Gene Symbol: Cyp26a1
Description: cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily a, polypeptide 1
Alias: Cyp26, P450RA, P450RAI, RAH, cytochrome P450 26A1, cytochrome P450, 26, retinoic acid A1, cytochrome P450RAI, retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase, retinoic acid hydrolase, retinoic acid-metabolizing cytochrome
Species: mouse
Products:     Cyp26a1

Top Publications

  1. Roberts C, Ivins S, Cook A, Baldini A, Scambler P. Cyp26 genes a1, b1 and c1 are down-regulated in Tbx1 null mice and inhibition of Cyp26 enzyme function produces a phenocopy of DiGeorge Syndrome in the chick. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:3394-410 pubmed
    b>Cyp26a1, a gene required for retinoic acid (RA) inactivation during embryogenesis, was previously identified as a potential Tbx1 target from a microarray screen comparing wild-type and null Tbx1 mouse embryo pharyngeal arches (pa) at E9...
  2. Guris D, Duester G, Papaioannou V, Imamoto A. Dose-dependent interaction of Tbx1 and Crkl and locally aberrant RA signaling in a model of del22q11 syndrome. Dev Cell. 2006;10:81-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, we suggest that del22q11 is a contiguous gene syndrome involving dose-sensitive interaction of CRKL and TBX1 and locally aberrant RA signaling. ..
  3. Abu Abed S, Dolle P, Metzger D, Beckett B, Chambon P, Petkovich M. The retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme, CYP26A1, is essential for normal hindbrain patterning, vertebral identity, and development of posterior structures. Genes Dev. 2001;15:226-40 pubmed
    ..a first step in understanding the developmental function of RA-metabolizing enzymes, we have disrupted the murine Cyp26A1 gene...
  4. Romand R, Kondo T, Fraulob V, Petkovich M, Dolle P, Hashino E. Dynamic expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing and -metabolizing enzymes in the developing mouse inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:643-54 pubmed
    ..retinaldehyde dehydrogenases 1, 2, 3, and 4 (Raldh1, Raldh2, Raldh3, and Raldh4) and two metabolizing enzymes (Cyp26A1 and Cyp26B1) in the embryonic and postnatal mouse inner ear by using quantitative reverse transcriptase ..
  5. Savory J, Bouchard N, Pierre V, Rijli F, De Repentigny Y, Kothary R, et al. Cdx2 regulation of posterior development through non-Hox targets. Development. 2009;136:4099-110 pubmed publisher
    ..attenuated expression of genes encoding several key players in axial elongation, including Fgf8, T, Wnt3a and Cyp26a1, and we present data suggesting that T, Wnt3a and Cyp26a1 are direct Cdx2 targets...
  6. Sakai Y, Meno C, Fujii H, Nishino J, Shiratori H, Saijoh Y, et al. The retinoic acid-inactivating enzyme CYP26 is essential for establishing an uneven distribution of retinoic acid along the anterio-posterior axis within the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 2001;15:213-25 pubmed
    ..We have examined the role of CYP26, a P450 enzyme that may degrade RA, by generating mutant mice that lack CYP26...
  7. Han B, Xia H, Sun J, Yang Y, Peng J. Retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) is essential for implantation: functional study of its role in early pregnancy. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Excessive VA intake during pregnancy may lead to adverse maternal and fetal effects. Cytochrome P450 26A1 (cyp26a1), a retinoic acid (RA)-metabolizing enzyme, is involved in VA metabolism...
  8. Pozzi S, Rossetti S, Bistulfi G, Sacchi N. RAR-mediated epigenetic control of the cytochrome P450 Cyp26a1 in embryocarcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:1400-7 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the genes for the RA-receptor RARbeta2 and the cytochrome P450 RA-specific hydrolase Cyp26a1 involved in RA catabolism are coordinately regulated by RA...
  9. Billings S, Pierzchalski K, Butler Tjaden N, Pang X, Trainor P, KANE M, et al. The retinaldehyde reductase DHRS3 is essential for preventing the formation of excess retinoic acid during embryonic development. FASEB J. 2013;27:4877-89 pubmed publisher the expression of ATRA synthetic genes and a 120% increase in the expression of the ATRA catabolic enzyme Cyp26a1 in Dhrs3(-/-) embryos vs. controls...

