Gene Symbol: Cxcl1
Description: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1
Alias: Fsp, Gro1, Mgsa, N51, Scyb1, gro, growth-regulated alpha protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 1, GRO1 oncogene, KC/GR)-alpha, KC/GRO-alpha, alpha-chemokine, platelet-derived growth factor-inducible protein KC, secretory protein N51
Species: mouse
Products:     Cxcl1

Top Publications

  1. Glabinski A, Tuohy V, Ransohoff R. Expression of chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha and GRO-alpha correlates with inflammation in acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1998;5:166-71 pubmed
    ..In the present study we analyzed the gene expression of three chemokines, RANTES, MIP-1alpha and GRO-alpha, at the onset of acute EAE, and correlated that expression with the intensity of inflammatory changes in the ..
  2. Barcelos L, Talvani A, Teixeira A, Cassali G, Andrade S, Teixeira M. Production and in vivo effects of chemokines CXCL1-3/KC and CCL2/JE in a model of inflammatory angiogenesis in mice. Inflamm Res. 2004;53:576-84 pubmed
    ..between angiogenesis, leukocyte accumulation and endogenous generation of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL1-3/KC and CCL2/JE. Furthermore, the effects of exogenous administration of these chemokines were studied...
  3. Boisvert W, Rose D, Johnson K, Fuentes M, Lira S, Curtiss L, et al. Up-regulated expression of the CXCR2 ligand KC/GRO-alpha in atherosclerotic lesions plays a central role in macrophage accumulation and lesion progression. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:1385-95 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine whether one of the ligands of CXCR2, KC/GRO-alpha, can also modulate atherogenesis...
  4. Brown H, Lock H, Wolfs T, Buurman W, Sacks S, Robson M. Toll-like receptor 4 ligation on intrinsic renal cells contributes to the induction of antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis via CXCL1 and CXCL2. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:1732-9 pubmed
    ..Treatment of chimeras with TLR4 present only on intrinsic renal cells with anti-CXCL1 and anti-CXCL2 antibody before disease induction significantly reduced renal neutrophil infiltration...
  5. Nijnik A, Madera L, Ma S, Waldbrook M, Elliott M, Easton D, et al. Synthetic cationic peptide IDR-1002 provides protection against bacterial infections through chemokine induction and enhanced leukocyte recruitment. J Immunol. 2010;184:2539-50 pubmed publisher
  6. Wengner A, Pitchford S, Furze R, Rankin S. The coordinated action of G-CSF and ELR + CXC chemokines in neutrophil mobilization during acute inflammation. Blood. 2008;111:42-9 pubmed
    ..8 x 10(6) and 5.4 x 10(6) neutrophils, respectively, while the infusion of KC and G-CSF together mobilized 19.5 x 10(6) neutrophils, indicating that these factors act cooperatively with respect to neutrophil mobilization. ..
  7. Wuyts A, D Haese A, Cremers V, Menten P, Lenaerts J, De Loof A, et al. NH2- and COOH-terminal truncations of murine granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 augment the in vitro and in vivo neutrophil chemotactic potency. J Immunol. 1999;163:6155-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings point to an important role of post-translationally modified GCP-2 to replace IL-8 in the mouse. ..
  8. Tani M, Fuentes M, Peterson J, Trapp B, Durham S, Loy J, et al. Neutrophil infiltration, glial reaction, and neurological disease in transgenic mice expressing the chemokine N51/KC in oligodendrocytes. J Clin Invest. 1996;98:529-39 pubmed
    ..The CNS function of N51/KC, a neutrophil-selective chemokine, was addressed by expressing N51/KC under control of the myelin basic protein (..
  9. Londhe V, Nguyen H, Jeng J, Li X, Li C, Tiozzo C, et al. NF-kB induces lung maturation during mouse lung morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:328-38 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with a model whereby NF-kB may induce maturation of lung development through decreased apoptosis of epithelial cells. ..

More Information


  1. Rubio N, Sanz Rodriguez F. Induction of the CXCL1 (KC) chemokine in mouse astrocytes by infection with the murine encephalomyelitis virus of Theiler. Virology. 2007;358:98-108 pubmed
    In the present study, we focused on the production of the chemokine CXCL1, also termed KC, by cultured Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-infected mouse astrocytes...
  2. Oquendo P, Alberta J, Wen D, Graycar J, Derynck R, Stiles C. The platelet-derived growth factor-inducible KC gene encodes a secretory protein related to platelet alpha-granule proteins. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:4133-7 pubmed
    ..The KC gene is, in all probability, the murine homologue of a human gene termed "gro." By extension, the KC protein is the murine counterpart of the protein encoded by the gro gene...
