Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Ctnna1
Description: catenin (cadherin associated protein), alpha 1
Alias: 2010010M04Rik, AA517462, AI988031, Catna1, catenin alpha-1, 102 kDa cadherin-associated protein, CAP102, alpha E-catenin, cadherin associated protein
- Nagafuchi A, Ishihara S, Tsukita S. The roles of catenins in the cadherin-mediated cell adhesion: functional analysis of E-cadherin-alpha catenin fusion molecules. J Cell Biol. 1994;127:235-45 pubmed..The possible functions of beta catenin are discussed with a special reference to its role as a negative regulator for the cadherin-mediated cell adhesion system. ..
- Nagafuchi A, Takeichi M, Tsukita S. The 102 kd cadherin-associated protein: similarity to vinculin and posttranscriptional regulation of expression. Cell. 1991;65:849-57 pubmed..Using isolated adherens junctions of the liver, we purified a 102 kd protein that can associate with E-cadherin (CAP102) and isolated cDNAs encoding this protein...
- Gil Sanz C, Landeira B, Ramos C, Costa M, M ller U. Proliferative defects and formation of a double cortex in mice lacking Mltt4 and Cdh2 in the dorsal telencephalon. J Neurosci. 2014;34:10475-87 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that defects in adherens junctions components in mice massively affects progenitor cell proliferation and leads to a double cortex-like phenotype...
- Huelsken J, Vogel R, Brinkmann V, Erdmann B, Birchmeier C, Birchmeier W. Requirement for beta-catenin in anterior-posterior axis formation in mice. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:567-78 pubmed..Our data demonstrate that beta-catenin function is essential in anterior-posterior axis formation in the mouse, and experiments with chimeric embryos show that this function is required in the embryonic ectoderm. ..
- Pokutta S, Weis W. Structure of the dimerization and beta-catenin-binding region of alpha-catenin. Mol Cell. 2000;5:533-43 pubmed..The crystal structure of this chimera reveals the interaction between alpha- and beta-catenin, and provides a basis for understanding adherens junction assembly. ..
- Vasioukhin V, Bauer C, Degenstein L, Wise B, Fuchs E. Hyperproliferation and defects in epithelial polarity upon conditional ablation of alpha-catenin in skin. Cell. 2001;104:605-17 pubmed..Thus, remarkably, features of precancerous lesions often attributed to defects in cell cycle regulatory genes can be generated by compromising the function of alpha-catenin. ..
- Vasioukhin V, Bowers E, Bauer C, Degenstein L, Fuchs E. Desmoplakin is essential in epidermal sheet formation. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:1076-85 pubmed..DP is therefore required for assembly of functional desmosomes, maintaining cytoskeletal architecture and reinforcing membrane attachments essential for stable intercellular adhesion. ..
- Pokutta S, Drees F, Takai Y, Nelson W, Weis W. Biochemical and structural definition of the l-afadin- and actin-binding sites of alpha-catenin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18868-74 pubmed..alpha-Catenin and the actin-binding protein vinculin share sequence and most likely structural similarity within their actin-binding domains. Despite this homology, actin binding requires additional sequences adjacent to this region. ..
- Drees F, Pokutta S, Yamada S, Nelson W, Weis W. Alpha-catenin is a molecular switch that binds E-cadherin-beta-catenin and regulates actin-filament assembly. Cell. 2005;123:903-15 pubmed..These results indicate a new role for alpha-catenin in local regulation of actin assembly and organization at sites of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. ..
- Muroyama A, Seldin L, Lechler T. Divergent regulation of functionally distinct Î³-tubulin complexes during differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2016;213:679-92 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our studies demonstrate that distinct Î³-tubulin complexes regulate different microtubule behaviors at the centrosome and show that differential regulation of these complexes drives loss of centrosomal MTOC activity. ..