More Information


  1. Fritzsche B, Vermot J, Neumann U, Schmidt A, Schweigert F, Dolle P, et al. Regulation of expression of the retinoic acid metabolizing enzyme CYP26A1 in uteri of ovariectomized mice after treatment with ovarian steroid hormones. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:258-64 pubmed
    ..the influence of progesterone and 17-ss-estradiol on the uterine expression of the RA-metabolizing enzyme CYP26A1 after specific time intervals (1, 4, 24, and 48 hr after treatment of ovariectomized mice)...
  2. de Roos K, Sonneveld E, Compaan B, ten Berge D, Durston A, van der Saag P. Expression of retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase (CYP26) during mouse and Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1999;82:205-11 pubmed
    ..The retinoic acid (RA) 4-hydroxylase, belonging to the cytochrome P450 family CYP26, is an enzyme catalyzing the 4-hydroxylation of RA, thereby regulating RA homeostasis...
  3. Romand R, Niederreither K, Abu Abed S, Petkovich M, Fraulob V, Hashino E, et al. Complementary expression patterns of retinoid acid-synthesizing and -metabolizing enzymes in pre-natal mouse inner ear structures. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:123-33 pubmed
    ..enzymes, retinaldehyde dehydrogenases 1, 2 and 3 (RALDH1, RALDH2 and RALDH3) and two catabolizing enzymes (CYP26A1 and CYP26B1) in the mouse inner ear at embryonic day 18.5 when active cell differentiation is underway...
  4. Adams M, Belyaeva O, Wu L, Kedishvili N. The retinaldehyde reductase activity of DHRS3 is reciprocally activated by retinol dehydrogenase 10 to control retinoid homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:14868-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutually activating interaction between the two related proteins may represent a highly sensitive and conserved mechanism for precise control over the rate of retinoic acid biosynthesis. ..
  5. Lee Y, McPherron A, Choe S, Sakai Y, Chandraratna R, Lee S, et al. Growth differentiation factor 11 signaling controls retinoic acid activity for axial vertebral development. Dev Biol. 2010;347:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that diminished expression of Cyp26a1, a retinoic acid inactivating enzyme, and concomitant elevation of retinoic acid activity in the caudal region of ..
  6. Okano J, Kimura W, Papaionnou V, Miura N, Yamada G, Shiota K, et al. The regulation of endogenous retinoic acid level through CYP26B1 is required for elevation of palatal shelves. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1744-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of RA signaling through CYP26B1 is also necessary for the development of tongue musculature and for tongue depression. ..
  7. Ray W, Bain G, Yao M, Gottlieb D. CYP26, a novel mammalian cytochrome P450, is induced by retinoic acid and defines a new family. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:18702-8 pubmed
    A novel member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP26, which represents a new family of cytochrome P450 enzymes, has been cloned...
  8. Molotkova N, Molotkov A, Sirbu I, Duester G. Requirement of mesodermal retinoic acid generated by Raldh2 for posterior neural transformation. Mech Dev. 2005;122:145-55 pubmed
    ..An important concept to emerge from our studies is that the somitic mesodermal RA signal acts in the neuroectoderm but not mesoderm to generate a spinal cord fate. ..
  9. van Rooijen C, Simmini S, Bialecka M, Neijts R, van de Ven C, Beck F, et al. Evolutionarily conserved requirement of Cdx for post-occipital tissue emergence. Development. 2012;139:2576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdx requirement for the post-head section of the axis is ancestral as it takes place in arthropods as well. ..
  10. Topletz A, Le H, Lee N, Chapman J, Kelly E, Wang J, et al. Hepatic Cyp2d and Cyp26a1 mRNAs and activities are increased during mouse pregnancy. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013;41:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..8±11.2 pmol/min/mg protein). An increase in Cyp26a1 mRNA (10-fold) and retinoic acid receptor (Rar)? mRNA (2.8-fold) was also observed during pregnancy...
