diverse cell types to uncover their function and dysfunction at any developmental stage. ..
  75. Thomas S, Palmiter R. Impaired maternal behavior in mice lacking norepinephrine and epinephrine. Cell. 1997;91:583-92 pubmed
    ..NE) and epinephrine in behavior were investigated by targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene, thereby eliminating these compounds in vivo...
  76. Ohayon D, Ventéo S, Sonrier C, Lafon P, Garcès A, Valmier J, et al. Zeb family members and boundary cap cells underlie developmental plasticity of sensory nociceptive neurons. Dev Cell. 2015;33:343-50 pubmed publisher
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