Gene Symbol: Dao
Description: D-amino acid oxidase
Alias: AI987963, DAAO, DAMOX, Dao-1, Dao1, D-amino-acid oxidase, D-amino acid oxidase 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Dao

Top Publications

  1. Sasabe J, Miyoshi Y, Rakoff Nahoum S, Zhang T, Mita M, Davis B, et al. Interplay between microbial d-amino acids and host d-amino acid oxidase modifies murine mucosal defence and gut microbiota. Nat Microbiol. 2016;1:16125 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the microbiota induces production of d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) by intestinal epithelial cells, including goblet cells, which secrete the enzyme into the lumen...
  2. Konno R, Sasaki M, Enami J, Niwa A. Loss ofHindIII cleavage sites in theD-amino acid oxidase gene in some inbred strains of mice. Amino Acids. 1995;8:97-107 pubmed publisher
    ..When digested withHindIII, the cDNAs of the BALB/c and ddY/DAO(-) mice were cleaved into two fragments whereas the cDNA of the ddY/DAO(+) mice was not...
  3. Konno R, Sasaki M, Shinohara M, Enami J, Niwa A. MouseD-amino-acid oxidase gene: Restriction fragment length polymorphism among mouse strains. Amino Acids. 1996;10:133-43 pubmed publisher
    Genomic DNA was extracted from mice of 15 strains (A/J, AKR, BALB/c, C3H/He, C57BL/6, CBA/J, CD-1, CF#1, DBA/2, ddY/DAO(+), ddY/DAO(-), ICR, NC, NZB and NZW) for the examination of the difference in the structure of theD-amino-acid ..
  4. Rais R, Thomas A, Wozniak K, Wu Y, Jaaro Peled H, Sawa A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of oral D-serine in D-amino acid oxidase knockout mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012;40:2067-73 pubmed publisher
    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids including D-serine, a full agonist at the glycine modulatory site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor...
  5. Burnet P, Anderson P, Chen L, Nikiforova N, Harrison P, Wood M. D-amino acid oxidase knockdown in the mouse cerebellum reduces NR2A mRNA. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a method using lentivirus-delivered RNAi to knockdown the glial enzyme, D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), in the mouse cerebellum...
  6. Nagata Y, Konno R, Niwa A. Amino acid levels in D-alanine-administered mutant mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase. Metabolism. 1994;43:1153-7 pubmed
    ..No D-enantiomers of alanine, serine, proline, glutamate, or aspartate were detected in the liver and kidney tissue proteins of any animals, even in the mutant mice that received 0.5% D-alanine. ..
  7. Holmes R, Masters C. Genetic control and ontogeny of microbody enzymes: a review. Biochem Genet. 1978;16:171-90 pubmed
  8. Hashimoto A, Yoshikawa M, Niwa A, Konno R. Mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity display marked attenuation of stereotypy and ataxia induced by MK-801. Brain Res. 2005;1033:210-5 pubmed
    The behavioral effects produced by MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg) were compared in mutant DAO-/- mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity and normal DAO+/+ mice...
  9. Kondori N, Paul P, Robbins J, Liu K, Hildyard J, Wells D, et al. Characterisation of the pathogenic effects of the in vivo expression of an ALS-linked mutation in D-amino acid oxidase: Phenotype and loss of spinal cord motor neurons. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188912 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported a coding mutation in D-amino acid oxidase (DAOR199W) associated with FALS. DAO metabolises D-serine, an essential co-agonist at the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid glutamate receptor subtype (NMDAR)...

More Information


  1. Labrie V, Wang W, Barger S, Baker G, Roder J. Genetic loss of D-amino acid oxidase activity reverses schizophrenia-like phenotypes in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:11-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypofunctional Dao 1(G181R) mutation elevated brain levels of D-serine, but alone it did not affect performance in the behavioral ..
  2. Tada M, Fukui K, Momoi K, Miyake Y. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding mouse kidney D-amino acid oxidase. Gene. 1990;90:293-7 pubmed
    A cDNA encoding D-amino acid oxidase (DAO;EC1.4.3.3) has been isolated from a BALB/c mouse kidney cDNA library by hybridization with the cDNA for the porcine enzyme...
  3. Hamilton G, Buckthal D, Mortensen R, Zerby K. Reactions of cysteamine and other amine metabolites with glyoxylate and oxygen catalyzed by mammalian D-amino acid oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:2625-9 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that the product of the enzymic reaction may be a metabolic effector that can modify the reactivity of proteins or nucleic acids by covalent attachment. ..