  11. Jurberg A, Aires R, Varela Lasheras I, Novoa A, Mallo M. Switching axial progenitors from producing trunk to tail tissues in vertebrate embryos. Dev Cell. 2013;25:451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a perspective to understand the evolution of the vertebrate body plan...
  12. Yakushiji Kaminatsui N, Kondo T, Endo T, Koseki Y, Kondo K, Ohara O, et al. RING1 proteins contribute to early proximal-distal specification of the forelimb bud by restricting Meis2 expression. Development. 2016;143:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the RING1-MEIS1/2 axis is regulated by early PD signals and contributes to the initiation or maintenance of the distal signal circuitry. ..
  13. Langton S, Gudas L. CYP26A1 knockout embryonic stem cells exhibit reduced differentiation and growth arrest in response to retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 2008;315:331-54 pubmed publisher
    b>CYP26A1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, metabolizes all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) into polar metabolites, e.g. 4-oxo-RA and 4-OH-RA...
  14. Sirbu I, Gresh L, Barra J, Duester G. Shifting boundaries of retinoic acid activity control hindbrain segmental gene expression. Development. 2005;132:2611-22 pubmed
    ..signal initially travels from the paraxial mesoderm to r3, forming a boundary next to the r2 expression domain of Cyp26a1 (which encodes an RA-degrading enzyme)...
  15. Uehara M, Yashiro K, Mamiya S, Nishino J, Chambon P, Dolle P, et al. CYP26A1 and CYP26C1 cooperatively regulate anterior-posterior patterning of the developing brain and the production of migratory cranial neural crest cells in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2007;302:399-411 pubmed
    ..Although both CYP26A1 and CYP26C1, retinoic acid-degrading enzymes that are expressed at the anterior end of the gastrulating mouse ..
  16. Ribes V, Fraulob V, Petkovich M, Dolle P. The oxidizing enzyme CYP26a1 tightly regulates the availability of retinoic acid in the gastrulating mouse embryo to ensure proper head development and vasculogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:644-53 pubmed
    ..This might result from RA catabolism mediated by the CYP26A1 oxidizing enzyme, which is transiently expressed in anteriormost embryonic tissues; however, previous analysis of ..
  17. Abu Abed S, Beckett B, Chiba H, Chithalen J, Jones G, Metzger D, et al. Mouse P450RAI (CYP26) expression and retinoic acid-inducible retinoic acid metabolism in F9 cells are regulated by retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:2409-15 pubmed
    We have cloned a mouse cDNA homolog of P450RAI, a cytochrome P450 belonging to a new family (CYP26), which has previously been isolated from zebrafish and human cDNAs and found to encode a retinoic acid-inducible retinoic acid ..
  18. Ivins S, Lammerts van Beuren K, Roberts C, James C, Lindsay E, Baldini A, et al. Microarray analysis detects differentially expressed genes in the pharyngeal region of mice lacking Tbx1. Dev Biol. 2005;285:554-69 pubmed
    ..These experiments highlight which genes and pathways potentially affected by lack of Tbx1, and whose role may be explored further by testing for epistasis using mouse mutants. ..
  19. Abu Abed S, Dolle P, Metzger D, Wood C, MacLean G, Chambon P, et al. Developing with lethal RA levels: genetic ablation of Rarg can restore the viability of mice lacking Cyp26a1. Development. 2003;130:1449-59 pubmed
    We have previously reported that the retinoic acid (RA) catabolizing enzyme CYP26A1 plays an important role in protecting tail bud tissues from inappropriate exposure to RA generated in the adjacent trunk tissues by RALDH2, and that ..
  20. Goralczyk R, Wertz K, Lenz B, Riss G, Buchwald Hunziker P, Geatrix B, et al. Beta-carotene interaction with NNK in the AJ-mouse model: effects on cell proliferation, tumor formation and retinoic acid responsive genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1740:179-88 pubmed
    ..RARbeta isoform and CYP26 gene expression levels analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR were weakly, but significantly, inversely correlated and ..
