Gene Symbol: Ctsg
Description: cathepsin G
Alias: CatG, VSP, cathepsin G, vimentin-specific protease
Species: mouse
Products:     Ctsg

Top Publications

  1. Raptis S, Shapiro S, Simmons P, Cheng A, Pham C. Serine protease cathepsin G regulates adhesion-dependent neutrophil effector functions by modulating integrin clustering. Immunity. 2005;22:679-91 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that IC-activated cathepsin G- and neutrophil elastase-deficient (CG/NE) PMNs adhered normally to IC-coated surfaces but did not undergo ..
  2. Yuan W, Payton J, Holt M, Link D, Watson M, DiPersio J, et al. Commonly dysregulated genes in murine APL cells. Blood. 2007;109:961-70 pubmed
    ..transcriptome with that of APL cells derived from mice expressing PML-RARalpha under control of the murine cathepsin G locus...
  3. Shao B, Wahrenbrock M, Yao L, David T, Coughlin S, Xia L, et al. Carcinoma mucins trigger reciprocal activation of platelets and neutrophils in a murine model of Trousseau syndrome. Blood. 2011;118:4015-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Mucins caused leukocytes to release cathepsin G, but only if platelets were present. Mucins failed to generate microthrombi in cathepsin G-deficient mice...
  4. Lane A, Ley T. Neutrophil elastase is important for PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha activities in early myeloid cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:23-33 pubmed
    ..To assure physiologic relevance, PML-RARalpha functions should be evaluated in neutrophil elastase-expressing early myeloid cells. ..
  5. Akk A, Simmons P, Chan H, Agapov E, Holtzman M, Grayson M, et al. Dipeptidyl peptidase I-dependent neutrophil recruitment modulates the inflammatory response to Sendai virus infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:3535-42 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that DPPI and neutrophils play a critical role in Sendai virus-induced asthma phenotype as a result of a DPPI-dependent neutrophil recruitment and cytokine response...
  6. Tkalcevic J, Novelli M, Phylactides M, Iredale J, Segal A, Roes J. Impaired immunity and enhanced resistance to endotoxin in the absence of neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G. Immunity. 2000;12:201-10 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice deficient in the neutrophil granule serine proteases elastase and/or cathepsin G are susceptible to fungal infections, despite normal neutrophil development and recruitment...
  7. MacIvor D, Shapiro S, Pham C, Belaaouaj A, Abraham S, Ley T. Normal neutrophil function in cathepsin G-deficient mice. Blood. 1999;94:4282-93 pubmed
    b>Cathepsin G is a neutral serine protease that is highly expressed at the promyelocyte stage of myeloid development. We have developed a homologous recombination strategy to create a loss-of-function mutation for murine cathepsin G...
  8. Wojiski S, Guibal F, Kindler T, Lee B, Jesneck J, Fabian A, et al. PML-RARalpha initiates leukemia by conferring properties of self-renewal to committed promyelocytic progenitors. Leukemia. 2009;23:1462-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We utilized a murine model of APL in which the PML-RARalpha oncogene is expressed from the endogenous cathepsin G promoter to test the hypothesis that leukemia stem cell (LSC) activity resides within the differentiated ..
  9. Uy G, Lane A, Welch J, Grieselhuber N, Payton J, Ley T. A protease-resistant PML-RAR{alpha} has increased leukemogenic potential in a murine model of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood. 2010;116:3604-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these effects appear to increase the leukemogenicity of NE-resistant PR, contrary to our previous prediction. We conclude that NE deficiency may reduce APL penetrance via indirect mechanisms that are still NE dependent. ..

More Information


  1. Massberg S, Grahl L, von Bruehl M, Manukyan D, Pfeiler S, Goosmann C, et al. Reciprocal coupling of coagulation and innate immunity via neutrophil serine proteases. Nat Med. 2010;16:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that major microbicidal effectors of neutrophils, the serine proteases neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G, together with externalized nucleosomes, promote coagulation and intravascular thrombus growth in vivo...
  2. Welch J, Klco J, Varghese N, Nagarajan R, Ley T. Rara haploinsufficiency modestly influences the phenotype of acute promyelocytic leukemia in mice. Blood. 2011;117:2460-8 pubmed publisher
    ..test this hypothesis, we crossed Rara(+/-) mice with mice expressing PML (promyelocytic leukemia)-RARA from the cathepsin G locus (mCG-PR)...