- Thomas T, Voss A, Petrou P, Gruss P. The murine gene, Traube, is essential for the growth of preimplantation embryos. Dev Biol. 2000;227:324-42 pubmed..This paucity of ribosomes together with the localization of TRB to the nucleoli, the site of ribosome synthesis, suggests that TRB is involved in the synthesis of ribosomes. ..
- Hendley A, Provost E, Bailey J, WANG Y, Cleveland M, Blake D, et al. p120 Catenin is required for normal tubulogenesis but not epithelial integrity in developing mouse pancreas. Dev Biol. 2015;399:41-53 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our data demonstrate an essential role for p120 catenin in pancreas development. ..
- Marty Santos L, Cleaver O. Pdx1 regulates pancreas tubulogenesis and E-cadherin expression. Development. 2016;143:101-12 pubmed publisher..These findings demonstrate a novel link between regulators of epithelial architecture, specification of pancreatic cell fate and organogenesis. ..
- Ratheesh A, Gomez G, Priya R, Verma S, Kovacs E, Jiang K, et al. Centralspindlin and Î±-catenin regulate Rho signalling at the epithelial zonula adherens. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:818-828 pubmed publisher..Thus, a conserved molecular ensemble that governs Rho activation during cytokinesis is used in interphase cells to control the Rho GTPase cycle at the zonula adherens. ..
- Ozono K, Komiya S, Shimamura K, Ito T, Nagafuchi A. Defining the roles of ?-catenin in cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization: isolation of F9 cells completely lacking cadherin-catenin complex. Cell Struct Funct. 2011;36:131-43 pubmed..Moreover, the C-terminal half of ?-catenin was involved in the formation of cell-adhesion junctions with ZO-1. ..
- Song J, Park R, Kim J, Hughes L, Lu L, Kim S, et al. Dual function of Yap in the regulation of lens progenitor cells and cellular polarity. Dev Biol. 2014;386:281-90 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results shed new light on Yap's indispensable and novel organizing role in mammalian organ size control by coordinating multiple events including cell proliferation, differentiation, and polarity. ..
- Lallemand D, Curto M, Saotome I, Giovannini M, McClatchey A. NF2 deficiency promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis by destabilizing adherens junctions. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1090-100 pubmed..Our studies indicate that merlin functions as a tumor and metastasis suppressor by controlling cadherin-mediated cell:cell contact. ..
- Katsunuma S, Honda H, Shinoda T, Ishimoto Y, Miyata T, Kiyonari H, et al. Synergistic action of nectins and cadherins generates the mosaic cellular pattern of the olfactory epithelium. J Cell Biol. 2016;212:561-75 pubmed publisher..Collectively, the synergistic action of nectins and cadherins generates mosaic pattern, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism. ..
- Enger T, Samad Zadeh A, Bouchie M, Skarstein K, Galtung H, Mera T, et al. The Hippo signaling pathway is required for salivary gland development and its dysregulation is associated with Sjogren's syndrome. Lab Invest. 2013;93:1203-18 pubmed publisher..Our studies show that Hippo signaling has a crucial role in SMG-branching morphogenesis and provide evidence that defects in this pathway are associated with SS in humans. ..
- Abramova N, Charniga C, Goderie S, Temple S. Stage-specific changes in gene expression in acutely isolated mouse CNS progenitor cells. Dev Biol. 2005;283:269-81 pubmed..These data indicate that progenitor cells change during development and that adult and embryonic neural progenitor cells are intrinsically different. ..
- Stocker A, Chenn A. Differential expression of alpha-E-catenin and alpha-N-catenin in the developing cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 2006;1073-1074:151-8 pubmed..These differential expression patterns of alphaE-catenin and alphaN-catenin suggest both distinct and overlapping functions during cortical development. ..
- Tang M, Miyamoto Y, Huang E. Multiple roles of beta-catenin in controlling the neurogenic niche for midbrain dopamine neurons. Development. 2009;136:2027-38 pubmed publisher..They also suggest that beta-catenin-mediated signaling pathways can be targeted to promote and expand DA neurons in cell-based therapeutic strategies. ..