  21. Cho K, Kwon H, Shin J, Lee J, Cho S, Tickle C, et al. Retinoic acid signaling and the initiation of mammary gland development. Dev Biol. 2012;365:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of gene-encoding enzymes that produce retinoic acid (Raldh2) and enzymes that degrade it (Cyp26a1, Cyp26b1). We also analyzed the expression of RAR-?, a direct transcriptional target of retinoic acid signaling...
  22. Niederreither K, Abu Abed S, Schuhbaur B, Petkovich M, Chambon P, Dolle P. Genetic evidence that oxidative derivatives of retinoic acid are not involved in retinoid signaling during mouse development. Nat Genet. 2002;31:84-8 pubmed
    ..The Cyp26a1 (cytochrome p450, 26) protein metabolizes retinoic acid into more polar hydroxylated and oxidized derivatives...
  23. van de Ven C, Bialecka M, Neijts R, Young T, Rowland J, Stringer E, et al. Concerted involvement of Cdx/Hox genes and Wnt signaling in morphogenesis of the caudal neural tube and cloacal derivatives from the posterior growth zone. Development. 2011;138:3451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..They shed a new light on the etiology of the caudal dysplasia or caudal regression range of human congenital defects. ..
  24. Alfano G, Conte I, Caramico T, Avellino R, Arnò B, Pizzo M, et al. Vax2 regulates retinoic acid distribution and cone opsin expression in the vertebrate eye. Development. 2011;138:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we detected an expansion of the expression domains of the RA-catabolizing enzymes Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1, and a downregulation of the RA-synthesizing enzyme Raldh3...
  25. Li P, Pashmforoush M, Sucov H. Retinoic acid regulates differentiation of the secondary heart field and TGFbeta-mediated outflow tract septation. Dev Cell. 2010;18:480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be a common pathogenic pathway when second heart field and septation defects are coupled. ..
  26. Laue K, Janicke M, Plaster N, Sonntag C, Hammerschmidt M. Restriction of retinoic acid activity by Cyp26b1 is required for proper timing and patterning of osteogenesis during zebrafish development. Development. 2008;135:3775-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusions of cervical vertebrae were also obtained by treating mouse fetuses with the specific Cyp26 inhibitor R115866...
  27. MacLean G, Dolle P, Petkovich M. Genetic disruption of CYP26B1 severely affects development of neural crest derived head structures, but does not compromise hindbrain patterning. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:732-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest different periods of sensitivity of anterior and posterior hindbrain neural crest derivatives to elevated levels of RA in the absence of CYP26B1. ..
  28. Ochiai W, Hirose A, Kawamura T, Komachi K, Yamamoto Y, Kitaoka S, et al. Role of the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme CYP during Mouse Liver Development. Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39:2015-2021 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that CYP2R1 and CYP26A1 are expressed at an earlier stage of the differentiation of ES cells into hepatocytes than hepatoblast-specific ..
  29. Paine C, Paine M, Snead M. Identification of tuftelin- and amelogenin-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Connect Tissue Res. 1998;38:257-67;discussion 295-303 pubmed
    ..Further characterization of the proteins shown to interact with amelogenin or tuftelin may shed additional light on this complex process of enamel matrix assembly. ..
  30. Wassef L, Spiegler E, Quadro L. Embryonic phenotype, ?-carotene and retinoid metabolism upon maternal supplementation of ?-carotene in a mouse model of severe vitamin A deficiency. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;539:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, analysis of retinoic acid-responsive genes, such as Cyp26a1 in these embryos suggests that bC cleavage results in the production of retinoic acid which then can be used by ..
  31. Wang Y, Zolfaghari R, Ross A. Cloning of rat cytochrome P450RAI (CYP26) cDNA and regulation of its gene expression by all-trans-retinoic acid in vivo. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;401:235-43 pubmed
    A novel retinoic acid (RA)-inducible cytochrome P450 (P450 RAI or CYP26), previously cloned from human, zebra fish, and mouse, functions in the metabolism of all-trans-RA to polar metabolites including 4-hydroxy-RA and 4-oxo-RA...