  3. Cochran B, Reffel A, Stiles C. Molecular cloning of gene sequences regulated by platelet-derived growth factor. Cell. 1983;33:939-47 pubmed
    ..This result indicates that these sequences correspond to "early genes" which are not induced as a consequence of cell growth, but rather are directly regulated by PDGF. ..
  4. De Filippo K, Henderson R, Laschinger M, Hogg N. Neutrophil chemokines KC and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 are newly synthesized by tissue macrophages using distinct TLR signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2008;180:4308-15 pubmed
    ..In summary we show that TLR signaling by tissue macrophages directly controls the synthesis of neutrophil-attracting chemokines that are essential for the earliest recruitment step in the innate immune response to microbial challenge. ..
  5. Carlson T, Kroenke M, Rao P, Lane T, Segal B. The Th17-ELR+ CXC chemokine pathway is essential for the development of central nervous system autoimmune disease. J Exp Med. 2008;205:811-23 pubmed publisher
    The ELR(+) CXC chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 are up-regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) during multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
  6. Cataisson C, Pearson A, Tsien M, Mascia F, Gao J, Pastore S, et al. CXCR2 ligands and G-CSF mediate PKCalpha-induced intraepidermal inflammation. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2757-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, skin can be the source of circulating factors that have both local and systemic consequences, and these factors, their receptors, and possibly PKCalpha could be therapeutic targets for inhibition of cutaneous inflammation. ..
  7. Bozic C, Gerard N, von Uexkull Guldenband C, Kolakowski L, Conklyn M, Breslow R, et al. The murine interleukin 8 type B receptor homologue and its ligands. Expression and biological characterization. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:29355-8 pubmed
    ..Human neutrophils also bind recombinant KC at a site competitive with human interleukin (IL8) and Gro-alpha/MGSA, consistent with binding at the IL8 type B receptor (IL8RB)...
  8. Bozic C, Kolakowski L, Gerard N, Garcia Rodriguez C, von Uexkull Guldenband C, Conklyn M, et al. Expression and biologic characterization of the murine chemokine KC. J Immunol. 1995;154:6048-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, KC appears to be intimately involved in murine inflammation and its constitutive expression may have a role in the basal trafficking of neutrophils. ..
  9. Yang Z, Mao G, Zhang J, Wen X, Jia B, Bao Y, et al. IFN-? induces senescence-like characteristics in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017;26:201-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular senescence was detected using SA-?-gal stains. IL-6 and CXCL1 secretions were measured by ELISA. mBM-MSC can differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes...
  10. Pedersen L, Pilegaard H, Hansen J, Brandt C, Adser H, Hidalgo J, et al. Exercise-induced liver chemokine CXCL-1 expression is linked to muscle-derived interleukin-6 expression. J Physiol. 2011;589:1409-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that liver is the main source of serum CXCL-1 during exercise in mice, and that the CXCL-1 expression in the liver is regulated by muscle-derived IL-6. ..
  11. Meinel T, Pongratz G, Rauch L, Straub R. Neuronal ?1/2-adrenergic stimulation of IFN-?, IL-6, and CXCL-1 in murine spleen in late experimental arthritis. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;33:80-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These earlier experiments demonstrated exclusively neuronal sympathetic regulation of IFN-?, CXCL1, IL-6, and TGF-?...
  12. Gill S, Nadler S, Li Q, Frevert C, Park P, Chen P, et al. Shedding of Syndecan-1/CXCL1 Complexes by Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 Functions as an Epithelial Checkpoint of Neutrophil Activation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016;55:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..from a lack of MMP7 shedding of syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that carries the neutrophil chemokine CXCL1 as cargo. Here, we assessed if shedding syndecan-1/CXCL1 complexes affects neutrophil activation...
  13. Farnand A, Eastman A, Herrero R, Hanson J, Mongovin S, Altemeier W, et al. Fas activation in alveolar epithelial cells induces KC (CXCL1) release by a MyD88-dependent mechanism. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we conclude that Fas induces KC release in MLE-12 cells by a mechanism requiring MyD88, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and likely activator protein-1. ..
  14. Wigerblad G, Bas D, Fernades Cerqueira C, Krishnamurthy A, Nandakumar K, Rogoz K, et al. Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins induce joint pain independent of inflammation via a chemokine-dependent mechanism. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:730-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect was coupled to ACPA-mediated activation of osteoclasts and release of the nociceptive chemokine CXCL1 (analogue to human IL-8). ACPA-induced pain-like behaviour was reversed with reparixin...
  15. Zamoshnikova A, Groß C, Schuster S, Chen K, Wilson A, Tacchini Cottier F, et al. NLRP12 is a neutrophil-specific, negative regulator of in vitro cell migration but does not modulate LPS- or infection-induced NF-κB or ERK signalling. Immunobiology. 2016;221:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that Nlrp12 deficiency caused increased rather than decreased neutrophil migration towards the chemokine CXCL1 and the neutrophil parasite Leishmania major, revealing NLRP12 as a negative regulator of directed neutrophil ..
