Gene Symbol: Cxcl12
Description: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12
Alias: Pbsf, Scyb12, Sdf1, Tlsf, Tpar1, stromal cell-derived factor 1, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate repressed protein 1, pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor, thymic lymphoma cell-stimulating factor
Species: mouse
Products:     Cxcl12

Top Publications

  1. Kokovay E, Goderie S, Wang Y, Lotz S, Lin G, Sun Y, et al. Adult SVZ lineage cells home to and leave the vascular niche via differential responses to SDF1/CXCR4 signaling. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that proliferative SVZ progenitor cells home to endothelial cells in a stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1)- and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-dependent manner...
  2. Melchionna R, Di Carlo A, De Mori R, Cappuzzello C, Barberi L, Musaro A, et al. Induction of myogenic differentiation by SDF-1 via CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors. Muscle Nerve. 2010;41:828-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments demonstrate that SDF-1 regulates myogenic differentiation via both CXCR4 and CXCR7 chemokine receptors. ..
  3. Kitaori T, Ito H, Schwarz E, Tsutsumi R, Yoshitomi H, Oishi S, et al. Stromal cell-derived factor 1/CXCR4 signaling is critical for the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the fracture site during skeletal repair in a mouse model. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:813-23 pubmed publisher
    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1; CXCL12/pre-B cell growth-stimulating factor) is a dominant chemokine in bone marrow and is known to be involved in inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis...
  4. Li G, Adesnik H, Li J, Long J, Nicoll R, Rubenstein J, et al. Regional distribution of cortical interneurons and development of inhibitory tone are regulated by Cxcl12/Cxcr4 signaling. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1085-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a chemokine, Cxcl12, is an attractant for interneurons during the stage of stream formation and tangential migration...
  5. Sierro F, Biben C, Martínez Muñoz L, Mellado M, Ransohoff R, Li M, et al. Disrupted cardiac development but normal hematopoiesis in mice deficient in the second CXCL12/SDF-1 receptor, CXCR7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14759-64 pubmed
    ..We confirmed that the principal chemokine ligand for CXCR7 was CXCL12/SDF-1, which also binds CXCR4...
  6. Cheng M, Zhou J, Wu M, Boriboun C, Thorne T, Liu T, et al. CXCR4-mediated bone marrow progenitor cell maintenance and mobilization are modulated by c-kit activity. Circ Res. 2010;107:1083-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the regulation of BM PC trafficking by SDF-1 and CXCR4 is dependent on Src-mediated c-kit phosphorylation. ..
  7. McGrath K, Koniski A, Maltby K, McGann J, Palis J. Embryonic expression and function of the chemokine SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4. Dev Biol. 1999;213:442-56 pubmed
    ..Migration occurred with an optimum dose similar to that found for adult hematopoietic cells and was dependent on the presence of SDF-1 in a gradient. This work suggests roles for chemokine signaling in multiple embryogenic events. ..
  8. Fujio M, Yamamoto A, Ando Y, Shohara R, Kinoshita K, Kaneko T, et al. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 enhances distraction osteogenesis-mediated skeletal tissue regeneration through the recruitment of endothelial precursors. Bone. 2011;49:693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the active recruitment of endogenous BM-ECs/EPCs may provide a substantial clinical benefit for shortening the treatment period of DO. ..
  9. Aboumrad E, Madec A, Thivolet C. The CXCR4/CXCL12 (SDF-1) signalling pathway protects non-obese diabetic mouse from autoimmune diabetes. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;148:432-9 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence studies indicated that AMD3100 reduced the number of CXCR4(+) and SDF-1 positive cells in the inflamed islets. We can conclude that the CXCL-12/CXCR4 pathway has protective effects against autoimmune diabetes. ..

More Information


  1. Karin N. The multiple faces of CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) in the regulation of immunity during health and disease. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:463-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we reported that one of these chemokines CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) functions as an anti-inflammatory chemokine during autoimmune inflammatory responses and explored the ..
