Ctgf

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ctgf
Description: connective tissue growth factor
Alias: Ccn2, Fisp12, Hcs24, fisp-12, connective tissue growth factor, CCN family member 2, Connective tissue growth factor precursor (CTGF) (FISP-12 protein) (Hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific protein 24), fibroblast inducible secreated protein, fibroblast inducible secreted protein, hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific gene product 24, hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific protein 24
Species: mouse
Products:     Ctgf

Top Publications

  1. Guha M, Xu Z, Tung D, Lanting L, Natarajan R. Specific down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor attenuates progression of nephropathy in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. FASEB J. 2007;21:3355-68 pubmed
    ..Several downstream effects of TGF-beta are mediated by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which is up-regulated in several renal cells and secreted in the urine in the diabetic state...
  2. Sonnylal S, Shi wen X, Leoni P, Naff K, Van Pelt C, Nakamura H, et al. Selective expression of connective tissue growth factor in fibroblasts in vivo promotes systemic tissue fibrosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1523-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich secreted matricellular protein involved in wound healing and tissue repair. Enhanced and prolonged expression of CTGF has been associated with tissue fibrosis in humans...
  3. Bork P. The modular architecture of a new family of growth regulators related to connective tissue growth factor. FEBS Lett. 1993;327:125-30 pubmed
    ..characterized and sequenced members of a new family of growth regulators (originally called cef10, connective tissue growth factor, fisp-12, cyr61, or, alternatively, beta IG-M1 and beta IG-M2), all of which belong to immediate-..
  4. Kireeva M, Latinkic B, Kolesnikova T, Chen C, Yang G, Abler A, et al. Cyr61 and Fisp12 are both ECM-associated signaling molecules: activities, metabolism, and localization during development. Exp Cell Res. 1997;233:63-77 pubmed
    ..Although Fisp12 is the mouse homolog of the human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), it has no detectable mitogenic activity by itself...
  5. Kennedy L, Liu S, Shi wen X, Chen Y, Eastwood M, Sabetkar M, et al. CCN2 is necessary for the function of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:952-64 pubmed
    b>CCN2 is expressed by mesenchymal cells undergoing active tissue remodeling, and is characteristically overexpressed in connective tissue pathologies such as fibrosis and cancer...
  6. Cheng O, Thuillier R, Sampson E, Schultz G, Ruiz P, Zhang X, et al. Connective tissue growth factor is a biomarker and mediator of kidney allograft fibrosis. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:2292-306 pubmed
    ..These animals also showed an increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), both systemically and within the graft...
  7. Yamaai T, Nakanishi T, Asano M, Nawachi K, Yoshimichi G, Ohyama K, et al. Gene expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in calcifying tissues of normal and cbfa1-null mutant mice in late stage of embryonic development. J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23:280-8 pubmed
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), one of the most recently described growth factors, is produced by chondrocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-stimulated fibroblasts...
  8. Friedrichsen S, Heuer H, Christ S, Winckler M, Brauer D, Bauer K, et al. CTGF expression during mouse embryonic development. Cell Tissue Res. 2003;312:175-88 pubmed
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a potent fibroblast mitogen and angiogenic factor which plays an important role in wound healing, cancerogenesis and fibrotic and vascular disease...
  9. Ren S, Babelova A, Moreth K, Xin C, Eberhardt W, Doller A, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta2 upregulates sphingosine kinase-1 activity, which in turn attenuates the fibrotic response to TGF-beta2 by impeding CTGF expression. Kidney Int. 2009;76:857-67 pubmed publisher
    Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) stimulates the expression of pro-fibrotic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) during the course of renal disease...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Smerdel Ramoya A, Zanotti S, Stadmeyer L, Durant D, Canalis E. Skeletal overexpression of connective tissue growth factor impairs bone formation and causes osteopenia. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4374-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a member of the CCN family of proteins, is expressed in skeletal cells, and the ctgf null mutation leads to neonatal lethality due to defects in skeletal development...
  2. Ivkovic S, Yoon B, Popoff S, Safadi F, Libuda D, Stephenson R, et al. Connective tissue growth factor coordinates chondrogenesis and angiogenesis during skeletal development. Development. 2003;130:2779-91 pubmed
    ..b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) is a secreted protein containing several domains that mediate interactions with growth ..