  16. Madorin W, Rui T, Sugimoto N, Handa O, Cepinskas G, Kvietys P. Cardiac myocytes activated by septic plasma promote neutrophil transendothelial migration: role of platelet-activating factor and the chemokines LIX and KC. Circ Res. 2004;94:944-51 pubmed
    ..The activated myocytes promote PMN transendothelial migration, an effect attributable to LIX and KC, and possibly, PAF. ..
  17. Zhang K, Tian L, Liu L, Feng Y, Dong Y, Li B, et al. CXCL1 contributes to ?-amyloid-induced transendothelial migration of monocytes in Alzheimer's disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72744 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we reported that monocytes from AD patients express significantly higher chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) compared to age-matched controls...
  18. Orlichenko L, Behari J, Yeh T, Liu S, Stolz D, Saluja A, et al. Transcriptional regulation of CXC-ELR chemokines KC and MIP-2 in mouse pancreatic acini. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G867-76 pubmed publisher
    ..MIP-2 upregulation requires both NF-?B and AP-1 in these cells. Thus dual inhibition of NF-?B and AP-1 may be a more successful strategy to reduce inflammation in pancreatitis than targeting NF-?B alone. ..
  19. Modi W, Amarante M, Hanson M, Womack J, Chidambaram A. Assignment of the mouse and cow CXC chemokine genes. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;81:213-6 pubmed
    ..One group containing Gro1 and Mip2 cosegregated with reference markers Alb1 and Btc, and was positioned 2...
  20. Feng C, Zhang L, Nguyen C, Vogel S, Goldblum S, Blackwelder W, et al. Neuraminidase reprograms lung tissue and potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. J Immunol. 2013;191:4828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar "reprogramming" of immune responses with desialylation may occur during respiratory infection with NA-expressing microbes and contribute to severe lung injury. ..
  21. Qing X, Zavadil J, Crosby M, Hogarth M, Hahn B, Mohan C, et al. Nephritogenic anti-DNA antibodies regulate gene expression in MRL/lpr mouse glomerular mesangial cells. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2198-210 pubmed
    ..Pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, antibodies significantly induced a number of transcripts, including CXCL1/KC, LCN2, iNOS, CX3CL1/fractalkine, SERPINA3G, and IkappaBalpha ("marker genes")...
  22. Lomas Neira J, Chung C, Grutkoski P, Dunican A, Simms H, Cioffi W, et al. Divergent roles of murine neutrophil chemokines in hemorrhage induced priming for acute lung injury. Cytokine. 2005;31:169-79 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that KC and MIP-2alpha differ in their mediation of neutrophil function (apoptosis and chemotaxis) and contribution to the pathogenesis of lung injury following hemorrhage subsequent to sepsis. ..
  23. Mohsenin A, Burdick M, Molina J, Keane M, Blackburn M. Enhanced CXCL1 production and angiogenesis in adenosine-mediated lung disease. FASEB J. 2007;21:1026-36 pubmed
    ..Levels of the angiogenic chemokine CXCL1 (mouse functional homologue of human IL-8) were found to be elevated in an adenosine-dependent manner in the lungs ..
  24. Lombard R, Doz E, Carreras F, Epardaud M, Le Vern Y, Buzoni Gatel D, et al. IL-17RA in Non-Hematopoietic Cells Controls CXCL-1 and 5 Critical to Recruit Neutrophils to the Lung of Mycobacteria-Infected Mice during the Adaptive Immune Response. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149455 pubmed publisher
    ..In absence of this receptor, curtailed CXCL-1 and 5 production in the lung restrained neutrophil recruitment. CXCL-1 and 5 instillation reconstituted lung neutrophil recruitment in BCG-infected IL17RA-/- mice. ..
  25. Introna M, Bast R, Tannenbaum C, Hamilton T, Adams D. The effect of LPS on expression of the early "competence" genes JE and KC in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Immunol. 1987;138:3891-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together these findings suggest that the products of these genes may function in the acquisition of competence for highly differentiated functions in addition to that for cell division. ..
  26. Li S, Pettersson U, Hoorelbeke B, Kolaczkowska E, Schelfhout K, Martens E, et al. Interference with glycosaminoglycan-chemokine interactions with a probe to alter leukocyte recruitment and inflammation in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e104107 pubmed publisher
    ..COAM and heparan sulphate bound the mouse CXC chemokines KC/CXCL1, MIP-2/CXCL2, IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 and the CC chemokine RANTES/CCL5 with affinities in the nanomolar ..