  3. Viale A, De Franco F, Orleth A, Cambiaghi V, Giuliani V, Bossi D, et al. Cell-cycle restriction limits DNA damage and maintains self-renewal of leukaemia stem cells. Nature. 2009;457:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data unravel the oncogenic potential of p21 and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms might function as potent strategy for the eradication of the slowly proliferating leukaemia stem cells. ..
  4. Reeves E, Lu H, Jacobs H, Messina C, Bolsover S, Gabella G, et al. Killing activity of neutrophils is mediated through activation of proteases by K+ flux. Nature. 2002;416:291-7 pubmed
    ..consequent rise in ionic strength engenders the release of cationic granule proteins, including elastase and cathepsin G, from the anionic sulphated proteoglycan matrix...
  5. Westervelt P, Lane A, Pollock J, Oldfather K, Holt M, Zimonjic D, et al. High-penetrance mouse model of acute promyelocytic leukemia with very low levels of PML-RARalpha expression. Blood. 2003;102:1857-65 pubmed
    Transgenic mice expressing PML-RARalpha in early myeloid cells under control of human cathepsin G regulatory sequences all develop a myeloproliferative syndrome, but only 15% to 20% develop acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) after a ..
  6. Schoofs T, Rohde C, Hebestreit K, Klein H, Göllner S, Schulze I, et al. DNA methylation changes are a late event in acute promyelocytic leukemia and coincide with loss of transcription factor binding. Blood. 2013;121:178-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study suggest that aberrant DNA methylation is associated with leukemia phenotype but is not required for PML-RAR?-mediated initiation of leukemogenesis...
  7. Agrawal Singh S, Koschmieder S, Gelsing S, Stocking C, Stehling M, Thiede C, et al. Pim2 cooperates with PML-RARalpha to induce acute myeloid leukemia in a bone marrow transplantation model. Blood. 2010;115:4507-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that Pim2, which is also a known target of Flt3-ITD (another gene that cooperates with PML-RARalpha), cooperates with PRalpha to induce APL-like disease. ..
  8. Birkner K, Steiner B, Rinkler C, Kern Y, Aichele P, Bogdan C, et al. The elimination of Anaplasma phagocytophilum requires CD4+ T cells, but is independent of Th1 cytokines and a wide spectrum of effector mechanisms. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3395-410 pubmed publisher
    ..mice deficient for antimicrobial effectors of neutrophils such as myeloperoxidase, granulocyte elastase, and cathepsin G were fully competent in pathogen elimination...
  9. Stefansson S, Yepes M, Gorlatova N, Day D, Moore E, Zabaleta A, et al. Mutants of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 designed to inhibit neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are more effective in vivo than their endogenous inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29981-7 pubmed
    Neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are abundant intracellular neutrophil proteinases that have an important role in destroying ingested particles...
  10. Steinwede K, Maus R, Bohling J, Voedisch S, Braun A, Ochs M, et al. Cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase contribute to lung-protective immunity against mycobacterial infections in mice. J Immunol. 2012;188:4476-87 pubmed publisher
    The neutrophil serine proteases cathepsin G (CG) and neutrophil elastase (NE) are involved in immune-regulatory processes and exert antibacterial activity against various pathogens...
  11. Grieselhuber N, Klco J, Verdoni A, Lamprecht T, Sarkaria S, Wartman L, et al. Notch signaling in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2013;27:1548-1557 pubmed publisher
    ..assays to assess the role of Notch signaling in human APL samples, and in a PML-RARA knock-in mouse model of APL (Ctsg-PML-RARA)...
  12. Vethanayagam R, Almyroudis N, Grimm M, Lewandowski D, Pham C, Blackwell T, et al. Role of NADPH oxidase versus neutrophil proteases in antimicrobial host defense. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28149 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, double knockout neutrophil elastase (NE)(-/-)×cathepsin G (CG)(-/-) mice and lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin C/dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI)-deficient mice that ..
  13. Wang J, Sjoberg S, Tang T, Öörni K, Wu W, Liu C, et al. Cathepsin G activity lowers plasma LDL and reduces atherosclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:2174-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin G (CatG), a serine protease present in mast cells and neutrophils, can produce angiotensin-II (Ang-II) and degrade elastin...
  14. Grisolano J, Sclar G, Ley T. Early myeloid cell-specific expression of the human cathepsin G gene in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:8989-93 pubmed
    The human cathepsin G (CG) gene is expressed only in promyelocytes and encodes a neutral serine protease that is packaged in the azurophil (primary) granules of myeloid cells...
  15. Abraham C, Kanemaru K, Mucke L. Expression of cathepsin G-like and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin-like proteins in reactive astrocytes. Brain Res. 1993;621:222-32 pubmed
    ..Reactive astrocytes were stained with antibodies raised against the serine protease cathepsin G (cat...