  4. Seeley T, Holmes R. Genetics and ontogeny of butyryl CoA dehydrogenase in the mouse and linkage of Bcd-1 with Dao-1. Biochem Genet. 1981;19:333-45 pubmed
    ..A genetic variant for BCD-1 was used to provide evidence for a locus determining the electrophoretic properties of this enzyme (designated Bcd-1), which is linked to Dao-1 (encoding D-amino acid oxidase).
  5. Kakegawa W, Miyoshi Y, Hamase K, Matsuda S, Matsuda K, Kohda K, et al. D-serine regulates cerebellar LTD and motor coordination through the ?2 glutamate receptor. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that glial D-Ser regulates synaptic plasticity and cerebellar functions by interacting with GluD2. ..
  6. Labrie V, Duffy S, Wang W, Barger S, Baker G, Roder J. Genetic inactivation of D-amino acid oxidase enhances extinction and reversal learning in mice. Learn Mem. 2009;16:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In the Morris water maze task (MWM), mice carrying the hypofunctional Dao1(G181R) mutation demonstrated normal acquisition of a single platform location but had substantially improved memory ..
  7. Wake K, Yamazaki H, Hanzawa S, Konno R, Sakio H, Niwa A, et al. Exaggerated responses to chronic nociceptive stimuli and enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase. Neurosci Lett. 2001;297:25-8 pubmed
  8. Pritchett D, Hasan S, Tam S, Engle S, Brandon N, Sharp T, et al. d-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice show enhanced short-term memory performance and heightened anxiety, but no sleep or circadian rhythm disruption. Eur J Neurosci. 2015;41:1167-79 pubmed publisher
    d-amino acid oxidase (DAO, DAAO) is an enzyme that degrades d-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist of the synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor...
  9. Konno R, Yasumura Y. D-amino-acid oxidase and its physiological function. Int J Biochem. 1992;24:519-24 pubmed
  10. Lopez Garcia C, Lopez Contreras A, Cremades A, Castells M, Penafiel R. Transcriptomic analysis of polyamine-related genes and polyamine levels in placenta, yolk sac and fetus during the second half of mouse pregnancy. Placenta. 2009;30:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the elevated polyamine biosynthetic activity of mouse placenta is required to satisfy the high demand of polyamines required by the growing fetus, during the later period of pregnancy. ..
  11. Konno R. [Mutant mouse lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity]. Seikagaku. 2008;80:337-43 pubmed
  12. Patarca R, Freeman G, Singh R, Wei F, Durfee T, Blattner F, et al. Structural and functional studies of the early T lymphocyte activation 1 (Eta-1) gene. Definition of a novel T cell-dependent response associated with genetic resistance to bacterial infection. J Exp Med. 1989;170:145-61 pubmed
    ..Eta-1 gene expression appears to be part of a surprisingly rapid T cell-dependent response to bacterial infection that may precede classical forms of T cell-dependent immunity. ..
  13. Hasegawa H, Matsukawa T, Shinohara Y, Konno R, Hashimoto T. Role of renal D-amino-acid oxidase in pharmacokinetics of D-leucine. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E160-5 pubmed
    d-Amino acids are now recognized to be widely present in mammals. Renal d-amino-acid oxidase (DAO) is associated with conversion of d-amino acids to the corresponding alpha-keto acids, but its contribution in vivo is poorly understood ..
  14. Holmes R. Genetics of peroxisomal enzymes in the mouse: nonlinkage of D-amino acid oxidase locus (Dao) to catalase (Cs) and L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase (Hao-1) loci on chromosome 2. Biochem Genet. 1976;14:981-7 pubmed
    ..The enzyme locus (Dao) was shown to segregate independently of Hao-1, encoding the peroxisomal enzyme hydroxyacid oxidase (liver on A4 ..
  15. Hamase K, Inoue T, Morikawa A, Konno R, Zaitsu K. Determination of free D-proline and D-leucine in the brains of mutant mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity. Anal Biochem. 2001;298:253-8 pubmed
    ..Using the new method, the amount of free D-proline in eight brain regions and sera of mutant ddY/DAO- mice, lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity, and control ddY/DAO+ mice was determined...
  16. Konno R, Yasumura Y. Mouse mutant deficient in D-amino acid oxidase activity. Genetics. 1983;103:277-85 pubmed
    ..This trait was inheritable, and a mouse stock without enzyme activity (DAO-) was established...