  27. Schramm R, Schaefer T, Menger M, Thorlacius H. Acute mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment in the skin is mediated by KC and LFA-1: inhibitory mechanisms of dexamethasone. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:1122-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study elucidates important interactions between chemokines and adhesion molecules in mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment and provides new insight into mechanisms of dexamethasone in skin inflammation. ..
  28. Poluri K, Joseph P, Sawant K, Rajarathnam K. Molecular basis of glycosaminoglycan heparin binding to the chemokine CXCL1 dimer. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:25143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..some of this missing knowledge, we have characterized the structural basis of heparin binding to the murine CXCL1 dimer. CXCL1 is a neutrophil-activating chemokine and exists as both monomers and dimers (Kd = 36 ?m)...
  29. Okabe Y, Kawane K, Nagata S. IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7-dependent and -independent gene induction by mammalian DNA that escapes degradation. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the mammalian chromosomal DNA that accumulates in macrophages due to inefficient degradation activates genes in both IRF3/IRF7-dependent and -independent manners. ..
  30. Semba T, Nishimura M, Nishimura S, Ohara O, Ishige T, Ohno S, et al. The FLS (fatty liver Shionogi) mouse reveals local expressions of lipocalin-2, CXCL1 and CXCL9 in the liver with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13:120 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA microarray analysis of the liver transcriptomes and qRT-PCR of both types of mice revealed that LCN2, CXCL1 and CXCL9 mRNAs were overexpressed in FLS mouse livers...
  31. Zhang Z, Cao D, Zhang X, Ji R, Gao Y. Chemokine contribution to neuropathic pain: respective induction of CXCL1 and CXCR2 in spinal cord astrocytes and neurons. Pain. 2013;154:2185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..neuropathic pain symptoms, including mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia, but also produced sustained CXCL1 upregulation in the spinal cord...
  32. Rutledge H, Aylor D, Carpenter D, Peck B, Chines P, Ostrowski L, et al. Genetic regulation of Zfp30, CXCL1, and neutrophilic inflammation in murine lung. Genetics. 2014;198:735-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Lung lavage fluid was analyzed for PMN count and the concentration of CXCL1, a hallmark PMN chemokine. PMN and CXCL1 were strongly correlated in preCC mice...
  33. Wojczyk B, Kim N, Bandyopadhyay S, Francis R, Zimring J, Hod E, et al. Macrophages clear refrigerator storage-damaged red blood cells and subsequently secrete cytokines in vivo, but not in vitro, in a murine model. Transfusion. 2014;54:3186-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, in mouse spleen, tissue-resident macrophages were predominantly involved in MCP-1 mRNA production. The differences between cytokine production in vitro and in vivo are not yet well understood. ..
  34. Horton M, Burdick M, Strieter R, Bao C, Noble P. Regulation of hyaluronan-induced chemokine gene expression by IL-10 and IFN-gamma in mouse macrophages. J Immunol. 1998;160:3023-30 pubmed
    ..These data identify a previously unrecognized role for IL-10 and IFN-gamma as regulators of ECM-induced macrophage expression of inflammatory chemokines. ..
  35. Luan J, Shattuck Brandt R, Haghnegahdar H, Owen J, Strieter R, Burdick M, et al. Mechanism and biological significance of constitutive expression of MGSA/GRO chemokines in malignant melanoma tumor progression. J Leukoc Biol. 1997;62:588-97 pubmed
    By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry, MGSA-alpha, -beta, -gamma, and CXCR2 mRNA expression and proteins are detected in 7 out of 10 human melanoma lesions...
  36. Crosby A, Lyu M, Lin K, McBride O, Kerr J, Aplin H, et al. Mapping of the human and mouse bone sialoprotein and osteopontin loci. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:149-51 pubmed
  37. Ohmori Y, Hamilton T. IFN-gamma selectively inhibits lipopolysaccharide-inducible JE/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and KC/GRO/melanoma growth-stimulating activity gene expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages. J Immunol. 1994;153:2204-12 pubmed
    ..Expression of JE (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and KC (GRO/melanoma growth-stimulating activity) mRNA in macrophages stimulated with LPS was markedly suppressed by IFN-gamma ..
  38. Jang J, Hod E, Spitalnik S, Frenette P. CXCL1 and its receptor, CXCR2, mediate murine sickle cell vaso-occlusion during hemolytic transfusion reactions. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..inflammatory chemokine levels, including striking elevation of the levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1. Recombinant CXCL1 administration was sufficient to induce acute VOC in SCD mice, characterized by leukocyte ..
  39. Pittler S, Lee A, Altherr M, Howard T, Seldin M, Hurwitz R, et al. Primary structure and chromosomal localization of human and mouse rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6257-62 pubmed
    ..The mouse channel gene locus (Cncg) was mapped by interspecific backcross haplotype analysis 0.9 centimorgan proximal of the Kit locus on chromosome 5. ..