  16. Qi X, Man S, Malireddi R, Karki R, Lupfer C, Gurung P, et al. Cathepsin B modulates lysosomal biogenesis and host defense against Francisella novicida infection. J Exp Med. 2016;213:2081-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identified a fundamental biological function of cathepsin B in providing a checkpoint for homeostatic maintenance of lysosome populations and basic recycling functions in the cell. ..
  17. Huang R, Hellman L. Genes for mast-cell serine protease and their molecular evolution. Immunogenetics. 1994;40:397-414 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the substrate specificity evolved with a higher evolutionary rate than the degree of overall amino acid sequence identity of these proteases. ..
  18. Benarafa C, Cooley J, Zeng W, Bird P, REMOLD O DONNELL E. Characterization of four murine homologs of the human ov-serpin monocyte neutrophil elastase inhibitor MNEI (SERPINB1). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42028-33 pubmed
    ..with serine proteases, EIA formed inhibitory covalent complexes with pancreatic and neutrophil elastases, cathepsin G, proteinase-3, and chymotrypsin, as previously shown for MNEI, whereas EIB was only able to do so with ..
  19. Wilson T, Nannuru K, Futakuchi M, Sadanandam A, Singh R. Cathepsin G enhances mammary tumor-induced osteolysis by generating soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5803-11 pubmed publisher
    ..mouse model that mimics osteolytic changes associated with breast cancer-induced bone metastases, we identified cathepsin G, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and MMP13 to be proteases that are up-regulated at the tumor-..
  20. Barbour K, Goodwin R, Guillonneau F, Wang Y, Baumann H, Berger F. Functional diversification during evolution of the murine alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor family: role of the hypervariable reactive center loop. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:718-27 pubmed
    ..their ability to form covalent complexes with serine proteinases, such as elastase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and cathepsin G. In addition, they differ in their binding ability to proteinases in crude snake venoms...
  21. Hohn P, Popescu N, Hanson R, Salvesen G, Ley T. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the human cathepsin G gene. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:13412-9 pubmed
    b>Cathepsin G is a 26,000-Da serine protease that is found in the azurophil granules of neutrophils and monocytes...
  22. Grenda D, Johnson S, Mayer J, McLemore M, Benson K, Horwitz M, et al. Mice expressing a neutrophil elastase mutation derived from patients with severe congenital neutropenia have normal granulopoiesis. Blood. 2002;100:3221-8 pubmed
    ..To date, no cases of leukemia have been detected. Collectively, these data suggest that expression of V72M NE is not sufficient to induce an SCN phenotype or leukemia in mice. ..
  23. Faraday N, Schunke K, Saleem S, Fu J, Wang B, Zhang J, et al. Cathepsin G-dependent modulation of platelet thrombus formation in vivo by blood neutrophils. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71447 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that neutrophils modulate platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo in a cathepsin G-dependent manner...
  24. Woloszynek J, Hu Y, Pham C. Cathepsin G-regulated release of formyl peptide receptor agonists modulate neutrophil effector functions. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:34101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that neutrophils deficient in the serine proteases cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase (CG/NE neutrophils) exhibit severe defects in chemokine CXCL2 release and reactive ..
  25. Pham C, MacIvor D, Hug B, Heusel J, Ley T. Long-range disruption of gene expression by a selectable marker cassette. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:13090-5 pubmed
    ..In contrast, a targeted mutation of the promyelocyte-specific cathepsin G gene (which lies just 3' to the granzyme genes in the same cluster) had minimal effects on upstream granzyme ..
  26. Nakamura N, Tsuru A, Hirayoshi K, Nagata K. Purification and characterization of a vimentin-specific protease in mouse myeloid leukemia cells. Regulation during differentiation and identity with cathepsin G. Eur J Biochem. 1992;205:947-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it was revealed that the sequence had the highest similarity with that of human cathepsin G. This result was consistent with the cathpsin-G-like properties of the purified protease, such as the optimum ..
  27. Hirche T, Crouch E, Espinola M, Brokelman T, Mecham R, DeSilva N, et al. Neutrophil serine proteinases inactivate surfactant protein D by cleaving within a conserved subregion of the carbohydrate recognition domain. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27688-98 pubmed
    ..the hypothesis that the neutrophil-derived serine proteinases (NSPs): neutrophil elastase, proteinase-3, and cathepsin G degrade SP-D...
  28. Rafatian N, Karunakaran D, Rayner K, Leenen F, Milne R, Whitman S. Cathepsin G deficiency decreases complexity of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305:H1141-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin G is a serine protease with a broad range of catalytic activities, including production of angiotensin II, degradation of extracellular matrix and cell-cell junctions, modulation of chemotactic responses, and induction of ..