  32. Boulet A, Capecchi M. Signaling by FGF4 and FGF8 is required for axial elongation of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2012;371:235-45 pubmed publisher
  33. Niederreither K, Vermot J, Messaddeq N, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P, Dolle P. Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is essential for heart morphogenesis in the mouse. Development. 2001;128:1019-31 pubmed
    ..However, cardiac neural crest cells cannot be properly rescued in Raldh2(-/- )embryos, leading to outflow tract septation defects. ..
  34. Coles G, Ackerman K. Kif7 is required for the patterning and differentiation of the diaphragm in a model of syndromic congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1898-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provide evidence for a model in which inhibition of RA receptor signaling promotes CDH pathogenesis through a complex gene network. ..
  35. Iulianella A, Beckett B, Petkovich M, Lohnes D. A molecular basis for retinoic acid-induced axial truncation. Dev Biol. 1999;205:33-48 pubmed
    ..These findings also raise the possibility that RA may play a role in the generation of posterior mesoderm derivatives in part by affecting brachyury expression. ..
  36. Baragatti B, Schwartzman M, Angeloni D, Scebba F, Ciofini E, Sodini D, et al. EDHF function in the ductus arteriosus: evidence against involvement of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H2161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that some novel eicosanoid or a totally unrelated compound requiring CYP450 for its synthesis accounts for EDHF in this vessel. ..
  37. Uehara M, Yashiro K, Takaoka K, Yamamoto M, Hamada H. Removal of maternal retinoic acid by embryonic CYP26 is required for correct Nodal expression during early embryonic patterning. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1689-98 pubmed publisher determined by the balance between its synthesis by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) and its degradation by CYP26. In particular, the dynamic expression of three CYP26 genes controls the regional level of RA within the body...
  38. Miller K, Tan T, Welfare M, White S, Stark Z, Savarirayan R, et al. A mouse splice-site mutant and individuals with atypical chromosome 22q11.2 deletions demonstrate the crucial role for crkl in craniofacial and pharyngeal development. Mol Syndromol. 2014;5:276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These analyses demonstrate the central role of Crkl in regulating signalling events in the developing oropharyngeal complex and its potential to contribute to dysmorphology. ..
  39. Young T, Rowland J, van de Ven C, Bialecka M, Novoa A, Carapuco M, et al. Cdx and Hox genes differentially regulate posterior axial growth in mammalian embryos. Dev Cell. 2009;17:516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitant regulation of Cyp26a1 expression, restraining retinoic acid signaling away from the posterior growth zone, may likewise play a role in ..
  40. Touma S, Perner S, Rubin M, Nanus D, Gudas L. Retinoid metabolism and ALDH1A2 (RALDH2) expression are altered in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:1127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..measure transcripts for genes involved in retinoid signaling and metabolism, including ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, CYP26A1, LRAT, and RARbeta(2), in prostate tissue from TRAMP positive (+) and age-matched littermate control mice ranging ..
  41. McCaffery P, Wagner E, O Neil J, Petkovich M, Drager U. Dorsal and ventral rentinoic territories defined by retinoic acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression. Mech Dev. 1999;85:203-14 pubmed
    ..are expressed uniformly throughout the retina except for the RA-sensitive RARbeta, which is down-regulated in the CYP26 stripe. The orphan receptor COUP-TFII, which modulates RA responses, colocalizes with the dorsal dehydrogenase...
  42. Hansen G, Justice M. Activation of Hex and mEg5 by retroviral insertion may contribute to mouse B-cell leukemia. Oncogene. 1999;18:6531-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, this work highlights the use of genomic approaches for the study of position effect mutations. ..
  43. MacLean G, Abu Abed S, Dolle P, Tahayato A, Chambon P, Petkovich M. Cloning of a novel retinoic-acid metabolizing cytochrome P450, Cyp26B1, and comparative expression analysis with Cyp26A1 during early murine development. Mech Dev. 2001;107:195-201 pubmed
    ..The RA-metabolizing enzymes Cyp26A1 and Cyp26B1 are believed to play important roles in protecting certain embryonic tissues from inappropriate RA ..
  44. Loudig O, Maclean G, Dore N, Luu L, Petkovich M. Transcriptional co-operativity between distant retinoic acid response elements in regulation of Cyp26A1 inducibility. Biochem J. 2005;392:241-8 pubmed
    b>Cyp26A1 encodes an RA (retinoic acid)-catabolizing CYP (cytochrome P450) protein that plays a critical role in regulating RA distribution in vivo...