  2. Deshane J, Chen S, Caballero S, Grochot Przeczek A, Was H, Li Calzi S, et al. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 promotes angiogenesis via a heme oxygenase 1-dependent mechanism. J Exp Med. 2007;204:605-18 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a mechanistic role for HO-1 in SDF-1-mediated angiogenesis and provide new avenues for therapeutic approaches in vascular repair. ..
  3. Tang Y, Zhu W, Cheng M, Chen L, Zhang J, Sun T, et al. Hypoxic preconditioning enhances the benefit of cardiac progenitor cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction by inducing CXCR4 expression. Circ Res. 2009;104:1209-16 pubmed publisher
  4. Sweeney E, Lortat Jacob H, Priestley G, Nakamoto B, Papayannopoulou T. Sulfated polysaccharides increase plasma levels of SDF-1 in monkeys and mice: involvement in mobilization of stem/progenitor cells. Blood. 2002;99:44-51 pubmed
    ..The study further underscores the importance of the biological roles of carbohydrates. ..
  5. Tissir F, Wang C, Goffinet A. Expression of the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 mRNA during mouse brain development. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;149:63-71 pubmed
    The expression of Cxcr4 mRNA that encodes the receptor for the chemokine Sdf1 was studied during mouse brain development using in situ hybridization, from E9.5 to maturity at P21...
  6. Tachibana K, Hirota S, Iizasa H, Yoshida H, Kawabata K, Kataoka Y, et al. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for vascularization of the gastrointestinal tract. Nature. 1998;393:591-4 pubmed
    ..The cell-surface receptor CXCR4 is a seven-transmembrane-spanning, G-protein-coupled receptor for the CXC chemokine PBSF/SDF-1 (for pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor/stromal-cell-derived factor), which is responsible for B-cell ..
  7. Abbott J, Huang Y, Liu D, Hickey R, Krause D, Giordano F. Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha plays a critical role in stem cell recruitment to the heart after myocardial infarction but is not sufficient to induce homing in the absence of injury. Circulation. 2004;110:3300-5 pubmed
    ..SDF-1/CXCR4 interactions play a crucial role in the recruitment of BMDCs to the heart after MI and can further increase homing in the presence, but not in the absence, of injury. ..
  8. Ara T, Tokoyoda K, Sugiyama T, Egawa T, Kawabata K, Nagasawa T. Long-term hematopoietic stem cells require stromal cell-derived factor-1 for colonizing bone marrow during ontogeny. Immunity. 2003;19:257-67 pubmed
    ..SDF-1 plays a critical role in colonization of bone marrow by HSCs and myeloid cells during ontogeny, and the mechanisms by which SDF-1 functions are distinct between HSCs and myeloid cells. ..
  9. Takabatake Y, Sugiyama T, Kohara H, Matsusaka T, Kurihara H, Koni P, et al. The CXCL12 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis is essential for the development of renal vasculature. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1714-23 pubmed publisher
    CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12; stromal cell-derived factor 1) is a unique homeostatic chemokine that signals through its cognate receptor, CXCR4...
  10. Gallagher K, Liu Z, Xiao M, Chen H, Goldstein L, Buerk D, et al. Diabetic impairments in NO-mediated endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and homing are reversed by hyperoxia and SDF-1 alpha. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1249-59 pubmed
    ..The targets identified, which we believe to be novel, can significantly advance the field of diabetic wound healing. ..
  11. Griffin C, Apponi L, Long K, Pavlath G. Chemokine expression and control of muscle cell migration during myogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3052-60 pubmed publisher
    ..One receptor-ligand pair, CXCR4-SDF-1alpha (CXCL12), regulated migration of both proliferating and terminally differentiated muscle cells, and was necessary for ..
  12. Yano T, Liu Z, Donovan J, Thomas M, Habener J. Stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 attenuates diabetes in mice and promotes pancreatic beta-cell survival by activation of the prosurvival kinase Akt. Diabetes. 2007;56:2946-57 pubmed
    ..We determined whether stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12 and its receptor, CX chemokine receptor (CXCR)4, are important for the survival of beta-cells...