  29. Mehdipour P, Santoro F, Botrugno O, Romanenghi M, Pagliuca C, Matthews G, et al. HDAC3 activity is required for initiation of leukemogenesis in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2017;31:995-997 pubmed publisher
  30. Santoro F, Botrugno O, Dal Zuffo R, Pallavicini I, Matthews G, Cluse L, et al. A dual role for Hdac1: oncosuppressor in tumorigenesis, oncogene in tumor maintenance. Blood. 2013;121:3459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, knock-down of Hdac1 in APL mice led to enhanced survival duration of the leukemic animals. Thus, Hdac1 has a dual role in tumorigenesis: oncosuppressive in the early stages, and oncogenic in established tumor cells. ..
  31. Gurung P, Burton A, Kanneganti T. NLRP3 inflammasome plays a redundant role with caspase 8 to promote IL-1?-mediated osteomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:4452-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our studies have uncovered the combined actions of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase 8 leading to IL-1? maturation and the directionality of IL-1? in driving disease inPstpip2(cmo)mice. ..
  32. Baumann M, Pham C, Benarafa C. SerpinB1 is critical for neutrophil survival through cell-autonomous inhibition of cathepsin G. Blood. 2013;121:3900-7, S1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..SerpinB1 is a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG)...
  33. Akerfeldt M, Laybutt D. Inhibition of Id1 augments insulin secretion and protects against high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. Diabetes. 2011;60:2506-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Id1 expression plays an essential role in the etiology of glucose intolerance, insulin secretory dysfunction, and ?-cell dedifferentiation under conditions of increased lipid supply. ..
  34. Kalupov T, Brillard Bourdet M, Dadé S, Serrano H, Wartelle J, Guyot N, et al. Structural characterization of mouse neutrophil serine proteases and identification of their substrate specificities: relevance to mouse models of human inflammatory diseases. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34084-91 pubmed publisher
  35. Wilson T, Nannuru K, Singh R. Cathepsin G-mediated activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 at the tumor-bone interface promotes transforming growth factor-beta signaling and bone destruction. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1224-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the observed increase in TGF-beta signaling is due to increased cathepsin G-dependent, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9)-mediated activation of latent TGF-beta...
  36. Kojima T, Morikawa Y, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Senba E, et al. TROY, a newly identified member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, exhibits a homology with Edar and is expressed in embryonic skin and hair follicles. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:20742-7 pubmed
    ..The Troy gene is located near the waved coat (Wc) locus, a mutant related to abnormalities in skin and hair. ..
  37. Nervi B, Ramirez P, Rettig M, Uy G, Holt M, Ritchey J, et al. Chemosensitization of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following mobilization by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Blood. 2009;113:6206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..APL cells from a murine cathepsin G-PML-RARalpha knockin mouse were genetically modified with firefly luciferase (APL(luc)) to allow tracking by ..
  38. Hahn I, Klaus A, Janze A, Steinwede K, Ding N, Bohling J, et al. Cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase play critical and nonredundant roles in lung-protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4893-901 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophil serine proteases cathepsin G (CG), neutrophil elastase (NE), and proteinase 3 (PR3) have recently been shown to contribute to killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro...
  39. Lützelschwab C, Pejler G, Aveskogh M, Hellman L. Secretory granule proteases in rat mast cells. Cloning of 10 different serine proteases and a carboxypeptidase A from various rat mast cell populations. J Exp Med. 1997;185:13-29 pubmed
    ..In contrast to what has been reported for human MCs, no expression of cathepsin G or cathepsin G-like proteases was detected in any of the rat MC populations...
  40. Wang J, Sukhova G, Liu J, Ozaki K, Lesner A, Libby P, et al. Cathepsin G deficiency reduces periaortic calcium chloride injury-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice. J Vasc Surg. 2015;62:1615-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Cathepsin G (CatG) is a serine protease that mediates angiotensin I to angiotensin II (Ang-II) conversion and is highly expressed in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs)...
  41. Guyot N, Wartelle J, Malleret L, Todorov A, Devouassoux G, Pacheco Y, et al. Unopposed cathepsin G, neutrophil elastase, and proteinase 3 cause severe lung damage and emphysema. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:2197-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Two similar neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs), cathepsin G and proteinase 3, coexist with NE in humans and mice, but their potential tissue-destructive role(s) remains ..