- Wu M, Smith C, Hall J, Lee I, Luby Phelps K, Tallquist M. Epicardial spindle orientation controls cell entry into the myocardium. Dev Cell. 2010;19:114-25 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these data suggest that directed mitotic spindle orientation contributes to epicardial EMT and implicate a junctional complex of beta-catenin and Numb in the regulation of spindle orientation. ..
- Sheikh F, Chen Y, Chen Y, Liang X, Hirschy A, Stenbit A, et al. alpha-E-catenin inactivation disrupts the cardiomyocyte adherens junction, resulting in cardiomyopathy and susceptibility to wall rupture. Circulation. 2006;114:1046-55 pubmed..These studies further highlight the importance of studying the role of alpha-E-catenin in human cardiac injury and cardiomyopathy in the future. ..
- Guenet J, Simon Chazottes D, Ringwald M, Kemler R. The genes coding for alpha and beta catenin (Catna1 and Catnb) and plakoglobin (Jup) map to mouse chromosomes 18, 9, and 11, respectively. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:363-6 pubmed
- Livshits G, Kobielak A, Fuchs E. Governing epidermal homeostasis by coupling cell-cell adhesion to integrin and growth factor signaling, proliferation, and apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4886-91 pubmed publisher..The increased dependency of cells upon matrix interactions for their survival when cell-cell adhesions are destabilized has important implications for cancer progression and metastasis...
- Fujimura N, Taketo M, Mori M, Korinek V, Kozmik Z. Spatial and temporal regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for development of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dev Biol. 2009;334:31-45 pubmed publisher..Combined, our data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in development of RPE by maintaining or inducing expression of Mitf and Otx2. ..
- Martinez Garay I, Gil Sanz C, Franco S, Espinosa A, Molnar Z, Mueller U. Cadherin 2/4 signaling via PTP1B and catenins is crucial for nucleokinesis during radial neuronal migration in the neocortex. Development. 2016;143:2121-34 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our findings indicate that cadherin-mediated signaling to the cytoskeleton is crucial for nucleokinesis of neocortical projection neurons during their radial migration. ..
- Szymaniak A, Mahoney J, Cardoso W, Varelas X. Crumbs3-Mediated Polarity Directs Airway Epithelial Cell Fate through the Hippo Pathway Effector Yap. Dev Cell. 2015;34:283-96 pubmed publisher..Our findings demonstrate that polarity-dependent cues control airway cell differentiation, offering important molecular insights into organ patterning. ..
- Gual P, Gremeaux T, Gonzalez T, Le Marchand Brustel Y, Tanti J. MAP kinases and mTOR mediate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 on serine residues 307, 612 and 632. Diabetologia. 2003;46:1532-42 pubmed..This complexity could be physiologically important to accurately regulate insulin signalling. Abnormal phosphorylation of these serine residues in hyperinsulinaemic state could participate in the down-regulation of insulin signalling. ..
- Herr K, Tsang Y, Ong J, Li Q, Yap L, Yu W, et al. Loss of Î±-catenin elicits a cholestatic response and impairs liver regeneration. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6835 pubmed publisher..This study illuminates a novel, essential role for Î±-catenin in liver regeneration. ..
- Jossin Y, Lee M, Klezovitch O, Kon E, Cossard A, Lien W, et al. Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells. Dev Cell. 2017;41:481-495.e5 pubmed publisher..These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells. ..
- Kim D, Yang J, Shin C. Overexpression of alpha-catenin increases osteoblastic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:745-50 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that alpha-catenin overexpression increases osteoblastic differentiation by increasing cell-cell adhesion rather than Wnt-/beta-catenin-signaling. ..
- Kobielak A, Pasolli H, Fuchs E. Mammalian formin-1 participates in adherens junctions and polymerization of linear actin cables. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:21-30 pubmed..These findings provide new insight into how alpha-catenin orchestrates actin dynamics during intercellular junction formation. ..
