Gene Symbol: Cx3cr1
Description: chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1
Alias: CX3C chemokine receptor 1, C-X3-C CKR-1, chemokine (C-X3-C) receptor 1, fractalkine receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Cx3cr1

Top Publications

  1. Kierdorf K, Erny D, Goldmann T, Sander V, Schulz C, Perdiguero E, et al. Microglia emerge from erythromyeloid precursors via Pu.1- and Irf8-dependent pathways. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide cellular and molecular insights into the origin and development of microglia. ..
  2. Ginhoux F, Liu K, Helft J, Bogunovic M, Greter M, Hashimoto D, et al. The origin and development of nonlymphoid tissue CD103+ DCs. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3115-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that nonlymphoid tissue CD103(+) DCs and lymphoid organ CD8(+) DCs derive from the same precursor and follow a related differentiation program. ..
  3. Shechter R, Miller O, Yovel G, Rosenzweig N, London A, Ruckh J, et al. Recruitment of beneficial M2 macrophages to injured spinal cord is orchestrated by remote brain choroid plexus. Immunity. 2013;38:555-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The M1 macrophages (Ly6c(hi)CX3CR1(lo)) derived from monocytes homed in a CCL2 chemokine-dependent manner through the adjacent SC leptomeninges...
  4. Bhaskar K, Konerth M, Kokiko Cochran O, Cardona A, Ransohoff R, Lamb B. Regulation of tau pathology by the microglial fractalkine receptor. Neuron. 2010;68:19-31 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse MAPT in nontransgenic mice that is further enhanced in mice lacking the microglial-specific fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) and is dependent upon functional toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptors...
  5. Ding X, Patel M, Shen D, Herzlich A, Cao X, Villasmil R, et al. Enhanced HtrA2/Omi expression in oxidative injury to retinal pigment epithelial cells and murine models of neurodegeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4957-66 pubmed publisher
    ..protease with a proapoptosis function, under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in human RPE, in the Ccl2(-)(/)(-)Cx3cr1(-)(/)(-) double-knockout (DKO) mouse retina, and the HtrA2/Omi-deficient mice...
  6. Platt A, Bain C, Bordon Y, Sester D, Mowat A. An independent subset of TLR expressing CCR2-dependent macrophages promotes colonic inflammation. J Immunol. 2010;184:6843-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The balance between proinflammatory and resident Ms in the colon is controlled by CCR2-dependent recruitment mechanisms, which could prove useful as targets for therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  7. Zhan Y, Paolicelli R, Sforazzini F, Weinhard L, Bolasco G, Pagani F, et al. Deficient neuron-microglia signaling results in impaired functional brain connectivity and social behavior. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking the chemokine receptor Cx3cr1 exhibit a transient reduction of microglia during the early postnatal period and a consequent deficit in synaptic ..
  8. Chinnery H, McLenachan S, Humphries T, Kezic J, Chen X, Ruitenberg M, et al. Accumulation of murine subretinal macrophages: effects of age, pigmentation and CX3CR1. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1769-76 pubmed publisher
  9. Chorro L, Sarde A, Li M, Woollard K, Chambon P, Malissen B, et al. Langerhans cell (LC) proliferation mediates neonatal development, homeostasis, and inflammation-associated expansion of the epidermal LC network. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3089-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may be relevant in locations where leukocyte trafficking is limited. ..

More Information


  1. Łyszkiewicz M, Witzlau K, Pommerencke J, Krueger A. Chemokine receptor CX3CR1 promotes dendritic cell development under steady-state conditions. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1256-65 pubmed publisher
    Expression of CX3CR1 is an attribute of myeloid precursors committed to the monocyte/macrophage (M?)/DC lineages and is maintained during all stages of DC differentiation...