  40. Sawicki C, McKim D, Wohleb E, Jarrett B, Reader B, Norden D, et al. Social defeat promotes a reactive endothelium in a brain region-dependent manner with increased expression of key adhesion molecules, selectins and chemokines associated with the recruitment of myeloid cells to the brain. Neuroscience. 2015;302:151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, mRNA expression of additional adhesion molecules (E- and P-selectin, PECAM-1) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL12, CCL2) were determined in the brain...
  41. Tiwari N, Marudamuthu A, Tsukasaki Y, Ikebe M, Fu J, Shetty S. p53- and PAI-1-mediated induction of C-X-C chemokines and CXCR2: importance in pulmonary inflammation due to cigarette smoke exposure. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;310:L496-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Within this context, we now show increased expression of the C-X-C chemokines (CXCL1 and CXCL2) and their receptor CXCR2, and the intercellular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in the lung ..
  42. Novitskiy S, Ryzhov S, Zaynagetdinov R, Goldstein A, Huang Y, Tikhomirov O, et al. Adenosine receptors in regulation of dendritic cell differentiation and function. Blood. 2008;112:1822-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenosine signaling through A(2B) receptor is an important factor of aberrant DC differentiation and generation of tolerogenic, angiogenic, and proinflammatory cells. ..
  43. Sharma A, Mulloy D, Le L, Laubach V. NADPH oxidase mediates synergistic effects of IL-17 and TNF-? on CXCL1 expression by epithelial cells after lung ischemia-reperfusion. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This study tests the hypothesis that IL-17 and TNF-? synergistically mediate CXCL1 (a potent neutrophil chemokine) production by alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cells via an NADPH oxidase-..
  44. Reddy A, Patel J, Vogler C, Klein R, Sands M. Central nervous system pathology progresses independently of KC and CXCR2 in globoid-cell leukodystrophy. PLoS ONE. 2014;8:e64647 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the role of multiple redundant cytokines and growth factors in the pathogenesis of GLD. ..
  45. Cai S, Batra S, Lira S, Kolls J, Jeyaseelan S. CXCL1 regulates pulmonary host defense to Klebsiella Infection via CXCL2, CXCL5, NF-kappaB, and MAPKs. J Immunol. 2010;185:6214-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Although lung-specific CXCL1/keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine (KC) transgene expression causes neutrophil-mediated clearance of K...
  46. Jin L, Batra S, Jeyaseelan S. Diminished neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a novel innate immune deficiency induced by acute ethanol exposure in polymicrobial sepsis, which can be rescued by CXCL1. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006637 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple chemokines, such as CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5 are critical for neutrophil recruitment and proper function of neutrophils...
  47. Lesina M, Wörmann S, Morton J, Diakopoulos K, Korneeva O, Wimmer M, et al. RelA regulates CXCL1/CXCR2-dependent oncogene-induced senescence in murine Kras-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:2919-32 pubmed publisher
    ..and pharmacological tools, we determined that RelA activation promotes OIS via elevation of the SASP factor CXCL1 (also known as KC), which activates CXCR2, during pancreatic carcinogenesis...
  48. Oka M, Edamatsu H, Kunisada M, Hu L, Takenaka N, Sakaguchi M, et al. Phospholipase C? has a crucial role in ultraviolet B-induced neutrophil-associated skin inflammation by regulating the expression of CXCL1/KC. Lab Invest. 2011;91:711-8 pubmed publisher
    ..suppression of neutrophil infiltration in PLC??/? mice was accompanied by attenuation of UVB-induced production of CXCL1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), a potent chemokine for neutrophils, in the whole skin...
  49. Elizur A, Adair Kirk T, Kelley D, Griffin G, Demello D, Senior R. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha from macrophages enhances LPS-induced clara cell expression of keratinocyte-derived chemokine. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:8-15 pubmed
    ..These findings shed light on macrophage-Clara cell interactions in regulating the pulmonary inflammatory response to LPS. ..
  50. Lee Y, Yang H, Yang J, Kim Y, Lee S, Kim J, et al. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling in intestinal stromal cells controls KC/ CXCL1 secretion, which correlates with recruitment of IL-22- secreting neutrophils at early stages of Citrobacter rodentium infection. Infect Immun. 2015;83:3257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of mRNA and protein of KC/CXCL1 were also significantly reduced in colon homogenates of infected IL-1R−/− mice relative to wild-type ..
  51. Almeida P, Roque N, Magalhaes K, Mattos K, Teixeira L, Maya Monteiro C, et al. Differential TLR2 downstream signaling regulates lipid metabolism and cytokine production triggered by Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1841:97-107 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, KC/CXCL1 production was largely dependent on NF-?B but not on PPAR?...