  3. Bonniaud P, Martin G, Margetts P, Ask K, Robertson J, Gauldie J, et al. Connective tissue growth factor is crucial to inducing a profibrotic environment in "fibrosis-resistant" BALB/c mouse lungs. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;31:510-6 pubmed
    ..factor beta, are recognized as key elements in the process, whereas the role of others, such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), is unclear...
  4. Nguyen T, Roestenberg P, van Nieuwenhoven F, Bovenschen N, Li Z, Xu L, et al. CTGF inhibits BMP-7 signaling in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:2098-107 pubmed publisher
    In diabetic nephropathy, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) is downregulated. CTGF is known to inhibit BMP-4, but similar cross-talk between BMP-7 and CTGF has not been studied...
  5. Guney M, Petersen C, Boustani A, Duncan M, Gunasekaran U, Menon R, et al. Connective tissue growth factor acts within both endothelial cells and beta cells to promote proliferation of developing beta cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted molecule expressed in endothelial cells, pancreatic ducts, and embryonic ? cells ..
  6. Kuiper E, van Zijderveld R, Roestenberg P, Lyons K, Goldschmeding R, Klaassen I, et al. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:785-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of ..
  7. Lang C, Sauter M, Szalay G, Racchi G, Grassi G, Rainaldi G, et al. Connective tissue growth factor: a crucial cytokine-mediating cardiac fibrosis in ongoing enterovirus myocarditis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2008;86:49-60 pubmed
    ..By this attempt, we identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a novel factor highly expressed in infected hearts...
  8. Muehlich S, Cicha I, Garlichs C, Krueger B, Posern G, Goppelt Struebe M. Actin-dependent regulation of connective tissue growth factor. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C1732-8 pubmed
    Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in endothelial cells is modulated by shear stress affecting the organization of the cytoskeleton...
  9. Babic A, Chen C, Lau L. Fisp12/mouse connective tissue growth factor mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration through integrin alphavbeta3, promotes endothelial cell survival, and induces angiogenesis in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2958-66 pubmed
    ..growth factor-inducible immediate-early gene in mouse fibroblasts, whereas its human ortholog, CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), was identified as a mitogenic activity in conditioned media of human umbilical vein endothelial ..
  10. Turk T, Leeuwis J, Gray J, Torti S, Lyons K, Nguyen T, et al. BMP signaling and podocyte markers are decreased in human diabetic nephropathy in association with CTGF overexpression. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009;57:623-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular antagonists such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN-2) and sclerostin domain-containing-1 (SOSTDC1; USAG-1) are important determinants of BMP ..
  11. Liu S, Shi wen X, Abraham D, Leask A. CCN2 is required for bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:239-46 pubmed publisher
    No therapy for fibrotic disease is available. The proadhesive matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor CCN2 is a marker of fibrotic cells; however, the specific role of CCN2 in connective tissue biology in general and in ..
  12. Touvron M, Escoubet B, Mericskay M, Angelini A, Lamotte L, Santini M, et al. Locally expressed IGF1 propeptide improves mouse heart function in induced dilated cardiomyopathy by blocking myocardial fibrosis and SRF-dependent CTGF induction. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:481-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a profibrotic cytokine, plays a key role in this deleterious process...
  13. Surveyor G, Brigstock D. Immunohistochemical localization of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the mouse embryo between days 7.5 and 14.5 of gestation. Growth Factors. 1999;17:115-24 pubmed
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a 38 kDa modular protein that is involved in processes such as cell proliferation, survival, migration, adhesion and extracellular matrix production...
  14. Huang B, Brugger S, Lyons K. Stage-specific control of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression in chondrocytes by Sox9 and beta-catenin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27702-12 pubmed publisher
    CCN2/connective tissue growth factor is highly expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes and is required for chondrogenesis. However, the transcriptional mechanisms controlling its expression in cartilage are largely unknown...
  15. He Z, Way K, Arikawa E, Chou E, Opland D, Clermont A, et al. Differential regulation of angiotensin II-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor by protein kinase C isoforms in the myocardium. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15719-26 pubmed
    ..We have reported that expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is increased in the myocardium of diabetic mice...
  16. Higgins D, Biju M, Akai Y, Wutz A, Johnson R, Haase V. Hypoxic induction of Ctgf is directly mediated by Hif-1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;287:F1223-32 pubmed
    b>CTGF plays a significant role in the development of renal fibrosis by mediating the fibrotic effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) and has been shown to be hypoxia inducible in human breast cancer cells...