  42. Levesque J, Liu F, Simmons P, Betsuyaku T, Senior R, Pham C, et al. Characterization of hematopoietic progenitor mobilization in protease-deficient mice. Blood. 2004;104:65-72 pubmed
    ..Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), neutrophil elastase (NE), and cathepsin G (CG) accumulate in the bone marrow during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment, where they ..
  43. Gallwitz M, Reimer J, Hellman L. Expansion of the mast cell chymase locus over the past 200 million years of mammalian evolution. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:655-69 pubmed
    ..Among the granule proteases are the phylogenetically related mast cell chymases, neutrophil cathepsin G, and T-cell granzymes (Gzm B to H and Gzm N), which share the characteristic absence of a Cys(191)-Cys(220) ..
  44. Dabek M, Ferrier L, Roka R, Gecse K, Annahazi A, Moreau J, et al. Luminal cathepsin g and protease-activated receptor 4: a duet involved in alterations of the colonic epithelial barrier in ulcerative colitis. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..colitis (UC) trigger alterations of colonic paracellular permeability and inflammation, and (ii) the roles of cathepsin G (Cat-G), a neutrophil serine protease, and its selective receptor, PAR(4), in these processes...
  45. Wantha S, Alard J, Megens R, van der Does A, Döring Y, Drechsler M, et al. Neutrophil-derived cathelicidin promotes adhesion of classical monocytes. Circ Res. 2013;112:792-801 pubmed publisher
    ..These data elucidate a novel mechanism of neutrophil-mediated monocyte recruitment, which could be targeted in conditions where recruitment of classical monocytes plays an unfavorable role. ..
  46. Wartman L, Welch J, Uy G, Klco J, Lamprecht T, Varghese N, et al. Expression and function of PML-RARA in the hematopoietic progenitor cells of Ctsg-PML-RARA mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46529 pubmed publisher
    ..We originally targeted PML-RARA expression with CTSG regulatory elements, based on the early observation that this gene was maximally expressed in cells with ..
  47. Lane A, Ley T. Neutrophil elastase cleaves PML-RARalpha and is important for the development of acute promyelocytic leukemia in mice. Cell. 2003;115:305-18 pubmed
    ..Greater than 90% of bone marrow PML-RARalpha cleaving activity was lost in the absence of NE, and NE (but not Cathepsin G) deficient animals were protected from APL development...
  48. Wilson T, Nannuru K, Futakuchi M, Singh R. Cathepsin G-mediated enhanced TGF-beta signaling promotes angiogenesis via upregulation of VEGF and MCP-1. Cancer Lett. 2010;288:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cathepsin G upregulation at the tumor-bone interface has been linked to increased TGF-beta signaling, and we also report ..
  49. Aveskogh M, Lützelschwab C, Huang M, Hellman L. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding mouse proteinase 3 (myeloblastine) and cathepsin G. Immunogenetics. 1997;46:181-91 pubmed
    ..we were able to isolate cDNAs for two of the major neutrophil and monocyte serine proteases in the mouse, cathepsin G and mouse protease 3 (myeloblastin)...
  50. Pennisi D, Kinna G, Chiu H, Simmons D, Wilkinson L, Little M. Crim1 has an essential role in glycogen trophoblast cell and sinusoidal-trophoblast giant cell development in the placenta. Placenta. 2012;33:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that Crim1 is required for placental development, and is necessary for the proper differentiation of sinusoidal-trophoblast giant cells and glycogen trophoblast cells. ..
  51. Ortega Gomez A, Salvermoser M, Rossaint J, Pick R, Brauner J, Lemnitzer P, et al. Cathepsin G Controls Arterial But Not Venular Myeloid Cell Recruitment. Circulation. 2016;134:1176-1188 pubmed
    ..Here we establish the importance of the cathepsin G (CatG) in the context of arterial myeloid cell recruitment...
  52. Macanas Pirard P, Quezada T, Navarrete L, Broekhuizen R, Leisewitz A, Nervi B, et al. The CCL2/CCR2 Axis Affects Transmigration and Proliferation but Not Resistance to Chemotherapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0168888 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CCL2/CCR2 axis is expressed in the majority of monocytoid AML blasts. The axis is involved in cell trafficking and proliferation but no in vitro and in vivo chemotherapy protective effect was seen. ..
  53. Heusel J, Scarpati E, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Shapiro S, et al. Molecular cloning, chromosomal location, and tissue-specific expression of the murine cathepsin G gene. Blood. 1993;81:1614-23 pubmed
    We previously have characterized a cluster of genes encoding cathepsin G (CG) and two other CG-like hematopoietic serine proteases, CGL-1 and CGL-2, on human chromosome 14...