  2. Mizutani M, Pino P, Saederup N, Charo I, Ransohoff R, Cardona A. The fractalkine receptor but not CCR2 is present on microglia from embryonic development throughout adulthood. J Immunol. 2012;188:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..understand how myeloid lineages differentiate during development to create microglial cells, we investigated CX3CR1 and CCR2 transcription unit activation in Cx3cr1(+/GFP)CCR2(+/RFP) knockin fluorescent protein reporter mice...
  3. Rivollier A, He J, Kole A, Valatas V, Kelsall B. Inflammation switches the differentiation program of Ly6Chi monocytes from antiinflammatory macrophages to inflammatory dendritic cells in the colon. J Exp Med. 2012;209:139-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that F4/80(hi)CX3CR1(hi) (CD11b(+)CD103(-)) cells account for 80% of mouse colonic lamina propria MHC-II(hi) cells...
  4. Wynne A, Henry C, Huang Y, Cleland A, Godbout J. Protracted downregulation of CX3CR1 on microglia of aged mice after lipopolysaccharide challenge. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:1190-201 pubmed publisher
    Fractalkine (CX(3)CL1) to fractalkine receptor (CX(3)CR1) interactions in the brain are involved in the modulation of microglial activation...
  5. Luhmann U, Lange C, Robbie S, Munro P, Cowing J, Armer H, et al. Differential modulation of retinal degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 chemokine signalling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35551 pubmed publisher
    ..Defining the role of Ccl2-Ccr2 and Cx3cl1-Cx3cr1 signalling for retinal pathology is of particular interest because of its potential role in age-related macular ..
  6. Persson E, Uronen Hansson H, Semmrich M, Rivollier A, Hägerbrand K, Marsal J, et al. IRF4 transcription-factor-dependent CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells drive mucosal T helper 17 cell differentiation. Immunity. 2013;38:958-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest a central role for IRF4-dependent, IL-6 producing CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs in intestinal Th17 cell differentiation...
  7. Liu S, Li Z, Weinreb R, Xu G, Lindsey J, Ye C, et al. Tracking retinal microgliosis in models of retinal ganglion cell damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to image the retinal microglia of the CX3CR1(GFP/+) transgenic mice in vivo at baseline, 3 days and then weekly for 4 weeks after optic nerve crush (n = 3), ..
  8. London A, Itskovich E, Benhar I, Kalchenko V, Mack M, Jung S, et al. Neuroprotection and progenitor cell renewal in the injured adult murine retina requires healing monocyte-derived macrophages. J Exp Med. 2011;208:23-39 pubmed publisher
  9. Kumar A, Metharom P, Schmeckpeper J, Weiss S, Martin K, Caplice N. Bone marrow-derived CX3CR1 progenitors contribute to neointimal smooth muscle cells via fractalkine CX3CR1 interaction. FASEB J. 2010;24:81-92 pubmed publisher
  10. Tighe R, Li Z, Potts E, Frush S, Liu N, Gunn M, et al. Ozone inhalation promotes CX3CR1-dependent maturation of resident lung macrophages that limit oxidative stress and inflammation. J Immunol. 2011;187:4800-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis showed that Gr-1(+) Macs exhibited high expression of MARCO, CX3CR1, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxioreductase 1...
  11. Manta C, Heupel E, Radulovic K, Rossini V, Garbi N, Riedel C, et al. CX(3)CR1(+) macrophages support IL-22 production by innate lymphoid cells during infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The depletion of CX(3)CR1(+) cells by diphtheria toxin injection in CX(3)CR1-GFP × CD11c.DOG animals confirmed the role of CX(3)CR1(+) phagocytes in establishing IL-22 production, supporting the clearance of a C. rodentium infection...
  12. Sennlaub F, Auvynet C, Calippe B, Lavalette S, Poupel L, Hu S, et al. CCR2(+) monocytes infiltrate atrophic lesions in age-related macular disease and mediate photoreceptor degeneration in experimental subretinal inflammation in Cx3cr1 deficient mice. EMBO Mol Med. 2013;5:1775-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Using age- and light-induced subretinal inflammation and photoreceptor degeneration in Cx3cr1 knockout mice, we show that subretinal Cx3cr1 deficient MPs overexpress CCL2 and that both the genetic deletion of ..