  13. McCandless E, Wang Q, Woerner B, Harper J, Klein R. CXCL12 limits inflammation by localizing mononuclear infiltrates to the perivascular space during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2006;177:8053-64 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanisms that orchestrate this movement are not known. The chemokine CXCL12 is highly expressed throughout the CNS by microendothelial cells under normal conditions, suggesting it might play ..
  14. Dar A, Goichberg P, Shinder V, Kalinkovich A, Kollet O, Netzer N, et al. Chemokine receptor CXCR4-dependent internalization and resecretion of functional chemokine SDF-1 by bone marrow endothelial and stromal cells. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1038-46 pubmed
    Regulation of the availability of chemokine SDF-1 (CXCL12) in bone marrow is still not fully understood...
  15. Semerad C, Christopher M, Liu F, Short B, Simmons P, Winkler I, et al. G-CSF potently inhibits osteoblast activity and CXCL12 mRNA expression in the bone marrow. Blood. 2005;106:3020-7 pubmed
    Accumulating evidence indicates that interaction of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12 [CXC motif, ligand 12]) with its cognate receptor, CXCR4 (CXC motif, receptor 4), generates signals that regulate hematopoietic progenitor ..
  16. Wright L, Maloney W, Yu X, Kindle L, Collin Osdoby P, Osdoby P. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 binding to its chemokine receptor CXCR4 on precursor cells promotes the chemotactic recruitment, development and survival of human osteoclasts. Bone. 2005;36:840-53 pubmed
    ..Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) is a chemokine highly expressed by bone endothelium, BMSC, and immature Ob that is essential for the normal ..
  17. Dar A, Kollet O, Lapidot T. Mutual, reciprocal SDF-1/CXCR4 interactions between hematopoietic and bone marrow stromal cells regulate human stem cell migration and development in NOD/SCID chimeric mice. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:967-75 pubmed
    The chemokine SDF-1 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 are involved in regulation of migration, survival, and development of multiple cell types, including human hematopoietic CD34+/CD38-/low and stromal STRO-1+ stem cells...
  18. Toupadakis C, Wong A, Genetos D, Chung D, Murugesh D, Anderson M, et al. Long-term administration of AMD3100, an antagonist of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling, alters fracture repair. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1853-9 pubmed publisher
    Fracture healing involves rapid stem and progenitor cell migration, homing, and differentiation. SDF-1 (CXCL12) is considered a master regulator of CXCR4-positive stem and progenitor cell trafficking to sites of ischemic (hypoxic) injury ..
  19. Bagri A, Gurney T, He X, Zou Y, Littman D, Tessier Lavigne M, et al. The chemokine SDF1 regulates migration of dentate granule cells. Development. 2002;129:4249-60 pubmed
    ..In searching for candidate ligands that may regulate dentate granule cell migration, we found that SDF1, a chemokine that regulates cerebellar and leukocyte migration, and its receptor CXCR4 are expressed in patterns ..
  20. Laguri C, Sadir R, Rueda P, Baleux F, Gans P, Arenzana Seisdedos F, et al. The novel CXCL12gamma isoform encodes an unstructured cationic domain which regulates bioactivity and interaction with both glycosaminoglycans and CXCR4. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1110 pubmed
    ..The alternative splicing of the cxcl12 gene generates a recently identified isoform, CXCL12gamma, which structure/function relationships remain ..
  21. Sugiyama T, Kohara H, Noda M, Nagasawa T. Maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell pool by CXCL12-CXCR4 chemokine signaling in bone marrow stromal cell niches. Immunity. 2006;25:977-88 pubmed
    ..Most HSCs were found in contact with the cells expressing high amounts of CXCL12, which we have called CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells...
  22. Wang Y, Li G, Stanco A, Long J, Crawford D, Potter G, et al. CXCR4 and CXCR7 have distinct functions in regulating interneuron migration. Neuron. 2011;69:61-76 pubmed publisher
    b>CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling is critical for cortical interneuron migration and their final laminar distribution. No information is yet available on CXCR7, a newly defined CXCL12 receptor...