- She B, Liou G, Lin Chao S. Association of the growth-arrest-specific protein Gas7 with F-actin induces reorganization of microfilaments and promotes membrane outgrowth. Exp Cell Res. 2002;273:34-44 pubmed..We propose that Gas7 localized near the plasma membrane induces the assembly of actin and the membrane outgrowth. ..
- Minobe S, Sakakibara A, Ohdachi T, Kanda R, Kimura M, Nakatani S, et al. Rac is involved in the interkinetic nuclear migration of cortical progenitor cells. Neurosci Res. 2009;63:294-301 pubmed..Similar inhibitory effects were obtained by forced expression of a dominant-negative Rac1. These results suggest that Rac may play a role in interkinetic nuclear migration in the developing mouse brain. ..
- Sheth B, Fontaine J, Ponza E, McCallum A, Page A, Citi S, et al. Differentiation of the epithelial apical junctional complex during mouse preimplantation development: a role for rab13 in the early maturation of the tight junction. Mech Dev. 2000;97:93-104 pubmed..Moreover, we propose a role for rab13 in the specification of the AJC site and the formation and segregation of the TJ. ..
- Itoh M, Morita K, Tsukita S. Characterization of ZO-2 as a MAGUK family member associated with tight as well as adherens junctions with a binding affinity to occludin and alpha catenin. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5981-6 pubmed..These findings indicated that ZO-2 forms a complex with ZO-1/occludin or ZO-1/alpha catenin to establish TJ or AJ domains, respectively. ..
- Bierkamp C, Schwarz H, Huber O, Kemler R. Desmosomal localization of beta-catenin in the skin of plakoglobin null-mutant mice. Development. 1999;126:371-81 pubmed..Our analysis underlines the central role of plakoglobin for desmosomal assembly and function during embryogenesis. ..
- Shibata H, Takano H, Ito M, Shioya H, Hirota M, Matsumoto H, et al. Alpha-catenin is essential in intestinal adenoma formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18199-204 pubmed..Extensive genetic analysis identified a deletion in the alpha-catenin (Ctnna1) gene as the cause of this suppression...
- Besco J, Hooft van Huijsduijnen R, Frostholm A, Rotter A. Intracellular substrates of brain-enriched receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase rho (RPTPrho/PTPRT). Brain Res. 2006;1116:50-7 pubmed
- Ohsugi M, Larue L, Schwarz H, Kemler R. Cell-junctional and cytoskeletal organization in mouse blastocysts lacking E-cadherin. Dev Biol. 1997;185:261-71 pubmed
- Kadowaki M, Nakamura S, Machon O, Krauss S, Radice G, Takeichi M. N-cadherin mediates cortical organization in the mouse brain. Dev Biol. 2007;304:22-33 pubmed..These results demonstrate that N-cadherin is essential for maintaining the normal architecture of neuroepithelial or radial glial cells and that their disruption randomizes the internal structures of the cortex. ..
- Semb H, Christofori G. The tumor-suppressor function of E-cadherin. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;63:1588-93 pubmed
- Oidovsambuu O, Nyamsuren G, Liu S, Göring W, Engel W, Adham I. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25908 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach. ..
- Sumigray K, Chen H, Lechler T. Lis1 is essential for cortical microtubule organization and desmosome stability in the epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:631-42 pubmed publisher..This work reveals essential desmosome-associated components that control cortical microtubule organization and unexpected roles for centrosomal proteins in epidermal function...
- Park L, Gallo E, Anrather J, Wang G, Norris E, Paul J, et al. Key role of tissue plasminogen activator in neurovascular coupling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1073-8 pubmed publisher..These findings unveil a previously unrecognized role of tPA in vital homeostatic mechanisms coupling NMDA receptor signaling with nitric oxide synthesis and local cerebral perfusion. ..