  13. Zhao L, Ma W, Fariss R, Wong W. Retinal vascular repair and neovascularization are not dependent on CX3CR1 signaling in a model of ischemic retinopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88:1004-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CX3CR1 is a chemokine receptor located specifically on microglia; its ligand, CX3CL1 (also known as fractalkine or ..
  14. Ginhoux F, Greter M, Leboeuf M, Nandi S, See P, Gokhan S, et al. Fate mapping analysis reveals that adult microglia derive from primitive macrophages. Science. 2010;330:841-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify microglia as an ontogenically distinct population in the mononuclear phagocyte system and have implications for the use of embryonically derived microglial progenitors for the treatment of various brain disorders...
  15. Blomster L, Vukovic J, Hendrickx D, Jung S, Harvey A, Filgueira L, et al. CX?CR1 deficiency exacerbates neuronal loss and impairs early regenerative responses in the target-ablated olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;48:236-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, the fractalkine receptor, CX?CR1, is expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells within the olfactory epithelium...
  16. Auffray C, Fogg D, Narni Mancinelli E, Senechal B, Trouillet C, Saederup N, et al. CX3CR1+ CD115+ CD135+ common macrophage/DC precursors and the role of CX3CR1 in their response to inflammation. J Exp Med. 2009;206:595-606 pubmed publisher
    ..CX(3)CR1 deficiency selectively impairs the recruitment of blood Gr1(+) monocytes in the spleen after transfer and during acute Listeria monocytogenes infection but does not affect the development of monocytes, cDCs, and PDCs. ..
  17. Narni Mancinelli E, Soudja S, Crozat K, Dalod M, Gounon P, Geissmann F, et al. Inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils are licensed to kill during memory responses in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002457 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results provide evidence that cytotoxic memory CD8+ T cells can license distinct antimicrobial effector mechanisms of innate cells to efficiently clear pathogens. ..
  18. Varol C, Vallon Eberhard A, Elinav E, Aychek T, Shapira Y, Luche H, et al. Intestinal lamina propria dendritic cell subsets have different origin and functions. Immunity. 2009;31:502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the critical importance of the lpDC subset balance for robust gut homeostasis. ..
  19. Fuhrmann M, Bittner T, Jung C, Burgold S, Page R, Mitteregger G, et al. Microglial Cx3cr1 knockout prevents neuron loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:411-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockout of the microglial chemokine receptor Cx3cr1, which is critical in neuron-microglia communication, prevented neuron loss.
  20. Chen M, Zhao J, Luo C, Pandi S, Peñalva R, Fitzgerald D, et al. Para-inflammation-mediated retinal recruitment of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells following whole-body irradiation is CCL2 dependent. Glia. 2012;60:833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..When BM cells from CX3CR1(gfp/+) mice or CX3CR1(gfp/gfp) mice were transplanted to wild-type C57BL/6 mice, more than 90% of resident CD11b(+)..
  21. Gregory A, Capoccia B, Woloszynek J, Link D. Systemic levels of G-CSF and interleukin-6 determine the angiogenic potential of bone marrow resident monocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data show that G-CSF and IL-6 provide signals that determine the angiogenic potential of BM resident monocytes. ..
  22. Saederup N, Cardona A, Croft K, Mizutani M, Cotleur A, Tsou C, et al. Selective chemokine receptor usage by central nervous system myeloid cells in CCR2-red fluorescent protein knock-in mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13693 pubmed publisher
    Monocyte subpopulations distinguished by differential expression of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 are difficult to track in vivo, partly due to lack of CCR2 reagents...