  23. Zhu Y, Matsumoto T, Mikami S, Nagasawa T, Murakami F. SDF1/CXCR4 signalling regulates two distinct processes of precerebellar neuronal migration and its depletion leads to abnormal pontine nuclei formation. Development. 2009;136:1919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that a chemokine SDF1 (also known as CXCL12) derived from the meningeal tissue regulates the migratory pathways of PCN...
  24. Hu X, Dai S, Wu W, Tan W, Zhu X, Mu J, et al. Stromal cell derived factor-1 alpha confers protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: role of the cardiac stromal cell derived factor-1 alpha CXCR4 axis. Circulation. 2007;116:654-63 pubmed
  25. Chalasani S, Baribaud F, Coughlan C, Sunshine M, Lee V, Doms R, et al. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 promotes the survival of embryonic retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4601-12 pubmed
    ..Mouse embryos lacking the CXCR4 receptor have a reduced number of retinal ganglion cells. The ligand of CXCR4, SDF-1, may therefore provide generalized trophic support to neurons during their development and maturation. ..
  26. Tiveron M, Rossel M, Moepps B, Zhang Y, Seidenfaden R, Favor J, et al. Molecular interaction between projection neuron precursors and invading interneurons via stromal-derived factor 1 (CXCL12)/CXCR4 signaling in the cortical subventricular zone/intermediate zone. J Neurosci. 2006;26:13273-8 pubmed
    ..We show here that the chemokine stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1; CXCL12) is expressed in the main invasion route for cortical interneurons in the SVZ/IZ...
  27. Stumm R, Zhou C, Ara T, Lazarini F, Dubois Dalcq M, Nagasawa T, et al. CXCR4 regulates interneuron migration in the developing neocortex. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5123-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings suggest that SDF-1, which is highly expressed in the embryonic leptomeninx, selectively regulates migration and layer-specific integration of CXCR4-expressing interneurons during neocortical development. ..
  28. Imitola J, Raddassi K, Park K, Mueller F, Nieto M, Teng Y, et al. Directed migration of neural stem cells to sites of CNS injury by the stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha/CXC chemokine receptor 4 pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:18117-22 pubmed
    ..CXCR4 expression within germinal zones suggests that NSC homing after injury and migration during development may invoke similar mechanisms. ..
  29. Sun Y, Schneider A, Jung Y, Wang J, Dai J, Wang J, et al. Skeletal localization and neutralization of the SDF-1(CXCL12)/CXCR4 axis blocks prostate cancer metastasis and growth in osseous sites in vivo. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:318-29 pubmed
    ..These data provide critical support for a role of SDF-1/CXCR4 in skeletal metastasis. Importantly, these data show that SDF-1/CXCR4 participate in localizing tumors to the bone marrow for prostate cancer. ..
  30. Tzeng Y, Li H, Kang Y, Chen W, Cheng W, Lai D. Loss of Cxcl12/Sdf-1 in adult mice decreases the quiescent state of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and alters the pattern of hematopoietic regeneration after myelosuppression. Blood. 2011;117:429-39 pubmed publisher
    The C-X-C-type chemokine Cxcl12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor-1, plays a critical role in hematopoiesis during fetal development...
  31. Sun T, Gianino S, Jackson E, Piwnica Worms D, Gutmann D, Rubin J. CXCL12 alone is insufficient for gliomagenesis in Nf1 mutant mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;224:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the distinct pattern of glioma in NF1 reflected spatiotemporal differences in CXCL12 effects on cAMP levels...
  32. Bouchery T, Denece G, Attout T, Ehrhardt K, Lhermitte Vallarino N, Hachet Haas M, et al. The chemokine CXCL12 is essential for the clearance of the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis in resistant mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34971 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to determine whether host factors such as the chemokine axis CXCL12/CXCR4, which notably participates in the control of immune surveillance, can influence the outcome of the ..
  33. Rueda P, Balabanian K, Lagane B, Staropoli I, Chow K, Levoye A, et al. The CXCL12gamma chemokine displays unprecedented structural and functional properties that make it a paradigm of chemoattractant proteins. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2543 pubmed publisher
    The CXCL12gamma chemokine arises by alternative splicing from Cxcl12, an essential gene during development. This protein binds CXCR4 and displays an exceptional degree of conservation (99%) in mammals...