  52. Roh Y, Zhang B, Loomba R, Seki E. TLR2 and TLR9 contribute to alcohol-mediated liver injury through induction of CXCL1 and neutrophil infiltration. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;309:G30-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines, including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, and Cxcl5, and hepatic neutrophil infiltration were increased in wild-type mice, but not in TLR2- and TLR9-..
  53. Wiekowski M, Chen S, Zalamea P, Wilburn B, Kinsley D, Sharif W, et al. Disruption of neutrophil migration in a conditional transgenic model: evidence for CXCR2 desensitization in vivo. J Immunol. 2001;167:7102-10 pubmed
    ..These results confirm the neutrophil chemoattractant properties of KC and provide a mechanistic explanation for the paradoxical lack of leukocyte infiltration observed in the presence of elevated concentrations of this chemokine. ..
  54. Richmond A, Balentien E, Thomas H, Flaggs G, Barton D, Spiess J, et al. Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulatory activity, a growth factor structurally related to beta-thromboglobulin. EMBO J. 1988;7:2025-33 pubmed
    Melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) is a mitogenic polypeptide secreted by Hs294T human melanoma cells...
  55. Ryseck R, Macdonald Bravo H, Mattei M, Bravo R. Cloning and sequence of a secretory protein induced by growth factors in mouse fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res. 1989;180:266-75 pubmed
    ..genes that are induced by serum growth factors in quiescent mouse fibroblasts we have characterized a clone, N51, and demonstrated that it codes for a precursor of a secretory protein...
  56. Ronchi F, Basso C, Preite S, Reboldi A, Baumjohann D, Perlini L, et al. Experimental priming of encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 cells requires pertussis toxin-driven IL-1? production by myeloid cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11541 pubmed publisher
  57. Raoust E, Balloy V, Garcia Verdugo I, Touqui L, Ramphal R, Chignard M. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS or flagellin are sufficient to activate TLR-dependent signaling in murine alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7259 pubmed publisher
    ..Either ligand/receptor pair is sufficient to sense the bacterium and to trigger cell activation, and when both are missing lung EC and AM are unable to produce such a response as were cells from MyD88(-/-) mice. ..
  58. Parkunan S, Randall C, Astley R, Furtado G, Lira S, Callegan M. CXCL1, but not IL-6, significantly impacts intraocular inflammation during infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2016;100:1125-1134 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CXCL1 contributed to rapid neutrophil recruitment during Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis, a severe form of intraocular ..
  59. Novotny M, Datta S, Biswas R, Hamilton T. Functionally independent AU-rich sequence motifs regulate KC (CXCL1) mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30166-74 pubmed
    ..Using tetR-regulated transcription we now show that the 3'-UTR of the mouse CXCL1 (KC) mRNA contains at least two ARE motifs that are structurally and functionally distinct...
  60. Stefanovic L, Brenner D, Stefanovic B. Direct hepatotoxic effect of KC chemokine in the liver without infiltration of neutrophils. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005;230:573-86 pubmed
    KC is a mouse homolog of human chemokine gro-alpha (CXCL1), expression of which is increased in liver diseases. We show that activated, but not quiescent, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) express KC...
  61. Sakaguchi A, Lalley P, Choudhury G, Martinez L, Han E, Killary A, et al. Mouse melanoma growth stimulatory activity gene (Mgsa) is polymorphic and syntenic with the W, patch, rumpwhite, and recessive spotting loci on chromosome 5. Genomics. 1989;5:629-32 pubmed
    Melanoma growth stimulatory activity (Mgsa) is a polypeptide growth factor originally detected in culture medium of the human malignant melanoma cell line Hs294T and may have an autocrine role in neoplastic growth...
  62. Altherr M, Wasmuth J, Seldin M, Nadeau J, Baehr W, Pittler S. Chromosome mapping of the rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene in mouse and human: tight linkage to the Huntington disease region (4p16.3). Genomics. 1992;12:750-4 pubmed
    ..1 +/- 2.3 cM distal of Mgsa on mouse chromosome 5. We have determined that the human gene (PDEB) maps to 4p16...
  63. De Filippo K, Dudeck A, Hasenberg M, Nye E, Van Rooijen N, Hartmann K, et al. Mast cell and macrophage chemokines CXCL1/CXCL2 control the early stage of neutrophil recruitment during tissue inflammation. Blood. 2013;121:4930-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Tissue macrophages synthesize neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1/CXCL2 (CXC chemokine ligands 1/2) in response to LPS...
  64. Onan D, Allan E, Quinn J, Gooi J, Pompolo S, Sims N, et al. The chemokine Cxcl1 is a novel target gene of parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein in committed osteoblasts. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..PTHR1-positive osteoblasts (Kusa 4b10 cells) identified the cysteine-X-cysteine (CXC) family chemokine ligand 1 (Cxcl1) as a novel immediate PTH/PTHrP-responsive gene...