  23. Arnoux I, Hoshiko M, Mandavy L, Avignone E, Yamamoto N, Audinat E. Adaptive phenotype of microglial cells during the normal postnatal development of the somatosensory "Barrel" cortex. Glia. 2013;61:1582-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that during normal cortical development distinct microglia properties mature differentially, some of them being exquisitely influenced by the local environment of the maturating neuronal network. ..
  24. Kezic J, McMenamin P. The monocyte chemokine receptor CX3CR1 does not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:5121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, chimeric studies revealed that it is primarily blood-derived monocytes that mediate photoreceptor damage in the effector phase of EAU, and this process is not CX(3)CR1 dependent. ..
  25. Metharom P, Kumar A, Weiss S, Caplice N. A specific subset of mouse bone marrow cells has smooth muscle cell differentiation capacity-brief report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:533-5 pubmed publisher
    ..CX(3)CR1 marks a bone marrow cells population that enriches for progenitors with capacity to differentiate in vitro into SMC-like cells. ..
  26. Blomster L, Brennan F, Lao H, Harle D, Harvey A, Ruitenberg M. Mobilisation of the splenic monocyte reservoir and peripheral CX?CR1 deficiency adversely affects recovery from spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2013;247:226-40 pubmed publisher
  27. Lee W, Moriarty T, Wong C, Zhou H, Strieter R, Van Rooijen N, et al. An intravascular immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi involves Kupffer cells and iNKT cells. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Kupffer cell-iNKT cell interactions induced a key intravascular immune response that diminished the dissemination of B. burgdorferi. ..
  28. Sathaliyawala T, O Gorman W, Greter M, Bogunovic M, Konjufca V, Hou Z, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin controls dendritic cell development downstream of Flt3 ligand signaling. Immunity. 2010;33:597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PI3K-mTOR signaling downstream of Flt3L controls DC development, and its restriction by Pten ensures optimal DC pool size and subset composition. ..
  29. Schlitzer A, Heiseke A, Einwächter H, Reindl W, Schiemann M, Manta C, et al. Tissue-specific differentiation of a circulating CCR9- pDC-like common dendritic cell precursor. Blood. 2012;119:6063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Their final differentiation into functionally distinct pDCs and cDCs depends on tissue-specific factors allowing adaptation to local requirements under homeostatic conditions. ..
  30. Peng B, Xiao J, Wang K, So K, Tipoe G, Lin B. Suppression of microglial activation is neuroprotective in a mouse model of human retinitis pigmentosa. J Neurosci. 2014;34:8139-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, we found that Cx3cr1 deficiency dysregulated microglia activation and subsequently resulted in increased photoreceptor vulnerability in ..
  31. Vessey K, Greferath U, Jobling A, Phipps J, Ho T, Waugh M, et al. Ccl2/Cx3cr1 knockout mice have inner retinal dysfunction but are not an accelerated model of AMD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7833-46 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine, Ccl2, and the fractalkine receptor, Cx3cr1, have both been implicated in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD), with mice lacking both genes exhibiting features of AMD by 3 months of age...
  32. Bosco A, Crish S, Steele M, Romero C, Inman D, Horner P, et al. Early reduction of microglia activation by irradiation in a model of chronic glaucoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43602 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus reduced microglial activation induced by irradiation at early stages is associated with reduced optic nerve and retinal neurodegeneration in the D2 mouse model of glaucoma. ..
  33. Tamoutounour S, Henri S, Lelouard H, de Bovis B, de Haar C, van der Woude C, et al. CD64 distinguishes macrophages from dendritic cells in the gut and reveals the Th1-inducing role of mesenteric lymph node macrophages during colitis. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:3150-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, T cell-mediated colitis develops irrespective of intestinal DC migration, an unexpected finding supporting an important role for MLN-resident inflammatory M?s in the etiology of T cell-mediated colitis...
  34. Medina Contreras O, Geem D, Laur O, Williams I, Lira S, Nusrat A, et al. CX3CR1 regulates intestinal macrophage homeostasis, bacterial translocation, and colitogenic Th17 responses in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4787-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate in mice important roles for the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 in maintaining LP macrophage populations, preventing translocation of commensal bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes ..