  34. Tepper O, Carr J, Allen R, Chang C, Lin C, Tanaka R, et al. Decreased circulating progenitor cell number and failed mechanisms of stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha mediated bone marrow mobilization impair diabetic tissue repair. Diabetes. 2010;59:1974-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Plerixafor represents a potential therapeutic agent for improving ischemia-mediated pathology associated with diabetes by reducing bone marrow SDF-1alpha, restoring normal PC mobilization and tissue healing. ..
  35. Sessa A, Mao C, Colasante G, Nini A, Klein W, Broccoli V. Tbr2-positive intermediate (basal) neuronal progenitors safeguard cerebral cortex expansion by controlling amplification of pallial glutamatergic neurons and attraction of subpallial GABAergic interneurons. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1816-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, Tbr2 interneuron attractive activity is moderated by Cxcl12 chemokine signaling, whose forced expression in the Tbr2 mutants can rescue, to some extent, SVZ cell migration...
  36. Dong F, Harvey J, Finan A, Weber K, Agarwal U, Penn M. Myocardial CXCR4 expression is required for mesenchymal stem cell mediated repair following acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2012;126:314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of CM-CXCR4 expression, there is a significant loss of functional benefit in MSC-mediated repair despite equal increases in vascular density. ..
  37. Yoon K, Chae Y, Cho J. FGF2 stimulates SDF-1 expression through the Erm transcription factor in Sertoli cells. J Cell Physiol. 2009;220:245-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ERM directly regulates Sdf-1 gene expression by interacting with its cis-acting element in response to FGF2 stimulation in TM4 cells. ..
  38. Kayali A, Van Gunst K, Campbell I, Stotland A, Kritzik M, Liu G, et al. The stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha/CXCR4 ligand-receptor axis is critical for progenitor survival and migration in the pancreas. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:859-69 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that the SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 ligand receptor axis is an obligatory component in the maintenance of duct cell survival, proliferation, and migration during pancreatic regeneration. ..
  39. Vasyutina E, Stebler J, Brand Saberi B, Schulz S, Raz E, Birchmeier C. CXCR4 and Gab1 cooperate to control the development of migrating muscle progenitor cells. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2187-98 pubmed
    ..We show here that migrating muscle progenitors express the chemokine receptor CXCR4. The corresponding ligand, SDF1, is expressed in limb and branchial arch mesenchyme; i.e...
  40. Nakagawa R, Togawa A, Nagasawa T, Nishikawa S. Peyer's patch inducer cells play a leading role in the formation of B and T cell zone architecture. J Immunol. 2013;190:3309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..PP inducer cells migrate between these zones by undergoing chemokine receptor switching. ..
  41. Kanatsu Shinohara M, Inoue K, Takashima S, Takehashi M, Ogonuki N, Morimoto H, et al. Reconstitution of mouse spermatogonial stem cell niches in culture. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Cobblestone colony formation depended on GDNF and CXCL12, and dominant-negative GDNF receptor transfection or CXCL12 receptor deficiency reduced SSC colonization...
  42. Tokoyoda K, Egawa T, Sugiyama T, Choi B, Nagasawa T. Cellular niches controlling B lymphocyte behavior within bone marrow during development. Immunity. 2004;20:707-18 pubmed
    ..b>CXCL12-expressing cells are a small population of stromal cells, scattered throughout bone marrow and located some ..
  43. Zou Y, Kottmann A, Kuroda M, Taniuchi I, Littman D. Function of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in haematopoiesis and in cerebellar development. Nature. 1998;393:595-9 pubmed
    ..These results may be important for designing strategies to block HIV entry into cells and for understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis in AIDS dementia. ..
  44. Borrell V, Marin O. Meninges control tangential migration of hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells via CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:1284-93 pubmed
    ..We also show that the chemokine CXCL12 secreted by the meninges enhances the dispersion of Cajal-Retzius cells along the cortical surface, while ..