- Lien W, Klezovitch O, Null M, Vasioukhin V. alphaE-catenin is not a significant regulator of beta-catenin signaling in the developing mammalian brain. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1357-62 pubmed publisher..We analyzed beta-catenin signaling in mice with conditional deletion of alphaE-catenin (Ctnna1) in the developing central nervous system...
- Cifuentes Diaz C, Goudou D, Mege R, Velasco E, Nicolet M, Herrenknecht K, et al. Distinct location and prevalence of alpha-, beta-catenins and gamma-catenin/plakoglobin in developing and denervated skeletal muscle. Cell Adhes Commun. 1998;5:161-76 pubmed
- Stoykova A, Chowdhury K, Bonaldo P, Torres M, Gruss P. Gene trap expression and mutational analysis for genes involved in the development of the mammalian nervous system. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:198-213 pubmed
- Butz S, Larue L. Expression of catenins during mouse embryonic development and in adult tissues. Cell Adhes Commun. 1995;3:337-52 pubmed..Finally, the three catenins are not always concurrently expressed. For example, in peripheral nerves, only beta-catenin is observable, and in smooth muscle plakoglobin is not detectable. ..
- Whish S, Dziegielewska K, MÃ¸llgÃ¥rd K, Noor N, Liddelow S, Habgood M, et al. The inner CSF-brain barrier: developmentally controlled access to the brain via intercellular junctions. Front Neurosci. 2015;9:16 pubmed publisher..These results provide information about physiological, molecular and morphological-related permeability changes occurring at the inner cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier during brain development. ..
- Daugherty R, Serebryannyy L, Yemelyanov A, Flozak A, Yu H, Kosak S, et al. ?-Catenin is an inhibitor of transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:5260-5 pubmed publisher..These data demonstrate that ?-cat may limit gene expression by affecting nuclear actin organization. ..
- Gavard J, Lambert M, Grosheva I, Marthiens V, Irinopoulou T, Riou J, et al. Lamellipodium extension and cadherin adhesion: two cell responses to cadherin activation relying on distinct signalling pathways. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:257-70 pubmed..These results provide additional information on the mechanisms by which cadherin coordinates adhesion with dynamic changes in the cytoskeleton to control cell shape and intercellular junction organization. ..
- Yamben I, Rachel R, Shatadal S, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Warming S, et al. Scrib is required for epithelial cell identity and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2013;384:41-52 pubmed publisher..Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGF? signaling. ..
- Nemade R, Bierie B, Nozawa M, Bry C, Smith G, Vasioukhin V, et al. Biogenesis and function of mouse mammary epithelium depends on the presence of functional alpha-catenin. Mech Dev. 2004;121:91-9 pubmed..Lastly, no tumors were detected in mammary tissue lacking alpha-catenin. ..
- Tunggal J, Helfrich I, Schmitz A, Schwarz H, Gunzel D, Fromm M, et al. E-cadherin is essential for in vivo epidermal barrier function by regulating tight junctions. EMBO J. 2005;24:1146-56 pubmed..Surprisingly, our results indicate that E-cadherin is specifically required for tight junction, but not desmosome, formation and this appears to involve signalling rather than cell contact formation. ..
- Ozawa M, Baribault H, Kemler R. The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related in different species. EMBO J. 1989;8:1711-7 pubmed..The characterization of these proteins provides a first molecular basis for a possible cytoplasmic anchorage of uvomorulin to the cytoskeleton. ..
- Jimenez Caliani A, Pillich R, Yang W, Diaferia G, Meda P, Crisa L, et al. Î±E-Catenin Is a Positive Regulator of Pancreatic Islet Cell Lineage Differentiation. Cell Rep. 2017;20:1295-1306 pubmed publisher..The results uncover crucial functions of Î±E-catenin in pancreatic islet development and harbor significant implications for the design of Î² cell replacement and regeneration therapies in diabetes. ..