  17. Wu S, Platteau A, Chen S, McNamara G, Whitsett J, Bancalari E. Conditional overexpression of connective tissue growth factor disrupts postnatal lung development. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:552-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of an emerging family of immediate-early gene products that coordinates complex biological processes during development, differentiation, and tissue repair...
  18. Duisters R, Tijsen A, Schroen B, Leenders J, Lentink V, van der Made I, et al. miR-133 and miR-30 regulate connective tissue growth factor: implications for a role of microRNAs in myocardial matrix remodeling. Circ Res. 2009;104:170-8, 6p following 178 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a key molecule in the process of fibrosis and therefore seems an attractive therapeutic ..
  19. Sanchez Lopez E, Rayego S, Rodrígues Díez R, Rodriguez J, Rodrigues Díez R, Rodriguez Vita J, et al. CTGF promotes inflammatory cell infiltration of the renal interstitium by activating NF-kappaB. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1513-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important profibrotic factor in kidney diseases. Blockade of endogenous CTGF ameliorates experimental renal damage and inhibits synthesis of extracellular matrix in cultured renal cells...
  20. Roestenberg P, van Nieuwenhoven F, Joles J, Trischberger C, Martens P, Oliver N, et al. Temporal expression profile and distribution pattern indicate a role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN-2) in diabetic nephropathy in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F1344-54 pubmed
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is overexpressed in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and has therefore been implicated in its pathogenesis...
  21. Falke L, Dendooven A, Leeuwis J, Nguyen T, Van Geest R, van der Giezen D, et al. Hemizygous deletion of CTGF/CCN2 does not suffice to prevent fibrosis of the severely injured kidney. Matrix Biol. 2012;31:421-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) is an important mediator of kidney fibrosis. Previous observations indicated that attenuation of CCN2 expression sufficed to alleviate early kidney damage...
  22. Ahmed M, Gravning J, Martinov V, von Lueder T, Edvardsen T, Czibik G, et al. Mechanisms of novel cardioprotective functions of CCN2/CTGF in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H1291-302 pubmed publisher
    CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a CCN family matricellular protein repressed in healthy hearts after birth, is induced in heart failure of various etiologies...
  23. Wang W, Morrison B, Galbaugh T, Jose C, Kenney N, Cutler M. Glucocorticoid induced expression of connective tissue growth factor contributes to lactogenic differentiation of mouse mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:38-46 pubmed
    ..The studies reported here indicate that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is highly elevated during lactogenic differentiation of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cell ..
  24. Ryseck R, Macdonald Bravo H, Mattei M, Bravo R. Structure, mapping, and expression of fisp-12, a growth factor-inducible gene encoding a secreted cysteine-rich protein. Cell Growth Differ. 1991;2:225-33 pubmed
    ..The fisp-12 gene maps to the [10A3-10B1] region of the murine genome. ..
  25. Friedrichsen S, Heuer H, Christ S, Cuthill D, Bauer K, Raivich G. Gene expression of connective tissue growth factor in adult mouse. Growth Factors. 2005;23:43-53 pubmed
    The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a well-known fibroblast mitogen and angiogenic factor that plays an important role in bone formation during embryogenesis...
  26. Mori Y, Hinchcliff M, Wu M, Warner Blankenship M, M Lyons K, Varga J. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-beta responsiveness. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1094-104 pubmed publisher
    The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive...
  27. Hoerder Suabedissen A, Wang W, Lee S, Davies K, Goffinet A, Rakić S, et al. Novel markers reveal subpopulations of subplate neurons in the murine cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:1738-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry confirmed subplate-selective expression of complexin 3, connective tissue growth factor, nuclear receptor-related 1/Nr4a2, and monooxygenase Dbh-like 1 while transmembrane protein 163 also ..
  28. Nakanishi T, Yamaai T, Asano M, Nawachi K, Suzuki M, Sugimoto T, et al. Overexpression of connective tissue growth factor/hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific gene product 24 decreases bone density in adult mice and induces dwarfism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;281:678-81 pubmed
    b>Connective tissue growth factor/hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific gene product 24 (CTGF/Hcs24) is a multifunctional growth factor for fibroblasts, chondrocytes, and vascular endothelial cells...
  29. Yokoi H, Mukoyama M, Mori K, Kasahara M, Suganami T, Sawai K, et al. Overexpression of connective tissue growth factor in podocytes worsens diabetic nephropathy in mice. Kidney Int. 2008;73:446-55 pubmed
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a potent inducer of extracellular matrix accumulation...