  65. Seldin M, Martinez L, Howard T, Naylor S, Sakaguchi A. Localization of mouse melanoma growth stimulatory activity gene (Mgsa) between Afp and Gus on chromosome 5 using interspecific backcross mice. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1990;54:68-70 pubmed
    Melanoma growth stimulatory activity (Mgsa) is a polypeptide mitogen and a possible autocrine growth factor for melanoma and other tumor cells...
  66. Nencioni A, da Silva R, Fraga Silva R, Steffens S, Fabre M, Bauer I, et al. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibition reduces intraplaque CXCL1 production and associated neutrophil infiltration in atherosclerotic mice. Thromb Haemost. 2014;111:308-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings were associated with a reduction in both systemic and intraplaque CXCL1 levels in FK866-treated mice...
  67. Zhao C, Pavicic P, Datta S, Sun D, Novotny M, Hamilton T. Cellular stress amplifies TLR3/4-induced CXCL1/2 gene transcription in mononuclear phagocytes via RIPK1. J Immunol. 2014;193:879-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of TLR-stimulated CXCL1 and CXCL2 but not CXCL10 or CCL5 mRNAs were selectively enhanced (>10-fold) in stressed macrophages...
  68. Heinrich J, Bravo R. The orphan mouse receptor interleukin (IL)-8R beta binds N51. Structure-function analysis using N51/IL-8 chimeric molecules. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:4987-9 pubmed
    ..Other related cytokines were assayed for their ability to displace 125I-N51. MIP-2 and GRO alpha/MGSA competed as well as N51 for the receptor, but huIL-8 and NAP-2 did not compete at all...
  69. Sun Y, Sahbaie P, Liang D, Li W, Clark J. Opioids enhance CXCL1 expression and function after incision in mice. J Pain. 2014;15:856-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The CXCL1/CXCR2 signaling pathway, implicated in several pain models, is known to be epigenetically regulated via histone ..
  70. Frommhold D, Ludwig A, Bixel M, Zarbock A, Babushkina I, Weissinger M, et al. Sialyltransferase ST3Gal-IV controls CXCR2-mediated firm leukocyte arrest during inflammation. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1435-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a marked reduction in leukocyte adhesion to inflamed microvessels upon injection of the CXCR2 ligands CXCL1 (keratinocyte-derived chemokine) or CXCL8 (interleukin 8)...
  71. Wislez M, Fujimoto N, Izzo J, Hanna A, Cody D, Langley R, et al. High expression of ligands for chemokine receptor CXCR2 in alveolar epithelial neoplasia induced by oncogenic kras. Cancer Res. 2006;66:4198-207 pubmed
    ..Thus, high expression of CXCR2 ligands may contribute to the expansion of early alveolar neoplastic lesions induced by oncogenic KRAS. ..
  72. Schauer I, Ressler S, Rowley D. Keratinocyte-derived chemokine induces prostate epithelial hyperplasia and reactive stroma in a novel transgenic mouse model. Prostate. 2009;69:373-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel transgenic mouse and human xenograft models described here may be useful in dissecting key mechanisms of IL-8 induced prostate hyperplasia and reactive stroma. ..
  73. Stumpo D, Broxmeyer H, Ward T, Cooper S, Hangoc G, Chung Y, et al. Targeted disruption of Zfp36l2, encoding a CCCH tandem zinc finger RNA-binding protein, results in defective hematopoiesis. Blood. 2009;114:2401-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish Zfp36l2 as a critical modulator of definitive hematopoiesis and suggest a novel regulatory pathway involving control of mRNA stability in the life cycle of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. ..
  74. Fang W, Mafuvadze B, Yao M, Zou A, Portsche M, Cheng N. TGF-β Negatively Regulates CXCL1 Chemokine Expression in Mammary Fibroblasts through Enhancement of Smad2/3 and Suppression of HGF/c-Met Signaling Mechanisms. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135063 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown that breast CAFs overexpress the chemokine CXCL1, a key regulator of tumor invasion and chemo-resistance...
  75. Batra S, Cai S, Balamayooran G, Jeyaseelan S. Intrapulmonary administration of leukotriene B(4) augments neutrophil accumulation and responses in the lung to Klebsiella infection in CXCL1 knockout mice. J Immunol. 2012;188:3458-68 pubmed publisher
    In prior studies, we demonstrated that 1) CXCL1/KC is essential for NF-?B and MAPK activation and expression of CXCL2/MIP-2 and CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine in Klebsiella-infected lungs, and 2) CXCL1 derived from hematopoietic and ..