  17. Guerra C, Koza R, Walsh K, Kurtz D, Wood P, Kozak L. Abnormal nonshivering thermogenesis in mice with inherited defects of fatty acid oxidation. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1724-31 pubmed
    ..From a clinical perspective, it is important to determine whether defects in thermogenesis may be a phenotype in human neonates with inherited deficiencies in fatty acid beta-oxidation. ..
  18. Pritchett D, Taylor A, Barkus C, Engle S, Brandon N, Sharp T, et al. Searching for cognitive enhancement in the Morris water maze: better and worse performance in D-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-)) mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;43:979-89 pubmed publisher
    ..D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) degrades neutral D-amino acids such as D-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist acting at the glycine site of ..
  19. Mellink C, Lahbib Mansais Y, Yerle M, Gellin J. Localization of four new markers to pig chromosomes 1, 6, and 14 by radioactive in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1993;64:256-60 pubmed
    ..GRP78), hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE), plasminogen activator or urokinase (PLAU), and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) were localized in the pig by radioactive in situ hybridization. GRP78 was mapped to 1q2.10-->q2...
  20. Hashimoto A, Nishikawa T, Konno R, Niwa A, Yasumura Y, Oka T, et al. Free D-serine, D-aspartate and D-alanine in central nervous system and serum in mutant mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase. Neurosci Lett. 1993;152:33-6 pubmed
    We have examined whether D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) regulates free D-serine content using mutant ddY/DAO- mice lacking DAO activity...
  21. Mitchell J, Paul P, Chen H, Morris A, Payling M, Falchi M, et al. Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is associated with a mutation in D-amino acid oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:7556-61 pubmed publisher
    We report a unique mutation in the D-amino acid oxidase gene (R199W DAO) associated with classical adult onset familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) in a three generational FALS kindred, after candidate gene screening in a 14...
  22. el Sayed S, El Magd R, Shishido Y, Yorita K, Chung S, Tran D, et al. D-Amino acid oxidase-induced oxidative stress, 3-bromopyruvate and citrate inhibit angiogenesis, exhibiting potent anticancer effects. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2012;44:513-23 pubmed publisher
    ..D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress upon acting on its substrates...
  23. Zhang M, Ballard M, Basso A, Bratcher N, Browman K, Curzon P, et al. Behavioral characterization of a mutant mouse strain lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity. Behav Brain Res. 2011;217:81-7 pubmed publisher
    D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that degrades d-serine, has been suggested as a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia...
  24. Sasabe J, Miyoshi Y, Suzuki M, Mita M, Konno R, Matsuoka M, et al. D-amino acid oxidase controls motoneuron degeneration through D-serine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:627-32 pubmed publisher
    ..More recently, a unique mutation in the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) gene, encoding a D-serine degrading enzyme, was reported to be associated with classical familial ALS...
  25. Schiffer S, Prochazka M, Jezyk P, Roderick T, Yudkoff M, Patterson D. Organic aciduria and butyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in BALB/cByJ mice. Biochem Genet. 1989;27:47-58 pubmed
    ..The fact that other BALB/c substrains do not exhibit this abnormality further suggests that this disorder reflects subline divergence within the BALB/c family. ..
  26. Konno R, Yasumura Y. Brain and kidney D-amino acid oxidases are coded by a single gene in the mouse. J Neurochem. 1984;42:584-6 pubmed
    Mutant mice (ddY/DAO-) lacking D-amino acid oxidase in the kidney also lacked this enzyme in the brain. Genetic cross experiments showed that the inheritance of the enzyme in the brain was the same as that in the kidney...
  27. Schweimer J, Coullon G, Betts J, Burnet P, Engle S, Brandon N, et al. Increased burst-firing of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in D-amino acid oxidase knockout mice in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;40:2999-3009 pubmed publisher
    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) degrades the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor co-agonist d-serine, and is implicated in schizophrenia as a risk gene and therapeutic target...
  28. Gustafson E, Morgans C, Tekmen M, Sullivan S, Esguerra M, Konno R, et al. Retinal NMDA receptor function and expression are altered in a mouse lacking D-amino acid oxidase. J Neurophysiol. 2013;110:2718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) has been implicated as a pathway for d-serine degradation, its role in the retina has not been established...