  45. Ricard M, Gudas L. Cytochrome p450 cyp26a1 alters spinal motor neuron subtype identity in differentiating embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28801-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the cytochrome P450 enzyme Cyp26a1, which metabolizes all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and thereby reduces RA levels, plays a crucial role in specifying ..
  46. Ryckebusch L, Bertrand N, Mesbah K, Bajolle F, Niederreither K, Kelly R, et al. Decreased levels of embryonic retinoic acid synthesis accelerate recovery from arterial growth delay in a mouse model of DiGeorge syndrome. Circ Res. 2010;106:686-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that differences in levels of embryonic RA may contribute to the variability in great artery anomalies observed in DGS/VCFS patients. ..
  47. Okano J, Sakai Y, Shiota K. Retinoic acid down-regulates Tbx1 expression and induces abnormal differentiation of tongue muscles in fetal mice. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3059-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RA-degrading enzymes (Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1) were expressed at early stages of normal tongue development, but exogenous RA perturbed their ..
  48. Makita T, Duncan S, Sucov H. Retinoic acid, hypoxia, and GATA factors cooperatively control the onset of fetal liver erythropoietin expression and erythropoietic differentiation. Dev Biol. 2005;280:59-72 pubmed
    ..5 onward is enhancer-independent, and is driven instead by basal promoter elements that provide a sufficient level of expression to support further erythropoietic differentiation. ..
  49. Li B, MATTESON P, Ababon M, Nato A, Lin Y, Nanda V, et al. The orphan GPCR, Gpr161, regulates the retinoic acid and canonical Wnt pathways during neurulation. Dev Biol. 2015;402:17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish the RA and canonical Wnt as pathways downstream of Gpr161 during neurulation, and suggest that Modvl5(MOLF) bypasses the Gpr161(vl) mutation by restoring the activity of these pathways. ..
  50. Wagner E, McCaffery P, Drager U. Retinoic acid in the formation of the dorsoventral retina and its central projections. Dev Biol. 2000;222:460-70 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that the dorsoventral axis of the embryonic eye anlage determines the functional coordinates of both vision and eye movements in the adult. ..
  51. Hirose A, Ochiai W, Yamamoto Y, Fukaya M, Iwasaki H, Wakui N, et al. Analysis of CYP2R1 and CYP26A1 Expression Patterns in Regeneration in Mice with Liver Injury. Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39:1955-1960 pubmed
    ..epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and partial hepatectomy increased the expression levels of CYP2R1 and CYP26A1 as well as the hepatoblast marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in these mice...
  52. Tiboni G, Marotta F, Carletti E. Fluconazole alters CYP26 gene expression in mouse embryos. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:199-202 pubmed publisher
    ..polymerase chain reaction (quantitative real-time RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the mRNA expression of CYP26a1, CYP26b1 and CYP26c1 in embryos...
  53. Tahayato A, Dolle P, Petkovich M. Cyp26C1 encodes a novel retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme expressed in the hindbrain, inner ear, first branchial arch and tooth buds during murine development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:449-54 pubmed
    ..regulated during embryogenesis by balanced complementary activities of RA synthesizing (RALDH) and metabolizing (CYP26) enzymes...
  54. Hogarth C, Evans E, Onken J, Kent T, Mitchell D, Petkovich M, et al. CYP26 Enzymes Are Necessary Within the Postnatal Seminiferous Epithelium for Normal Murine Spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:19 pubmed publisher
    ..To bridge this gap, the roles of CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 within the seminiferous epithelium were investigated by creating single and dual conditional ..
  55. Malpel S, Mendelsohn C, Cardoso W. Regulation of retinoic acid signaling during lung morphogenesis. Development. 2000;127:3057-67 pubmed require downregulation of RA pathways by decreased synthesis, increased RA degradation in the epithelium via P450RAI-mediated metabolism, and inhibition of RA signaling in the mesenchyme by COUPTF-II expression...