  76. van den Berg S, Laman J, Boon L, ten Kate M, de Knegt G, Verdijk R, et al. Distinctive cytokines as biomarkers predicting fatal outcome of severe Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59107 pubmed publisher
    ..KC was a biomarker elevated irrespective the progression of infection, which is very interesting regarding clinical application in view of the heterogeneity of patients experiencing bacteraemia in this respect. ..
  77. Benelli R, Stigliani S, Minghelli S, Carlone S, Ferrari N. Impact of CXCL1 overexpression on growth and invasion of prostate cancer cell. Prostate. 2013;73:941-51 pubmed publisher
    The role of CXCL1 in prostate cancer (PCa) progression has been poorly investigated. A limitation of previous studies is linked to the use of human PCa cell lines PC3 and DU145, producing CXCL8 at levels strongly exceeding CXCL1 levels...
  78. Wang L, Han G, Wang R, Chen G, Xu R, Xiao H, et al. Regulation of IL-8 production by complement-activated product, C5a, in vitro and in vivo during sepsis. Clin Immunol. 2010;137:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that excessive C5a functions as a critical inflammatory mediator to enhance IL-8 production mainly through MAPK signaling pathways. ..
  79. Hol J, Wilhelmsen L, Haraldsen G. The murine IL-8 homologues KC, MIP-2, and LIX are found in endothelial cytoplasmic granules but not in Weibel-Palade bodies. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:501-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explored the distribution of the functional IL-8 homologues CXCL1/KC, CXCL2/MIP-2, and CXCL5-6/LIX in resting and inflamed murine vessels by confocal microscopy and paired ..
  80. Nishiyama A. Glial progenitor cells in normal and pathological states. Keio J Med. 1998;47:205-8 pubmed
    ..change in the levels of PDGF A or TGF-beta, but there was a significant increase in the level of the chemokine GRO alpha in the jimpy spinal cord...
  81. Nunemaker C, Chung H, Verrilli G, Corbin K, Upadhye A, Sharma P. Increased serum CXCL1 and CXCL5 are linked to obesity, hyperglycemia, and impaired islet function. J Endocrinol. 2014;222:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these 32 cytokines, C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) showed the greatest increase (+78%) in serum levels between db/db mice that were hyperglycemic (blood glucose: ..
  82. Londhe V, Maisonet T, Lopez B, Jeng J, Xiao J, Li C, et al. Conditional deletion of epithelial IKK? impairs alveolar formation through apoptosis and decreased VEGF expression during early mouse lung morphogenesis. Respir Res. 2011;12:134 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that targeted deletion of NF-?B signaling in lung epithelium would impair alveolar formation...
  83. Zarpelon A, Pinto L, Cunha T, Vieira S, Carregaro V, Souza G, et al. Endothelin-1 induces neutrophil recruitment in adaptive inflammation via TNF? and CXCL1/CXCR2 in mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;90:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of ET-1, tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?), and CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
  84. Tu H, Schwitalla S, Qian Z, LaPier G, Yermalovich A, Ku Y, et al. LIN28 cooperates with WNT signaling to drive invasive intestinal and colorectal adenocarcinoma in mice and humans. Genes Dev. 2015;29:1074-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our late-stage CRC murine models and analysis of primary human tumors demonstrate prominent roles for both LIN28 paralogs in promoting CRC growth and progression and implicate the LIN28/let-7 pathway as a therapeutic target. ..
  85. Hu L, Dixit V, de Mello Coelho V, Taub D. Age-associated alterations in CXCL1 chemokine expression by murine B cells. BMC Immunol. 2004;5:15 pubmed
    The CXCL1 chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), have been shown to play a role in a number of pathophysiological disease states including endotoxin-induced ..
  86. Citro A, Cantarelli E, Maffi P, Nano R, Melzi R, Mercalli A, et al. CXCR1/2 inhibition enhances pancreatic islet survival after transplantation. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3647-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Pancreatic islets released abundant CXCR1/2 ligands (CXCL1 and CXCL8)...
  87. Benakis C, Vaslin A, Pasquali C, Hirt L. Neuroprotection by inhibiting the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway after cerebral ischemia occurs independently of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC/CXCL1) secretion. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our findings suggest that the early systemic release of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine may not necessarily predict an unfavorable outcome in this model. ..
  88. Van Hove I, Lefevere E, De Groef L, Sergeys J, Salinas Navarro M, Libert C, et al. MMP-3 Deficiency Alleviates Endotoxin-Induced Acute Inflammation in the Posterior Eye Segment. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..repressed the upregulation of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1)...
  89. West D, Del Rosso C, Yin X, Stuart P. CXCL1 but not IL-6 is required for recurrent herpetic stromal keratitis. J Immunol. 2014;192:1762-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to determine the role that two of these factors, IL-6 and CXCL1, play during recurrent HSK...