- Valenta T, Gay M, Steiner S, Draganova K, Zemke M, Hoffmans R, et al. Probing transcription-specific outputs of ?-catenin in vivo. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2631-43 pubmed publisher..Our model animals thus allow dissecting signaling and structural functions of ?-catenin in vivo and provide the first genetic tool to generate cells and tissues that entirely and exclusively lack canonical Wnt pathway activity. ..
- Beronja S, Livshits G, Williams S, Fuchs E. Rapid functional dissection of genetic networks via tissue-specific transduction and RNAi in mouse embryos. Nat Med. 2010;16:821-7 pubmed publisher..new insights into its role as a widely expressed tumor suppressor and reveal physiological interactions between Ctnna1 and the Hras1-Mapk3 and Trp53 gene pathways in regulating skin cell proliferation and apoptosis...
- Vite A, Zhang C, Yi R, Emms S, Radice G. Î±-Catenin-dependent cytoskeletal tension controls Yap activity in the heart. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher..To investigate the relationship between ICD maturation and proliferation, Î±E-catenin (Ctnna1) and Î±T-catenin (Ctnna3) genes were deleted to generate cardiac-specific Î±-catenin double ..
- Rivera C, Yamben I, Shatadal S, Waldof M, Robinson M, Griep A. Cell-autonomous requirements for Dlg-1 for lens epithelial cell structure and fiber cell morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2292-308 pubmed publisher..These fiber cell defects were recapitulated when Dlg-1 was disrupted only in fiber cells. These results suggest that Dlg-1 acts in a cell autonomous manner to regulate epithelial cell structure and fiber cell differentiation. ..
- Maki K, Han S, Hirano Y, Yonemura S, Hakoshima T, Adachi T. Mechano-adaptive sensory mechanism of ?-catenin under tension. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24878 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that the plastic characteristics of ?-catenin, revealed in response to both mechanical and biochemical cues, enable the functional-structural dynamics at the cellular and tissue levels. ..
- Saksens N, Krebs M, Schoenmaker Koller F, Hicks W, Yu M, Shi L, et al. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity. Nat Genet. 2016;48:144-51 pubmed publisher..Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding Î±-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy...
- Birger Y, Davis J, Furusawa T, Rand E, Piatigorsky J, Bustin M. A role for chromosomal protein HMGN1 in corneal maturation. Differentiation. 2006;74:19-29 pubmed..We suggest that interaction of HMGN1 with chromatin modulates the fidelity of gene expression and affects corneal development and maturation. ..
- Uemura M, Takeichi M. Alpha N-catenin deficiency causes defects in axon migration and nuclear organization in restricted regions of the mouse brain. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2559-66 pubmed..The ventricular structures were also deformed. These results indicate that alpha N-catenin has diverse roles in the organization of the central nervous system, but only in limited portions of the brain. ..
- Hoffmans R, Basler K. BCL9-2 binds Arm/beta-catenin in a Tyr142-independent manner and requires Pygopus for its function in Wg/Wnt signaling. Mech Dev. 2007;124:59-67 pubmed
- Goossens S, Janssens B, Bonne S, De Rycke R, Braet F, van Hengel J, et al. A unique and specific interaction between alphaT-catenin and plakophilin-2 in the area composita, the mixed-type junctional structure of cardiac intercalated discs. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2126-36 pubmed..This could explain the devastating effect of plakophilin-2 mutations on cell junction stability in intercalated discs, which lead to cardiac muscle malfunction. ..
- Liang X, Sun Y, Ye M, Scimia M, Cheng H, Martin J, et al. Targeted ablation of PINCH1 and PINCH2 from murine myocardium results in dilated cardiomyopathy and early postnatal lethality. Circulation. 2009;120:568-76 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate essential roles for PINCHs in myocardial growth, maturation, remodeling, and function and highlight the importance of studying the role of PINCHs in human cardiac injury and cardiomyopathy. ..