  45. Luker K, Gupta M, Steele J, Foerster B, Luker G. Imaging ligand-dependent activation of CXCR7. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1022-35 pubmed
    Chemokine CXCL12 is proposed to promote multiple steps in growth of primary tumors and progression to metastatic disease in more than 20 different cancers...
  46. Broxmeyer H, Cooper S, Kohli L, Hangoc G, Lee Y, Mantel C, et al. Transgenic expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine ligand 12 enhances myeloid progenitor cell survival/antiapoptosis in vitro in response to growth factor withdrawal and enhances myelopoiesis in vivo. J Immunol. 2003;170:421-9 pubmed
    ..To further evaluate SDF-1/CXCL12 effects on progenitor cell survival, transgenic mice endogenously expressing SDF-1/CXCL12 under a Rous sarcoma ..
  47. Ara T, Nakamura Y, Egawa T, Sugiyama T, Abe K, Kishimoto T, et al. Impaired colonization of the gonads by primordial germ cells in mice lacking a chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5319-23 pubmed
    ..Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also called PBSF and CXCL12) is a member of chemokines, a family of structurally related chemoattractive cytokines...
  48. Hunger C, Odemis V, Engele J. Expression and function of the SDF-1 chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 during mouse limb muscle development and regeneration. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:2178-90 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine, SDF-1/CXCL12, and its receptor, CXCR4, have been implied to play major roles during limb myogenesis...
  49. Li N, Lu X, Zhao X, Xiang F, Xenocostas A, Karmazyn M, et al. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase promotes bone marrow stromal cell migration to the ischemic myocardium via upregulation of stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha. Stem Cells. 2009;27:961-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, eNOS in the host myocardium promotes MSC migration to the ischemic myocardium and improves cardiac function through cGMP-dependent increases in SDF-1alpha expression. ..
  50. Bleul C, Fuhlbrigge R, Casasnovas J, Aiuti A, Springer T. A highly efficacious lymphocyte chemoattractant, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). J Exp Med. 1996;184:1101-9 pubmed
    ..Since SDF-1 is expressed constitutively in a broad range of tissues it may have a role in immune surveillance and in basal extravasation of lymphocytes and monocytes rather than in inflammation. ..
  51. Balabanian K, Couderc J, Bouchet Delbos L, Amara A, Berrebi D, Foussat A, et al. Role of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 in autoantibody production and nephritis in murine lupus. J Immunol. 2003;170:3392-400 pubmed
    In normal mice, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) promotes the migration, proliferation, and survival of peritoneal B1a (PerB1a) lymphocytes...
  52. Lopez Bendito G, Sánchez Alcañiz J, Pla R, Borrell V, Picó E, Valdeolmillos M, et al. Chemokine signaling controls intracortical migration and final distribution of GABAergic interneurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1613-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Perturbation of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling causes premature cortical plate invasion by cortical interneurons and, in the long term, disrupts ..
  53. Lu M, Grove E, Miller R. Abnormal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in mice lacking the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7090-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, the DG is unusual as a site of adult neurogenesis. We find that both CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in the adult DG, suggesting an ongoing role in DG morphogenesis. ..
  54. Greenbaum A, Hsu Y, Day R, Schuettpelz L, Christopher M, Borgerding J, et al. CXCL12 in early mesenchymal progenitors is required for haematopoietic stem-cell maintenance. Nature. 2013;495:227-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Endosteal osteoblasts and perivascular stromal cells including endothelial cells, CXCL12-abundant reticular cells, leptin-receptor-positive stromal cells, and nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-..
  55. Kew R, Penzo M, Habiel D, Marcu K. The IKK?-dependent NF-?B p52/RelB noncanonical pathway is essential to sustain a CXCL12 autocrine loop in cells migrating in response to HMGB1. J Immunol. 2012;188:2380-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the IKK?-dependent p52/RelB noncanonical pathway is critical to sustain CXCL12/SDF1 production in order for cells to migrate toward HMGB1...