  35. Lavalette S, Raoul W, Houssier M, Camelo S, Levy O, Calippe B, et al. Interleukin-1? inhibition prevents choroidal neovascularization and does not exacerbate photoreceptor degeneration. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1? expression significantly increased after laser injury (real time PCR) in C57BL/6 mice, in the C57BL/6 Cx3cr1(-/-) model of age-related macular degeneration (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay), and in albino Wistar rats ..
  36. Laffont S, Siddiqui K, Powrie F. Intestinal inflammation abrogates the tolerogenic properties of MLN CD103+ dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1877-83 pubmed publisher
  37. Hohl T, Rivera A, Lipuma L, Gallegos A, Shi C, Mack M, et al. Inflammatory monocytes facilitate adaptive CD4 T cell responses during respiratory fungal infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:470-81 pubmed publisher
  38. Butovsky O, Siddiqui S, Gabriely G, Lanser A, Dake B, Murugaiyan G, et al. Modulating inflammatory monocytes with a unique microRNA gene signature ameliorates murine ALS. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3063-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that recruitment of inflammatory monocytes plays an important role in disease progression and that modulation of these cells is a potential therapeutic approach. ..
  39. Devi S, Li A, Westhorpe C, Lo C, Abeynaike L, Snelgrove S, et al. Multiphoton imaging reveals a new leukocyte recruitment paradigm in the glomerulus. Nat Med. 2013;19:107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these findings describe a previously unknown form of multicellular intravascular patrolling that involves both monocytes and neutrophils, which may underlie the susceptibility of the glomerulus to inflammation. ..
  40. Cipriani R, Villa P, Chece G, Lauro C, Paladini A, Micotti E, et al. CX3CL1 is neuroprotective in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rodents. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16327-35 pubmed publisher
    The chemokine CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 are constitutively expressed in the nervous system...
  41. Hadis U, Wahl B, Schulz O, Hardtke Wolenski M, Schippers A, Wagner N, et al. Intestinal tolerance requires gut homing and expansion of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the lamina propria. Immunity. 2011;34:237-46 pubmed publisher gut-resident macrophages was blunted in mice deficient in the chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1)...
  42. Kezic J, Chen X, Rakoczy E, McMenamin P. The effects of age and Cx3cr1 deficiency on retinal microglia in the Ins2(Akita) diabetic mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:854-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are exaggerated in mice lacking Cx(3)cr1, suggesting fractalkine- Cx(3)cr1 interactions may have a role in early neuronal changes in preproliferative DR. ..
  43. Parkhurst C, Yang G, Ninan I, Savas J, Yates J, Lafaille J, et al. Microglia promote learning-dependent synapse formation through brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cell. 2013;155:1596-609 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, we generated CX3CR1(CreER) mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase that allow for specific manipulation of gene function ..
  44. Abutbul S, Shapiro J, Szaingurten Solodkin I, Levy N, Carmy Y, Baron R, et al. TGF-? signaling through SMAD2/3 induces the quiescent microglial phenotype within the CNS environment. Glia. 2012;60:1160-71 pubmed publisher
  45. Prinz M, Priller J. Tickets to the brain: role of CCR2 and CX3CR1 in myeloid cell entry in the CNS. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;224:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these molecules present viable targets for therapeutic manipulations of myeloid cells destined for the CNS. ..
  46. Cao X, Liu M, Tuo J, Shen D, Chan C. The effects of quercetin in cultured human RPE cells under oxidative stress and in Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double deficient mice. Exp Eye Res. 2010;91:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the mechanisms for the effects of quercetin on cultured human RPE cells and in Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knock-out (DKO) mice, which spontaneously develop progressive retinal lesions mimicking age-related macular ..