  56. Fujii H, Sato T, Kaneko S, Gotoh O, Fujii Kuriyama Y, Osawa K, et al. Metabolic inactivation of retinoic acid by a novel P450 differentially expressed in developing mouse embryos. EMBO J. 1997;16:4163-73 pubmed
    ..Here we have identified a novel cytochrome P450 (P450RA) that specifically metabolizes RA. In vitro, P450RA converts all-trans RA into 5,8-epoxy all-trans RA...
  57. Kim Y, Wassef L, Hamberger L, Piantedosi R, Palczewski K, Blaner W, et al. Retinyl ester formation by lecithin: retinol acyltransferase is a key regulator of retinoid homeostasis in mouse embryogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5611-21 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in the case of excessive maternal dietary vitamin A intake, LRAT acts together with Cyp26A1, one of the enzymes that catalyze the degradation of retinoic acid, and possibly with STRA6, the recently ..
  58. Vezina C, Allgeier S, Fritz W, Moore R, Strerath M, Bushman W, et al. Retinoic acid induces prostatic bud formation. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that reciprocal changes in hedgehog and BMP signaling by RA may regulate bud initiation. ..
  59. White J, Beckett B, Scherer S, Herbrick J, Petkovich M. P450RAI (CYP26A1) maps to human chromosome 10q23-q24 and mouse chromosome 19C2-3. Genomics. 1998;48:270-2 pubmed
  60. Sakai Y, Luo T, McCaffery P, Hamada H, DRAGER U. CYP26A1 and CYP26C1 cooperate in degrading retinoic acid within the equatorial retina during later eye development. Dev Biol. 2004;276:143-57 pubmed
    ..dorsal and ventral retina are separated by a horizontal RA-poor stripe that contains the RA-inactivating enzyme CYP26A1. To explore the developmental role of this arrangement, we studied formation of the retina and its projections in ..
  61. Ogino Y, Suzuki K, Haraguchi R, Satoh Y, Dolle P, Yamada G. External genitalia formation: role of fibroblast growth factor, retinoic acid signaling, and distal urethral epithelium. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;948:13-31 pubmed
    ..Several key genes, for example, RARs, RXRs, RALDH2, and CYP26, were dynamically expressed during GT development. The teratogenic dose of RA at 9.0 d.p.c...
  62. Abu Abed S, MacLean G, Fraulob V, Chambon P, Petkovich M, Dolle P. Differential expression of the retinoic acid-metabolizing enzymes CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 during murine organogenesis. Mech Dev. 2002;110:173-7 pubmed
    ..a novel retinoic acid (RA)-metabolizing enzyme and showed that its gene expression pattern is unique from that of Cyp26A1 during early embryogenesis...
  63. Li H, Wagner E, McCaffery P, Smith D, Andreadis A, Drager U. A retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme in ventral retina and telencephalon of the embryonic mouse. Mech Dev. 2000;95:283-9 pubmed
    ..From here it extends via the piriform cortex into the lower part of the septum. Of the three RALDHs, RALDH3 shows the strongest predilection for epithelia. ..
  64. Swindell E, Thaller C, Sockanathan S, Petkovich M, Jessell T, Eichele G. Complementary domains of retinoic acid production and degradation in the early chick embryo. Dev Biol. 1999;216:282-96 pubmed
    ..RALDH-2 and CYP26, two key enzymes that carry out retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and degradation, respectively, were cloned from the ..
  65. Lee L, Leung M, Kwok R, Leung Y, Wang C, McCaffery P, et al. Perturbation of Retinoid Homeostasis Increases Malformation Risk in Embryos Exposed to Pregestational Diabetes. Diabetes. 2017;66:1041-1051 pubmed publisher
    ..All-trans retinoic acid (RA) plays crucial roles in embryogenesis. Here, we find that Cyp26a1, which encodes a key enzyme for catabolic inactivation of RA required for tight control of local RA ..
  66. El Shahawy M, Reibring C, Neben C, Hallberg K, Marangoni P, Harfe B, et al. Cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium is controlled by antagonistic activities of Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006914 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic loss of SHH signaling leads to enhanced RA activity subsequent to loss of SHH-dependent expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1...
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