  56. Jin D, Shido K, Kopp H, Petit I, Shmelkov S, Young L, et al. Cytokine-mediated deployment of SDF-1 induces revascularization through recruitment of CXCR4+ hemangiocytes. Nat Med. 2006;12:557-67 pubmed
    ..Delivery of SDF-1 may be effective in restoring angiogenesis in individuals with vasculopathies. ..
  57. Odemis V, Boosmann K, Dieterlen M, Engele J. The chemokine SDF1 controls multiple steps of myogenesis through atypical PKCzeta. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:4050-9 pubmed
    Mice deficient in the SDF1-chemokine-receptor CXCR4, exhibit severe defects of secondary limb myogenesis...
  58. Payne C, Gallagher S, Foreman O, Dannenberg J, Depinho R, Braun R. Sin3a is required by sertoli cells to establish a niche for undifferentiated spermatogonia, germ cell tumors, and spermatid elongation. Stem Cells. 2010;28:1424-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Kit and Sohlh2, exhibited normal levels, but chemokine-signaling molecules chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), expressed in Sertoli cells ..
  59. Ara T, Itoi M, Kawabata K, Egawa T, Tokoyoda K, Sugiyama T, et al. A role of CXC chemokine ligand 12/stromal cell-derived factor-1/pre-B cell growth stimulating factor and its receptor CXCR4 in fetal and adult T cell development in vivo. J Immunol. 2003;170:4649-55 pubmed
    ..In CXCL12(-/-) or CXCR4(-/-) embryos on a C57BL/6 background, accumulation of T cell progenitors in the outer mesenchymal ..
  60. Ma Q, Jones D, Borghesani P, Segal R, Nagasawa T, Kishimoto T, et al. Impaired B-lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis, and derailed cerebellar neuron migration in CXCR4- and SDF-1-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:9448-53 pubmed
    ..This receptor-ligand selectivity is unusual among chemokines and their receptors, as is the function in migration of nonhematopoietic cells. ..
  61. Hosogane N, Huang Z, Rawlins B, Liu X, Boachie Adjei O, Boskey A, et al. Stromal derived factor-1 regulates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced osteogenic differentiation of primary mesenchymal stem cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:1132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms underlying MSC osteogenesis, and will contribute to the development of MSC therapies for enhancing bone formation and regeneration in broad orthopaedic situations. ..
  62. Dziembowska M, Tham T, Lau P, Vitry S, Lazarini F, Dubois Dalcq M. A role for CXCR4 signaling in survival and migration of neural and oligodendrocyte precursors. Glia. 2005;50:258-69 pubmed
    ..The present study shows that signaling of CXCR4 receptor by the chemokine CXCL12 regulates survival and migration of neural precursors (NP) as well as oligodendrocyte progenitors (OP)...
  63. Davis D, Singer K, De La Luz Sierra M, Narazaki M, Yang F, Fales H, et al. Identification of carboxypeptidase N as an enzyme responsible for C-terminal cleavage of stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha in the circulation. Blood. 2005;105:4561-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to its role as a regulator of the biologic activity of kinins and anaphylatoxins, CPN is an important regulator of the biologic activity of SDF-1alpha by reducing the chemokine-specific activity. ..
  64. Allen C, Ansel K, Low C, Lesley R, Tamamura H, Fujii N, et al. Germinal center dark and light zone organization is mediated by CXCR4 and CXCR5. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:943-52 pubmed
    ..Centroblasts had high expression of CXCR4 and GC B cells migrated toward the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12), which was more abundant in the dark zone than in the light zone...
  65. De Falco E, Porcelli D, Torella A, Straino S, Iachininoto M, Orlandi A, et al. SDF-1 involvement in endothelial phenotype and ischemia-induced recruitment of bone marrow progenitor cells. Blood. 2004;104:3472-82 pubmed
    ..Our findings unravel a function for SDF-1 in increase of EPC number and formation of vascular structures by bone marrow progenitor cells. ..
  66. Bhattacharyya B, Banisadr G, Jung H, Ren D, Cronshaw D, Zou Y, et al. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 regulates GABAergic inputs to neural progenitors in the postnatal dentate gyrus. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6720-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling is likely to be an important regulator of adult neurogenesis in the DG. ..
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