  30. Panek A, Posch M, Alenina N, Ghadge S, Erdmann B, Popova E, et al. Connective tissue growth factor overexpression in cardiomyocytes promotes cardiac hypertrophy and protection against pressure overload. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6743 pubmed publisher
    b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted protein that is strongly induced in human and experimental heart failure. CTGF is said to be profibrotic; however, the precise function of CTGF is unclear...
  31. Tomita N, Hattori T, Itoh S, Aoyama E, Yao M, Yamashiro T, et al. Cartilage-specific over-expression of CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) stimulates insulin-like growth factor expression and bone growth. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59226 pubmed publisher
    Previously we showed that CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) promotes the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of growth cartilage cells in vitro...
  32. Lai T, Jabaudon D, Molyneaux B, Azim E, Arlotta P, Menezes J, et al. SOX5 controls the sequential generation of distinct corticofugal neuron subtypes. Neuron. 2008;57:232-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that SOX5 controls the timing of critical fate decisions during corticofugal neuron production and thus subtype-specific differentiation and neocortical neuron diversity. ..
  33. Pennock S, Rheaume M, Mukai S, Kazlauskas A. A novel strategy to develop therapeutic approaches to prevent proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:2931-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that combination therapy encompassing a subset of vitreal growth factors and cytokines is a potential approach to prevent PVR...
  34. Dai H, Ma L, Cao Y, Chen X, Shi H, Fan Y, et al. Protection of CTGF Antibody Against Diabetic Nephropathy in Mice Via Reducing Glomerular β-Catenin Expression and Podocyte Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:3706-3712 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence suggests that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced podocyte injury may contribute to DN and CTGF inhibition could reduce albuminuria...
  35. Zieba J, Forlenza K, Khatra J, Sarukhanov A, Durán I, Rigueur D, et al. TGF? and BMP Dependent Cell Fate Changes Due to Loss of Filamin B Produces Disc Degeneration and Progressive Vertebral Fusions. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005936 pubmed publisher
    ..and BMP induced p38 signaling as well as sustained activation of canonical and noncanonical target genes p21 and Ctgf. These findings indicate that FLNB is involved in attenuation of TGF?/BMP signaling and influences AF cell fate...
  36. Luo Q, Kang Q, Si W, Jiang W, Park J, Peng Y, et al. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is regulated by Wnt and bone morphogenetic proteins signaling in osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55958-68 pubmed
    ..profiles of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with Wnt3A and osteogenic BMPs, and we identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a potential target of Wnt and BMP signaling...
  37. Gu J, Liu X, Wang Q, Tan H, Guo M, Jiang W, et al. Angiotensin II increases CTGF expression via MAPKs/TGF-?1/TRAF6 pathway in atrial fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:2105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..of transforming growth factor-?1(TGF-?1)/Smad signaling pathway and increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced by angiotensin II (AngII) have been proposed as a mechanism for atrial fibrosis...
  38. Pi L, Xia H, Liu J, Shenoy A, Hauswirth W, Scott E. Role of connective tissue growth factor in the retinal vasculature during development and ischemia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8701-10 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the function of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a matricellular protein of the CCN (Cyr61/CTGF/Nov) family, in retinal vasculature during development and ischemia...
  39. Itoh S, Hattori T, Tomita N, Aoyama E, Yutani Y, Yamashiro T, et al. CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) has anti-aging effects that protect articular cartilage from age-related degenerative changes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71156 pubmed publisher
    To examine the role of connective tissue growth factor CCN2/CTGF (CCN2) in the maintenance of the articular cartilaginous phenotype, we analyzed knee joints from aging transgenic mice (TG) overexpressing CCN2 driven by the Col2a1 ..
  40. Bruno G, Cencetti F, Pertici I, Japtok L, Bernacchioni C, Donati C, et al. CTGF/CCN2 exerts profibrotic action in myoblasts via the up-regulation of sphingosine kinase-1/S1P3 signaling axis: Implications in the action mechanism of TGFβ. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851:194-202 pubmed publisher
    The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is recognized as key player in the onset of fibrosis in various tissues, including skeletal muscle...
  41. Myers R, Rwayitare K, Richey L, Lem J, Castellot J. CCN5 Expression in mammals. III. Early embryonic mouse development. J Cell Commun Signal. 2012;6:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..5 stage embryos. Consistent with our previous study on E9.5 embryos, this expression was not limited to a particular germ layer or cell type. The widespread distribution of CCN5 in early embryos suggests a crucial role in development. ..