  47. Mionnet C, Buatois V, Kanda A, Milcent V, Fleury S, Lair D, et al. CX3CR1 is required for airway inflammation by promoting T helper cell survival and maintenance in inflamed lung. Nat Med. 2010;16:1305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In people with asthma, a fraction of CD4(+) T cells express the CX3CL1 receptor, CX3CR1, and CX3CL1 expression is increased in airway smooth muscle, lung endothelium and epithelium upon allergen ..
  48. Shen D, Cao X, Zhao L, Tuo J, Wong W, Chan C. Naloxone ameliorates retinal lesions in Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double-deficient mice via modulation of microglia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors evaluated the effects of naloxone on Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) (DKO) mice, a murine model of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
  49. Schulz O, Jaensson E, Persson E, Liu X, Worbs T, Agace W, et al. Intestinal CD103+, but not CX3CR1+, antigen sampling cells migrate in lymph and serve classical dendritic cell functions. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3101-14 pubmed publisher
    Chemokine receptor CX3CR1(+) dendritic cells (DCs) have been suggested to sample intestinal antigens by extending transepithelial dendrites into the gut lumen...
  50. Koenigsknecht Talboo J, Meyer Luehmann M, Parsadanian M, Garcia Alloza M, Finn M, Hyman B, et al. Rapid microglial response around amyloid pathology after systemic anti-Abeta antibody administration in PDAPP mice. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14156-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that some effects of antibodies that recognize aggregated Abeta are rapid, involve microglia, and provide insight into the mechanism of action of a specific passive immunotherapy for AD. ..
  51. Cho S, Sun B, Zhou Y, Kauppinen T, Halabisky B, Wes P, et al. CX3CR1 protein signaling modulates microglial activation and protects against plaque-independent cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:32713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Although fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on microglia was found to regulate plaque load, no functional effects have been reported...
  52. Farache J, Koren I, Milo I, Gurevich I, Kim K, Zigmond E, et al. Luminal bacteria recruit CD103+ dendritic cells into the intestinal epithelium to sample bacterial antigens for presentation. Immunity. 2013;38:581-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We used 2-photon microscopy in live Cx3cr1(+/gfp) ×Cd11c-YFP mice to study these processes. At steady state, sparse CD103+ DCs occupied the epithelium...
  53. Bar On L, Birnberg T, Lewis K, Edelson B, Bruder D, Hildner K, et al. CX3CR1+ CD8alpha+ dendritic cells are a steady-state population related to plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14745-50 pubmed publisher
  54. Satpathy A, Briseño C, Lee J, Ng D, Manieri N, Kc W, et al. Notch2-dependent classical dendritic cells orchestrate intestinal immunity to attaching-and-effacing bacterial pathogens. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:937-48 pubmed publisher
    ..rodentium, but CD103(+) cDCs dependent on the transcription factor Batf3 were not. Our results demonstrate a nonredundant function for CD11b(+) cDCs in the response to pathogens in vivo. ..
  55. Niess J, Adler G. Enteric flora expands gut lamina propria CX3CR1+ dendritic cells supporting inflammatory immune responses under normal and inflammatory conditions. J Immunol. 2010;184:2026-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The local bacteria-driven accumulation of CX(3)CR1(+) DCs seems to support inflammatory immune responses. ..
  56. Joly S, Francke M, Ulbricht E, Beck S, Seeliger M, Hirrlinger P, et al. Cooperative phagocytes: resident microglia and bone marrow immigrants remove dead photoreceptors in retinal lesions. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:2310-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments provide evidence that both local and immigrant macrophages remove apoptotic photoreceptors and cell debris in the injured retina. ..
  57. Chen M, Hombrebueno J, Luo C, Penalva R, Zhao J, Colhoun L, et al. Age- and light-dependent development of localised retinal atrophy in CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61381 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown that CCL2/CX3CR1 deficient mice on C57BL/6N background (with rd8 mutation) have an early onset (6 weeks) of spontaneous retinal degeneration...