  29. Konno R, Yamamoto K, Niwa A, Yasumura Y. Presence of D-amino-acid oxidase protein in mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity. Int J Biochem. 1991;23:1301-5 pubmed
    ..5. These results suggest that the mutant mice synthesize the D-amino-acid oxidase protein and integrate it into peroxisomes, though it is a nonfunctional enzyme. ..
  30. Maekawa M, Watanabe M, Yamaguchi S, Konno R, Hori Y. Spatial learning and long-term potentiation of mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase. Neurosci Res. 2005;53:34-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the abundant D-amino-acids in the mutant mouse brain facilitate hippocampal LTP and spatial learning. ..
  31. Konno R, Niwa A, Yasumura Y. Linkage of the Dao-1 gene for D-amino-acid oxidase to the pgm-1 gene for phosphoglucomutase-1 on the mouse chromosome 5. Jpn J Genet. 1989;64:341-5 pubmed
    Linkage of the Dao-1 gene controlling D-amino-acid oxidase to the Pgm-1 gene controlling phosphoglucomutase-1 on the mouse chromosome 5 was examined. Mutant ddY/DAO- mice carrying a null Dao-1c allele had a Pgm-1a allele...
  32. Nagata Y. Involvement of D-amino acid oxidase in elimination of D-serine in mouse brain. Experientia. 1992;48:753-5 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the enzyme is involved in the elimination of free D-serine in the cerebellum. ..
  33. Konno R, Oowada T, Ozaki A, Iida T, Niwa A, Yasumura Y, et al. Origin of D-alanine present in urine of mutant mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:G699-703 pubmed
    Urine of mutant ddY/DAO- mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase contained 13 times more D-alanine than that of normal ddY/DAO+ mice...
  34. Yamanaka M, Miyoshi Y, Ohide H, Hamase K, Konno R. D-Amino acids in the brain and mutant rodents lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity. Amino Acids. 2012;43:1811-21 pubmed publisher
    ..D-Amino-acid oxidase (DAO), which degrades neutral and basic D-amino acids, is mainly present in the hindbrain...
  35. Sasaki M, Konno R, Nishio M, Niwa A, Yasumura Y, Enami J. A single-base-pair substitution abolishes D-amino-acid oxidase activity in the mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1139:315-8 pubmed
    Mutant ddY/DAO- mice lacking D-amino-acid oxidase (DAO) activity were examined for the cause of their lack of enzyme activity. Total RNA was extracted from the kidney of the ddY/DAO- mice and cDNA was synthesized...
  36. Katane M, Saitoh Y, Hanai T, Sekine M, Furuchi T, Koyama N, et al. Thiolactomycin inhibits D-aspartate oxidase: a novel approach to probing the active site environment. Biochimie. 2010;92:1371-8 pubmed publisher
    D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) are flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing flavoproteins that catalyze the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids...
  37. Hashimoto A, Konno R, Yano H, Yoshikawa M, Tamaki R, Matsumoto H, et al. Mice lacking d-amino acid oxidase activity exhibit marked reduction of methamphetamine-induced stereotypy. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;586:221-5 pubmed publisher
  38. Nakamura H, Fang J, Maeda H. Protective role of D-amino acid oxidase against Staphylococcus aureus infection. Infect Immun. 2012;80:1546-53 pubmed publisher
    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a hydrogen peroxide-generating enzyme that uses a D-amino acid as a substrate...
  39. Fukui K, Miyake Y. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a human gene encoding D-amino-acid oxidase. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:18631-8 pubmed
    Genomic clones covering the entire sequence of the gene encoding human D-amino-acid oxidase (DAO) (EC 1.4.3...
  40. Romero G, Lockridge A, Morgans C, Bandyopadhyay D, Miller R. The postnatal development of D-serine in the retinas of two mouse strains, including a mutant mouse with a deficiency in D-amino acid oxidase and a serine racemase knockout mouse. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2014;5:848-54 pubmed publisher
    D-Serine, an N-methyl D-aspartate receptor coagonist, and its regulatory enzymes, D-amino acid oxidase (DAO; degradation) and serine racemase (SR; synthesis), have been implicated in crucial roles of the developing central nervous system,..
  41. Almond S, Fradley R, Armstrong E, Heavens R, Rutter A, Newman R, et al. Behavioral and biochemical characterization of a mutant mouse strain lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity and its implications for schizophrenia. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;32:324-34 pubmed
    D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) degrades D-serine, a co-agonist at the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Hypofunction of the NMDAR has been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...