  42. Zhang J, Li P, Yang L, DU Q, Guo T, Tang X. [Connective tissue growth factor mediates high glucose-induced down-regulation of podocalyxin expression in mouse podocytes]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2011;31:839-43 pubmed
    To detect the effect of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on podocalyxin expression in mouse podocytes exposed to high glucose in vitro and explore the possible pathway involved...
  43. Zhou Z, Cao W, Xie J, Lin J, Shen Z, Zhang Q, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of THBS1, Cyr61 and CTGF in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:291 pubmed publisher
    Thrombospondin1 (THBS1), cystene-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are all involved in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signal pathway, which plays an important role in the tumorigenesis...
  44. Altuntas C, Daneshgari F, Izgi K, Bicer F, Ozer A, Sakalar C, et al. Connective tissue and its growth factor CTGF distinguish the morphometric and molecular remodeling of the bladder in a model of neurogenic bladder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F1363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in mRNA expression of collagen type I ?(2), tropoelastin, transforming growth factor-?3, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were observed in EAE mice, as were decreased levels of mRNAs for smooth muscle myosin heavy ..
  45. Tan J, McLennan S, Song W, Lo L, Bonner J, Williams P, et al. Connective tissue growth factor inhibits adipocyte differentiation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C740-51 pubmed publisher
    ..in vitro, via the C/EBP pathway, and in vivo, but whether a downstream mediator of TGF-beta1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), also known as CCN2, has a similar role is unknown...
  46. Lim D, Kim T, Kee C. Evaluation of Adenovirus-Mediated Down-Regulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor on Postoperative Wound Healing After Experimental Glaucoma Surgery. Curr Eye Res. 2016;41:951-6 pubmed publisher
    This study was aimed to determine whether adenovirus-mediated down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) can modulate postoperative scarring in a rabbit receiving simplified glaucoma surgery...
  47. Valenti G, Quinn H, Heynen G, Lan L, Holland J, Vogel R, et al. Cancer Stem Cells Regulate Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts via Activation of Hedgehog Signaling in Mammary Gland Tumors. Cancer Res. 2017;77:2134-2147 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting CAFs with Hedgehog inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(8); 2134-47. ©2017 AACR. ..
  48. Hu M, Sun X, Zhang Y, Kuang Y, Hu C, Wu W, et al. Histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase Hypb/Setd2 is required for embryonic vascular remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2956-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that Hypb is required for embryonic vascular remodeling and provide a tool to study the function of H3K36 methylation in vasculogenesis/angiogenesis. ..
  49. Huang Z, Tian L, Yang B, Guo R. Long Noncoding RNA H19 Acts as a Competing Endogenous RNA to Mediate CTGF Expression by Sponging miR-455 in Cardiac Fibrosis. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:759-766 pubmed publisher
    ..Bioinformatic prediction programs (TargetScan, miRanda, starBase) predicted that miR-455 targeted connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and H19 with complementary binding sites at the 3'-untranslated region, which was validated by ..
  50. Yang J, Velikoff M, Canalis E, Horowitz J, Kim K. Activated alveolar epithelial cells initiate fibrosis through autocrine and paracrine secretion of connective tissue growth factor. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L786-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic cytokine that is indicative of fibroblast activation...
  51. Gao R, Yu Y, Inoue A, Widodo N, Kaul S, Wadhwa R. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K) promotes tumor metastasis by induction of genes involved in extracellular matrix, cell movement, and angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15046-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Involvement of the selected genes (Cck, Mmp-3, Ptgs2, and Ctgf) and pathways was validated by gene-specific expression analysis...
  52. Schober J, Chen N, Grzeszkiewicz T, Jovanovic I, Emeson E, Ugarova T, et al. Identification of integrin alpha(M)beta(2) as an adhesion receptor on peripheral blood monocytes for Cyr61 (CCN1) and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2): immediate-early gene products expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. Blood. 2002;99:4457-65 pubmed
    Cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61, CCN1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) are growth factor-inducible immediate-early gene products found in blood vessel walls and healing cutaneous wounds...
  53. Morrison B, Jose C, Cutler M. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) enhances lactogenic differentiation of mammary epithelial cells via integrin-mediated cell adhesion. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:35 pubmed publisher
    b>Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2), a known matrix-associated protein, is required for the lactogenic differentiation of mouse mammary epithelial cells...