  58. Kayama H, Ueda Y, Sawa Y, Jeon S, Ma J, Okumura R, et al. Intestinal CX3C chemokine receptor 1(high) (CX3CR1(high)) myeloid cells prevent T-cell-dependent colitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5010-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these cells are regulatory myeloid cells that are responsible for maintaining intestinal homeostasis...
  59. Hammond M, Taylor R, Mullen M, Ai Y, Aguila H, Mack M, et al. CCR2+ Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocyte recruitment exacerbates acute disability following intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosci. 2014;34:3901-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that inflammatory monocytes worsen early disability after murine ICH and may represent a therapeutic target for patients. ..
  60. Dagkalis A, Wallace C, Hing B, Liversidge J, Crane I. CX3CR1-deficiency is associated with increased severity of disease in experimental autoimmune uveitis. Immunology. 2009;128:25-33 pubmed publisher
    The role of CX3CR1 in regulating the function of monocytes and microglia was examined in mice in which CX3CR1 had been replaced by green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
  61. Liu K, Victora G, Schwickert T, Guermonprez P, Meredith M, Yao K, et al. In vivo analysis of dendritic cell development and homeostasis. Science. 2009;324:392-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further cDC development involves cell division, which is controlled in part by regulatory T cells and fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3...
  62. Kim K, Vallon Eberhard A, Zigmond E, Farache J, Shezen E, Shakhar G, et al. In vivo structure/function and expression analysis of the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. Blood. 2011;118:e156-67 pubmed publisher
    ..also known as fractalkine, which in mice is the sole ligand of the G protein-coupled, 7-transmembrane receptor CX3CR1. Unlike classic small peptide chemokines, CX3CL1 is synthesized as a membrane-anchored protein that can promote ..
  63. Rogers J, Morganti J, Bachstetter A, Hudson C, Peters M, Grimmig B, et al. CX3CR1 deficiency leads to impairment of hippocampal cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16241-50 pubmed publisher
    The protective/neurotoxic role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling in neurodegenerative disease is an intricate and highly debated research topic and it is becoming even more complicated ..
  64. Tuo J, Ross R, Herzlich A, Shen D, Ding X, Zhou M, et al. A high omega-3 fatty acid diet reduces retinal lesions in a murine model of macular degeneration. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:799-807 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the effect of such a diet on the retinas of Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice, a model that develops AMD-like retinal lesions that include focal deep retinal lesions, abnormal ..
  65. Diehl G, Longman R, Zhang J, Breart B, Galan C, Cuesta A, et al. Microbiota restricts trafficking of bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes by CX(3)CR1(hi) cells. Nature. 2013;494:116-20 pubmed publisher
  66. Liang K, Lee J, Wang Y, Ma W, Fontainhas A, Fariss R, et al. Regulation of dynamic behavior of retinal microglia by CX3CR1 signaling. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor expressed in microglia, in regulating microglia morphology and dynamic behavior in the ..
  67. Bonduelle O, Duffy D, Verrier B, Combadiere C, Combadiere B. Cutting edge: Protective effect of CX3CR1+ dendritic cells in a vaccinia virus pulmonary infection model. J Immunol. 2012;188:952-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, subpopulations of myeloid DCs in peripheral tissues such as lungs and in blood express CX3CR1 depending on the inflammation state...
  68. Vagaja N, Chinnery H, Binz N, Kezic J, Rakoczy E, McMenamin P. Changes in murine hyalocytes are valuable early indicators of ocular disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:1445-51 pubmed publisher
  69. Bogunovic M, Ginhoux F, Helft J, Shang L, Hashimoto D, Greter M, et al. Origin of the lamina propria dendritic cell network. Immunity. 2009;31:513-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the lamina propria DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DCs as key sentinels of the gut immune system. ..
  70. Goldmann T, Wieghofer P, Müller P, Wolf Y, Varol D, Yona S, et al. A new type of microglia gene targeting shows TAK1 to be pivotal in CNS autoimmune inflammation. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1618-26 pubmed publisher
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